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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Enhancement of the field emission from the TiO2 nanotube arrays by reducing in a NaBH4 solution.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces
PUBLISHED: 11-20-2014
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A mass of oxygen vacancies are successfully introduced into TiO2 nanotube arrays using low-cost NaBH4 as a reductant in a liquid-phase environment. By controlling and adjusting the reduction time over the range of 0-24 h, the doping concentration of the oxygen vacancy realizes controllable and eventually reaches saturation. Meanwhile, the thermal stability of oxygen vacancies is also investigated, indicating that part of oxygen vacancies remain stable up to 250 °C. In addition, this liquid-phase reduction strategy significantly lowers the requirements of instruments and cost. More interesting, reduced TiO2 nanotube arrays show drastically enhanced field emission performances including substantially decreased turn-on field from 25.01 to 2.65 V/?m, a high current density of 3.5 mA/cm2 at 7.2 V/?m and an excellent field emission stability and repeatability. These results are attributed to the oxygen vacancies obtained by reducing in NaBH4 solution, resulting in a reduced effective work function and an increased conductivity.
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Color switchable, emission enhanced fluorescence realized by engineering C-dot@C-dot nanoparticles.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces
PUBLISHED: 11-20-2014
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This paper reports the preparation and properties of color-switchable fluorescent carbon nanodots (C-dots). C-dots that emit dark turquoise and green-yellow fluorescence under 365 nm UV illumination were obtained from the hydrothermal decomposition of citric acid. Dark green fluorescent C-dots were obtained by conjugating prepared C-dots to form C-dot@C-dot nanoparticles. After successful conjugation of the C-dots, the fluorescence emission undergoes a blue shift of nearly 20 nm (?0.15 eV) under UV excitation at 370 nm. The C-dots emit golden rod, green-yellow, and gold light under excitation at 455 nm, which shows that the prepared C-dots are color-switchable. Furthermore, conjugation of the C-dots results in enhanced, red-shifted absorption of the ?-?* transition of the aromatic sp2 domains due to the conjugated ?-electron system. N incorporation in the carbon structure leads to a degree of dipoles for all the aromatic sp2 bonds. The enhanced absorption in a wide range from 226 to 601 nm indicates extended conjugation in the C-dot@C-dot structure. The time-resolved average lifetimes for the three different types of C-dots prepared in this study are 7.10, 7.65, and 4.07 ns. The radiative rate (reduced decay lifetime) increases when the C-dots are conjugated in the C-dot@C-dot nanoparticles, leading to the enhanced fluorescence emission. The fluorescence emission of the C-dot@C-dot nanoparticles can be used in applications such as flow cytometry and cell imaging.
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Diagnostic and post-treatment CT appearance of biopsy proven mixed cryptococcus and candida cholangitis.
J Xray Sci Technol
PUBLISHED: 11-20-2014
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Cryptococcus neoformans and Candida are common opportunistic pathogens of human. There is very limited literature on Cryptococcus neoformans cholangitis or Candida cholangitis in immunocompetent patient while mixed Cryptococcus neoformans and Candida cholangitis has not been reported in the literature ever before. We hereby report the imaging findings of a case of mixed Cryptococcus neoformans and Candida cholangitis in an immunocompetent boy. The CT features included nodules in the cystic duct and common bile duct, dilatation of the intra- and extrahepatic bile ducts with mural thickening, irregular hypodense mass-like lesion extending along the bile ducts from the liver hilum to the periphery which was confirmed by the presence of enlarged and confluent lymph nodes. CT characteristics can contribute to timely diagnosis and treatment of this disease.
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Lack of association between DSCAM gene polymorphisms and adolescent idiopathic scoliosis susceptibility in a Chinese Han population.
J Back Musculoskelet Rehabil
PUBLISHED: 11-20-2014
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In a recent genome wide association study, polymorphisms in the DSCAM and CNTNAP2 genes were reported to be related with susceptibility of AIS. Consequently, further replication studies are warranted in other populations due to ethnic difference in genetic background.OBJECTIVE: To explore whether single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of DSCAM (rs2222973) and CNTNAP2 (rs11770843) genes are associated with the susceptibility and curve severity of AIS in a Chinese Han population.METHODS: A total of 648 AIS patients and 573 age- and sex-matched healthy adolescents in rs2222973 were recruited, and in rs11770843 there were 100 AIS patients and 100 age- and sex-matched healthy adolescents included in present study. Polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) analysis was repeatedly carried out to verify the linkage of AIS with SNPs rs2222973 in the DSCAM gene and rs11770843 in the CNTNAP2 gene. Case-control and case-only studies were respectively performed to define the contribution of the DSCAM gene polymorphisms to predisposition and disease severity of AIS.
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Enzyme Activity Assay of Glycoprotein Enzymes Based on a Boronate Affinity Molecularly Imprinted 96-Well Microplate.
Anal. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 11-19-2014
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Enzyme activity assay is an important method in clinical diagnostics. However, conventional enzyme activity assay suffers from apparent interference from sample matrix. Herein, we present a new format of enzyme activity assay that can effectively eliminate the effects of sample matrix. The key is a 96-well microplate modified with molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) prepared according to a newly proposed method called boronate affinity-based oriented surface imprinting. Alkaline phosphatase (ALP), a glycoprotein enzyme that has been routinely used as an indicator for several diseases in clinical test, was taken as a representative target enzyme. The prepared MIP exhibited strong affinity towards the template enzyme (with dissociation constant of 10-10 M) as well as superb tolerance for interference. Thus the enzyme molecules in complicated sample matrix could be specifically captured and cleaned up for enzyme activity assay, which eliminated the interference from sample matrix. On the other hand, because the boronate affinity MIP could well retain the enzymatic activity of glycoprotein enzymes, the enzyme captured by the MIP was directly used for activity assay. Thus additional assay time and possible enzyme or activity loss due to an enzyme release step required by other methods were avoided. Assay of ALP in human serum was successfully demonstrated, suggesting promising prospect of the proposed method in real-world applications.
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Altered Brain Activation Patterns Under Different Working Memory Loads in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes.
Diabetes Care
PUBLISHED: 11-19-2014
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Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) has important effects on cognition and the risk for Alzheimer disease (AD). Working memory (WM) is a susceptible cognitive domain of mild cognitive impairment and AD. Thus, the identification of brain activation patterns under different WM loads can potentially enhance our understanding of the mechanisms underlying cognitive dysfunction in T2DM.
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Evidence of Aerosols as a Media for Rapid Daytime HONO Production over China.
Environ. Sci. Technol.
PUBLISHED: 11-18-2014
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Current knowledge of daytime HONO sources remains incomplete. A large missing daytime HONO source has been found in many places around the world, including polluted regions in China. Conventional understanding and recent studies attributed this missing source mainly to ground surface processes or gas-phase chemistry, while assuming aerosols to be an insignificant media for HONO production. We analyze in situ observations of HONO and its precursors at an urban site in Beijing, China, and report an apparent dependence of the missing HONO source strength on aerosol surface area and solar ultraviolet radiation. Based on extensive correlation analysis and process-modeling, we propose that the rapid daytime HONO production in Beijing can be explained by enhanced hydrolytic disproportionation of NO2 on aqueous aerosol surfaces due to catalysis by dicarboxylic acid anions. The combination of high abundance of NO2, aromatic hydrocarbons, and aerosols over broad regions in China likely leads to elevated HONO levels, rapid OH production, and enhanced oxidizing capacity on a regional basis. Our findings call for attention to aerosols as a media for daytime heterogeneous HONO production in polluted regions like Beijing. This study also highlights the complex and uncertain heterogeneous chemistry in China, which merits future efforts of reconciling regional modeling and laboratory experiments, in order to understand and mitigate the regional particulate and O3 pollutions over China.
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One-Step Synthesis and Characterization of Polyaniline Nanofiber/Silver Nanoparticle Composite Networks as Antibacterial Agents.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces
PUBLISHED: 11-04-2014
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Through a facile and effective seeding polymerization reaction via a one-step redox/complexation process, which took place in aqueous medium at ambient temperature, silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) embedded polyaniline nanofiber (PANI NF) networks were synthesized as antibacterial agents. During the reaction, not only NF morphology formation of the resulting conducting polymers (CPs) but also amplification of the aqueous silver nitrate (AgNO3) solutions' oxidative potentials were managed by vanadium pentoxide (V2O5) sol-gel nanofibers, which acted as well-known nanofibrous seeding agents and the auxiliary oxidative agent at the same time. The PANI/Ag nanocomposites were proven to exhibit excellent antibacterial property against both Gram-negative Escherichia coli and Gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus. Antibacterial property performance and average life span of the nanocomposite network were optimized through the homogeneous distribution/embedment of Ag NPs within one-dimensional (1-D) PANI NF matrix. The antibacterial efficacy tests and nanocomposite material characterization results further indicated that the sole components of PANI/Ag have a synergistic effect to each other in terms of antibacterial property. Thus, this well-known catalytic seeding approach via a one-step oxidative polymerization reaction can be considered as a general methodology and a substantial fabrication tool to synthesize Ag NP decorated nanofibrillar PANI networks as advanced antibacterial agents.
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Flexible logic circuits based on top-gate thin film transistors with printed semiconductor carbon nanotubes and top electrodes.
Nanoscale
PUBLISHED: 11-03-2014
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In this report printed thin film transistors and logic circuits on flexible substrates are reported. The top-gate thin film transistors were made of the sorted semiconducting single-walled carbon nanotubes (sc-SWCNTs) ink as channel material and printed silver lines as top electrodes and interconnect. 5 nm HfOx thin films pre-deposited on PET substrates by atomic layer deposition (ALD) act as the adhesion layers to significantly improve the immobilization efficiency of sc-SWCNTs and environmental stability. The immobilization mechanism was investigated in detail. The flexible partially-printed top-gate SWCNT TFTs display ambipolar characteristics with slightly strong p-type when using 50 nm HfOx thin films as dielectric layer, as well as the encapsulation layer by atomic layer deposition (ALD) at 120 °C. The hole mobility, on/off ratio and subthreshold swing (SS) are ?46.2 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1), 10(5) and 109 mV per decade, respectively. Furthermore, partially-printed TFTs show small hysteresis, low operating voltage (2 V) and high stability in air. Flexible partially-printed inverters show good performance with voltage gain up to 33 with 1.25 V supply voltage, and can work at 10 kHz. The frequency of flexible partially-printed five-stage ring oscillators can reach 1.7 kHz at supply voltages of 2 V with per stage delay times of 58.8 ?s. This work paves a way to achieve printed SWCNT advanced logic circuits and systems on flexible substrates.
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Research on characteristic spectrum extracting and matching for high-fidelity reproduction.
Guang Pu Xue Yu Guang Pu Fen Xi
PUBLISHED: 11-01-2014
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Reconstructing the spectrum rapidly and accurately is the key to the research on high-fidelity reproduction. A characteristic spectrum extracting and matching method for high-fidelity printing is proposed aiming at the problem of complex conversion between spectrum and ink combination caused by multi-color. The method filters and extracts feature bands of primary ink through derivative spectrum, and a characteristic spectrum multi-threshold coding method is proposed. Considering the problem of subarea judgment in hi-fi printing, an average derivative spectrum is taken as characteristic spectrum of each subarea and a spectrum matching method between target spectrum and average derivative spectrum of sub-spaces is proposed. The results show that the feature bands extracted can represent spectral characteristic of primary color significantly and the precision of color conversion model based on feature bands is higher than the model based on full bands. The spectrum matching method can achieve a high accuracy in sub-space judgments and greatly improve the efficiency of color convention. The spectrum extracting and matching method has the high practicability.
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A rapid and divergent access to chiral azacyclic nucleoside analogues via highly enantioselective 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition of ?-nucleobase substituted acrylates.
Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
PUBLISHED: 10-17-2014
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A rapid and divergent access to chiral azacyclic nucleoside analogues has been established via highly exo-selective and enantioselective 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition of azomethine ylides with ?-nucleobase substituted acrylates. Using 1 mol% of a chiral copper complex, various chiral azacyclic nucleoside analogues were obtained in high yields, excellent exo-selectivities and enantioselectivities (98 to >99% ee).
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Interleukin 27 inhibits cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-mediated platelet destruction in primary immune thrombocytopenia.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 10-08-2014
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Cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-mediated (CTL-mediated) platelet destruction and aberrant cytokine profiles play important roles in the pathogenesis of primary immune thrombocytopenia (ITP). Interleukin 27 (IL-27) has pleiotropic immunomodulatory effects. However, the effect of IL-27 on CTL activity in ITP has not been reported. In the present study, platelets from ITP patients were cultured with autologous CTLs in the presence of IL-27. We found that IL-27 could inhibit CTL-mediated platelet destruction. In these IL-27 treated CTLs, granzyme B and T-bet expression decreased significantly, whereas granzyme A, perforin and eomesodermin were not affected. To further investigate the role of granzyme B in CTL-mediated platelet destruction, granzyme B inhibitor was added and platelet apoptosis was significantly inhibited. These results suggest that IL-27 negatively regulates CTL cytotoxicity toward platelets in ITP by decreasing granzyme B expression, which is associated with reduced T-bet expression. IL-27 may have a therapeutic role in treating ITP patients.
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[Comprehensive chemical pattern recognition of atractylodis rhizoma].
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 10-04-2014
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A method of comprehensive chemical pattern recognition of Atractylodis Rhizoma was established by GC-MS fingerprint, principal component analysis, cluster analysis and discriminant analysis. A DB-wax column (0.25 mm x 60 m, 0.25 microm) with El ion source and 70 V electron multiplier were used for GC-MS analysis. Using principal component analysis, cluster analysis, and discriminant analysis, 15 common peaks of sample fingerprints for chemical pattern recognition research were analysed. The same results were obtained from the fingerprint, principal component analysis and cluster analysis, which could use to distinguish genuine Atractylodes lancea, ungenuine A. lancea and A. chinensis. Thus, this method could be used for the quality control and comprehensive evaluation of Atractylodis Rhizoma.
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Satellite-derived subsurface urban heat island.
Environ. Sci. Technol.
PUBLISHED: 10-01-2014
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The subsurface urban heat island (SubUHI) is one part of the overall UHI specifying the relative warmth of urban ground temperatures against the rural background. To combat the challenge on measuring extensive underground temperatures with in situ instruments, we utilized satellite-based moderate-resolution imaging spectroradiometer data to reconstruct the subsurface thermal field over the Beijing metropolis through a three-time-scale model. The results show the SubUHI's high spatial heterogeneity. Within the depths shallower than 0.5 m, the SubUHI dominates along the depth profiles and analyses imply the moments for the SubUHI intensity reaching first and second extremes during a diurnal temperature cycle are delayed about 3.25 and 1.97 h per 0.1 m, respectively. At depths shallower than 0.05 m in particular, there is a subsurface urban cool island (UCI) in spring daytime, mainly owing to the surface UCI that occurs in this period. At depths between 0.5 and 10 m, the time for the SubUHI intensity getting to its extremes during an annual temperature cycle is lagged 26.2 days per meter. Within these depths, the SubUHI prevails without exception, with an average intensity of 4.3 K, varying from 3.2 to 5.3 K.
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Age trend of the male to female sex ratio in surgical gastric cancer patients at a single institution.
World J Surg Oncol
PUBLISHED: 08-21-2014
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In previous reports concerning the association between sex disparity and age, gastric cancer (GC) patients were simply divided into younger and older groups by age. We analyzed the age trend of the male to female sex ratio (MFSR) in GC based on patient sequential age in order to observe the changing process of MFSR with age.
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Revision of the Oriental genus Horniella Raffray (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae, Pselaphinae).
Zootaxa
PUBLISHED: 08-12-2014
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The Oriental pselaphine genus Horniella Raffray, 1905 (tribe Tyrini: subtribe Somatipionina) is redefined and revised. Twenty-five new species are described: H. centralis Yin & Li, sp. n., H. confragosa Yin & Li, sp. n., H. dao Yin & Li, sp. n., H. hongkongensis Yin & Li, sp. n., H. nakhi Yin & Li, sp. n., H. schuelkei Yin & Li, sp. n., H. sichuanica Yin & Li, sp. n., H. simplaria Yin & Li, sp. n., and H. tianmuensis Yin & Li, sp. n. from China, H. himalayica Yin & Li, sp. n. from Nepal and North India, H. asymmetrica Yin & Li, sp. n., H. burckhardti Yin & Li, sp. n., H. intricata Yin & Li, sp. n., H. kaengkrachan Yin & Li, sp. n., H. khaosabap Yin & Li, sp. n., H. loebli Yin & Li, sp. n., H. phuphaman Yin & Li, sp. n., H. prolixo Yin & Li, sp. n., and H. schwendingeri Yin & Li, sp. n. from Thailand, H. philippina Yin & Li, sp. n. from the Philippines, H. awana Yin & Li, sp. n., H. gigas Yin & Li, sp. n., H. pilosa Yin & Li, sp. n., and H. smetanai Yin & Li, sp. n. from Malaysia, and H. cibodas Yin & Li, sp. n. from Indonesia. The two previously described species, H. hirtella Raffray, 1901 (type species) from Sri Lanka and H. falcis Yin & Li, 2010 from China are redescribed, and a lectotype is designated for H. hirtella. Illustrations of habitus and important diagnostic features, an identification key, and distributional maps for all species are provided. Eleven unidentified species represented only by females are left unnamed. Illustrations of the habitus and the genital complex, and label data of these species are given to facilitate future study. All available data indicates that species of Horniella typically inhabit leaf litter of various kinds of forests, and can be most efficiently collected by sifting and use of Winkler-Moczarski extractors. 
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Ruthenium-Porphyrin-Catalyzed Diastereoselective Intramolecular Alkyl Carbene Insertion into C?H Bonds of Alkyl Diazomethanes Generated In Situ from N-Tosylhydrazones.
Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl.
PUBLISHED: 08-08-2014
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With a ruthenium-porphyrin catalyst, alkyl diazomethanes generated in situ from N-tosylhydrazones efficiently underwent intramolecular C(sp(3) )?H insertion of an alkyl carbene to give substituted tetrahydrofurans and pyrrolidines in up to 99?% yield and with up to 99:1 cis selectivity. The reaction displays good tolerance of many functionalities, and the procedure is simple without the need for slow addition with a syringe pump. From a synthetic point of view, the C?H insertion of N-tosylhydrazones can be viewed as reductive coupling between a C?O bond and a C?H bond to form a new C?C bond, since N-tosylhydrazones can be readily prepared from carbonyl compounds. This reaction was successfully applied in a concise synthesis of (+)-pseudoheliotridane.
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Single/multiple-mode-selection optical nanofilters based on end-coupled split-ring resonators.
Appl Opt
PUBLISHED: 08-05-2014
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A plasmonic mode-selection filter based on end-coupled circular split-ring resonators is proposed and demonstrated. In contrast to regular ring resonators, which can support only the integer modes, extra noninteger resonance modes will be excited by placing metallic nanowalls in the proposed circular ring resonators. Since all the modes are highly sensitive to the position of the nanowall, the associated modes are effectively excited or suppressed by manipulating the position. This proposed scheme offers great flexibility to design the transmission spectrum with expected modes. Moreover, each integer or noninteger resonance mode with high transmittance can be selected individually by cascading two proposed split-ring resonators that share an intersection of transmission peaks. The corresponding spectra and the propagation characteristics are numerically investigated by using the finite-difference time-domain method.
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Coating two-dimensional nanomaterials with metal-organic frameworks.
ACS Nano
PUBLISHED: 08-04-2014
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We demonstrate the coating of various 2D nanomaterials including MoS2 nanosheets, graphene oxide (GO), and reduced graphene oxide (rGO) with zeolitic imidazolate frameworks (i.e., ZIF-8) via a facile procedure. Additionally, ternary core-shell structures like Pt-MoS2@ZIF-8, Pt-GO@ZIF-8, and Pt-rGO@ZIF-8 have also been prepared. As a proof-of-concept application, a memory device based on MoS2@ZIF-8 hybrid was fabricated and it exhibited write-once-read-many-times (WORM) memory effect with high ON/OFF ratio and long operating lifetime. It is expected that MOF coated 2D nanomaterials may find wide applications in energy storage and conversion, catalysis, sensing, and information storage devices.
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Effect of galectin-3 on the behavior of Eca?109 human esophageal cancer cells.
Mol Med Rep
PUBLISHED: 07-21-2014
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Galectin-3, a ?-galactoside-binding lectin, is a cell adhesion molecule involved in the regulation of tumor progression. However, the importance of galectin-3 in Eca-109 human esophageal cancer cells has not yet been elucidated. In the present study, a lentiviral vector was designed for overexpression of galectin-3 in Eca-109 cells following plasmid?mediated transfection (Eca-109/Gal-3 cells). A negative lentiviral vector was introduced into Eca-109 cells as a control (Eca?109/Neo cells). Western blot and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analyses were used to measure the expression levels of galectin-3 protein and mRNA. The proliferation of Eca-109 cells was measured by a cell counting kit-8 assay. Eca-109 cell apoptosis was determined by Annexin V/7-amino-actinomycin double?staining. The migration and invasion capacity of Eca-109 cells was determined by a Transwell assay. A total of >98% Eca-109 cells were transfected with the lentiviral vector harboring galectin-3, and galectin-3 expression was detected in Eca-109 cells, Eca-109/Gal-3 cells and Eca-109/Neo cells. Compared with non?transfected and negative control Eca-109 cells, proliferation was increased significantly in the Eca-109/Gal-3 cells (P<0.05). Galectin-3 also significantly reduced Eca-109 cell apoptosis, compared with the two control groups (P=0.007 and P=0.04, respectively). Transwell migration and invasion assays revealed that significantly greater numbers of Eca-109/Gal-3 cells crossed the artificial basement membrane (55.4±3.9) compared with either the non-transfected or negative control Eca-109 cells (30.6±1.5 and 29±2.6 respectively, P<0.05). In conclusion, galectin-3 expression was significantly increased in transfected Eca-109 esophageal cancer cells, resulting in enhanced proliferation, migration and invasion, as well as reduced apoptosis. These data indicate that galectin-3 may be a potential molecular target in the treatment of esophageal cancer.
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Large-Scale Horizontally Aligned ZnO Microrod Arrays with Controlled Orientation, Periodic Distribution as Building Blocks for Chip-in Piezo-Phototronic LEDs.
Small
PUBLISHED: 07-21-2014
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A novel method of fabricating large-scale horizontally aligned ZnO microrod arrays with controlled orientation and periodic distribution via combing technology is introduced. Horizontally aligned ZnO microrod arrays with uniform orientation and periodic distribution can be realized based on the conventional bottom-up method prepared vertically aligned ZnO microrod matrix via the combing method. When the combing parameters are changed, the orientation of horizontally aligned ZnO microrod arrays can be adjusted (? = 90° or 45°) in a plane and a misalignment angle of the microrods (0.3° to 2.3°) with low-growth density can be obtained. To explore the potential applications based on the vertically and horizontally aligned ZnO microrods on p-GaN layer, piezo-phototronic devices such as heterojunction LEDs are built. Electroluminescence (EL) emission patterns can be adjusted for the vertically and horizontally aligned ZnO microrods/p-GaN heterojunction LEDs by applying forward bias. Moreover, the emission color from UV-blue to yellow-green can be tuned by investigating the piezoelectric properties of the materials. The EL emission mechanisms of the LEDs are discussed in terms of band diagrams of the heterojunctions and carrier recombination processes.
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Generation of CRISPR/Cas9-mediated gene-targeted pigs via somatic cell nuclear transfer.
Cell. Mol. Life Sci.
PUBLISHED: 07-20-2014
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The domestic pig has been widely used as an important large animal model. Precise and efficient genetic modification in pig provides a great promise in biomedical research. Recently, clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated (Cas) system has been successfully used to produce many gene-targeted animals. However, these animals have been generated by co-injection of Cas9 mRNA and single-guide RNA (sgRNA) into one-cell stage embryos, which mostly resulted in mosaicism of the modification. One or two rounds of further breeding should be performed to obtain homozygotes with identical genotype and phenotype. To address this issue, gene-targeted somatic cells can be used as donor for somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) to produce gene-targeted animals with single and identical mutations. In this study, we applied Cas9/sgRNAs to effectively direct gene editing in porcine fetal fibroblasts and then mutant cell colonies were used as donor to generate homozygous gene-targeted pigs through single round of SCNT. As a result, we successfully obtained 15 tyrosinase (TYR) biallelic mutant pigs and 20 PARK2 and PINK1 double-gene knockout (KO) pigs. They were all homozygous and no off-target mutagenesis was detected by comprehensive analysis. TYR (-/-) pigs showed typical albinism and the expression of parkin and PINK1 were depleted in PARK2 (-/-)/PINK1 (-/-) pigs. The results demonstrated that single- or double-gene targeted pigs can be effectively achieved by using the CRISPR/Cas9 system combined with SCNT without mosaic mutation and detectable off-target effects. This gene-editing system provides an efficient, rapid, and less costly manner to generate genetically modified pigs or other large animals.
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LSM14A inhibits porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) replication by activating IFN-? signaling pathway in Marc-145.
Mol. Cell. Biochem.
PUBLISHED: 07-03-2014
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Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is considered as a significant contributor to porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome, one of the most economically important diseases for the pig industry worldwide. Emerging evidence indicates that pattern recognition receptors play key roles in recognizing pathogen-associated molecular patterns. In the present study, we investigated the effects of a novel pattern recognition receptor LSM14A in regulating PRRSV replication. Results in Marc-145 cells and porcine alveolar macrophages (PAMs) indicated that overexpression of porcine LSM14A effectively inhibited the replication of PRRSV, and knockdown of LSM14A by siRNA enhanced the replication of PRRSV. Mechanistically, LSM14A up-regulated the activities of IFN-? and ISRE promoters, enhanced the production of IFN-?, RIG-I, and ISGs, and inhibited the production of the inflammatory cytokines of TNF-? and IL-6 mRNA. Additionally, the expression pattern of LSM14A during the infection of PRRSV in Tongcheng and Large White pigs was suppressed by the PRRSV challenge. Taken together, our results suggest that LSM14A is an important PRR that inhibits PPRSV replication by inducing IFN-? signaling and restraining inflammatory responses. Furthermore, the down-regulation of LSM14A by PRRSV might represent an important mechanism by which PRRSV invades the host. Our study sheds light on the possibility of developing a new strategy to control this disease.
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Influence of exclusive enteral nutrition therapy on visceral fat in patients with Crohn's disease.
Inflamm. Bowel Dis.
PUBLISHED: 07-02-2014
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Mesenteric fat plays an important role in the pathogenesis of Crohn's disease (CD), and a higher ratio of visceral fat area (VFA) to subcutaneous fat area (SFA) is related to complicated disease status. Exclusive enteral nutrition (EEN) is an effective treatment option for patients with CD, and the aims of this study were to assess the effects of EEN on abdominal fat in patients with CD.
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RAG1/2 knockout pigs with severe combined immunodeficiency.
J. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 06-27-2014
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Pigs share many physiological, biochemical, and anatomical similarities with humans and have emerged as valuable large animal models for biomedical research. Considering the advantages in immune system resemblance, suitable size, and longevity for clinical practical and monitoring purpose, SCID pigs bearing dysfunctional RAG could serve as important experimental tools for regenerative medicine, allograft and xenograft transplantation, and reconstitution experiments related to the immune system. In this study, we report the generation and phenotypic characterization of RAG1 and RAG2 knockout pigs using transcription activator-like effector nucleases. Porcine fetal fibroblasts were genetically engineered using transcription activator-like effector nucleases and then used to provide donor nuclei for somatic cell nuclear transfer. We obtained 27 live cloned piglets; among these piglets, 9 were targeted with biallelic mutations in RAG1, 3 were targeted with biallelic mutations in RAG2, and 10 were targeted with a monoallelic mutation in RAG2. Piglets with biallelic mutations in either RAG1 or RAG2 exhibited hypoplasia of immune organs, failed to perform V(D)J rearrangement, and lost mature B and T cells. These immunodeficient RAG1/2 knockout pigs are promising tools for biomedical and translational research.
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[Synergetic taste masking of lipid coating and beta-cyclodextrin inclusion].
Yao Xue Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 06-26-2014
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Paracetamol was used as a model drug in this study to investigate the synergetic effects of lipid coating and beta-cyclodextrin (beta-CD) inclusion for masking the bitter taste of poorly soluble drugs. To control the concentration as low as possible of the free drug which produced a bitter taste, a kinetic model was established to calculate the drug distribution theoretically among the free drug in medium, lipid coated particles and molecular inclusion on the basis of the preparation and characterization of the lipid microspheres, so as to select the proper amount of beta-CD. Finally, the synergetic drug delivery systems were prepared and characterized by 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR), molecular simulation and the electronic tongue. As a result, the drug release rate constant (k) of the lipid microspheres coated with octadecanol was determined as 0.001 270 s(-1). Then, the synergetic drug delivery systems were prepared with the ratio of 6.74 : 1 (w/w) for beta-CD and paracetamol. The chemical shift values for the fingerprint peaks of paracetamol all increased and hydrogen bonds were formed between the oxygen on the phenolic hydroxyl group, the nitrogen on the imino in paracetamol and the hydrogens on the hydroxyl groups in beta-CD. The results tested by the electronic tongue indicated that the paracetamol, lipid microspheres, beta-CD inclusion and their mixture showed different taste characteristics, with the bitterness order of the synergetic drug delivery systems approximately lipid microspheres < beta-CD inclusion < paracetamol, which confirmed the synergetic taste masking effects of lipid coating and beta-CD molecular inclusion. In summary, the synergetic taste masking was jointly achieved through the retard of the drug release by the lipid coating and the inclusion of the free paracetamol by beta-CD through hydrogen bonds.
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Syrinx resolution is correlated with the upward shifting of cerebellar tonsil following posterior fossa decompression in pediatric patients with Chiari malformation type I.
Eur Spine J
PUBLISHED: 06-23-2014
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Chiari malformation type I (CMI) is characterized by deformed hindbrain. This study aimed to quantitatively evaluate the alterations in position of hindbrain after Posterior fossa decompression (PFD), and to identify the factors associated with syrinx resolution in pediatric patients with CMI.
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Cesarean delivery and risk of inflammatory bowel disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
Scand. J. Gastroenterol.
PUBLISHED: 06-18-2014
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It has been considered that cesarean delivery is a risk factor for the two subtypes of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs): Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC). The aim of this meta-analysis was to examine the relationship between cesarean delivery and the development of IBD.
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Elevated expression level of long noncoding RNA MALAT-1 facilitates cell growth, migration and invasion in pancreatic cancer.
Oncol. Rep.
PUBLISHED: 06-13-2014
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Pancreatic cancer is one of the most aggressive solid malignancies with a dismal survival rate. Recent studies have shown that high expression levels of long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) metastasis-associated lung adenocarcinoma transcript-1 (MALAT-1) correlate with several solid tumors. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms and its clinical significance in pancreatic cancer remain to be elucidated. In the present study, our results showed that MALAT-1 expression levels were upregulated in pancreatic cancer tissues compared with adjacent noncancerous controls. Consistently, higher expression level of MALAT-1 was found in all seven pancreatic cancer cell lines relative to the human pancreatic ductal epithelial cell. Further function analysis revealed that downregulation of MALAT-1 could inhibit tumor cell proliferation and decrease cell migration and invasion in vitro. The underlying mechanisms are possibly involved in inducing G2/M cell cycle arrest, promoting cell apoptosis, suppressing epithelial-mesenchymal transition and reducing cancer stem-like properties. In conclusion, this study indicated that MALAT-1 may serve as an oncogenic lncRNA that is involved in malignancy phenotypes of pancreatic cancer. Therefore, it may be used as a potential therapeutic target.
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Ultra-fast liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry determination of ochratoxin A in traditional Chinese medicines based on vortex-assisted solid-liquid microextraction and aptamer-affinity column clean-up.
J Sep Sci
PUBLISHED: 06-13-2014
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A rapid, selective, and sensitive ultra-fast liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry method was developed for the determination of ochratoxin A in traditional Chinese medicines based on vortex-assisted solid-liquid microextraction and aptamer-affinity column clean-up. Through optimizing the sample pretreatment procedures and chromatographic conditions, good linearity (r(2) ? 0.9993), low limit of detection (0.5-0.8 ?g/kg), and satisfactory recovery (83.54-94.44%) expressed the good reliability and applicability of the established method in various traditional Chinese medicines. Moreover, the aptamer-affinity column, prepared in-house, showed an excellent feasibility owing to its specific identification of ochratoxin A in various kinds of selected traditional Chinese medicines. The maximum adsorption amount and applicability value were 188.96 ± 10.56 ng and 72.3%, respectively. The matrix effects were effectively eliminated, especially for m/z 404.2?358.0 of ochratoxin A. The application of the developed method for screening the natural contamination levels of ochratoxin A in 25 random traditional Chinese medicines on the market in China indicated that only eight samples were contaminated with low levels below the legal limit (5.0 ?g/kg) set by the European Union. This study provided a preferred choice for the rapid and accurate monitoring of ochratoxin A in complex matrices.
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New species and new record of Megatyrus Hlavá? & Nomura (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae: Pselaphinae) from Asia.
Zootaxa
PUBLISHED: 06-13-2014
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A new species, Megatyrus femoralis sp. n., is described from the Koshi Zone, East Nepal, with major diagnostic features illustrated. Megatyrus masumotoi Nomura, Sakchoowong & Chanpaisaeng, originally described from southwestern Thailand, is recorded from the Noring Timur Mountain, West Malaysia. The above data extends the known range of Megatyrus about 1,200 km to the west, and 870 km to the south.
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A new species of Syndicus (s. str.) Motschulsky (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae, Scydmaeninae) from East China.
Zootaxa
PUBLISHED: 06-06-2014
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Syndicus (s. str.) jaloszynskii Yin and Song, new species is described from Fujian and Zhejiang, East China. All material was collected in rotten woods. The habitus of both sexes, aedeagus, and spermatheca are illustrated. The new species can be readily separated from all known congeners by the strikingly large body size, the structure of aedeagal endophallus, and the form of spermatheca. This is the first species of the nominotypical subgenus of Syndicus known to occur in China.
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Altered microRNAs expression in inflamed and non-inflamed terminal ileal mucosa of adult patients with active Crohn's disease.
J. Gastroenterol. Hepatol.
PUBLISHED: 06-06-2014
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MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play an important role in inflammation. Several studies have reported the unique miRNAs profiles in colonic mucosa and peripheral blood of patients with active Crohn's disease (CD). But there is limited data about the miRNA profiles of terminal ileum, the most commonly involved location, especially the non-inflamed mucosa. We aimed to investigate the miRNAs expression of both inflamed and non-inflamed terminal ileal mucosa in adult patients with active CD.
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Histone deacetylase 3 promotes pancreatic cancer cell proliferation, invasion and increases drug-resistance through histone modification of P27, P53 and Bax.
Int. J. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 05-22-2014
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Pancreatic cancer is one of the most aggressive solid malignancies with a dismal survival rate. Recent studies have shown that high expression levels of histone deacetylase 3 (HDAC3) correlate with malignant phenotype. However, the expression patterns and biological role of HDAC3 in pancreatic cancer remain unclear. In this study, our data showed that a higher level of HDAC3 protein expression was found in pancreatic cancer as compared to paired paracancerous tissues. Consistently, higher expression level of HDAC3 was found in all of the eight pancreatic cancer cell lines relative to human pancreatic ductal epithelial cells (HPDE). In addition, further function analysis revealed that HDAC3 can function as oncogenic protein, which could promote pancreatic cancer cell proliferation, migration and invasion, and may increase drug resistance. Moreover, the functional involvement of HDAC3 was partially correlated with post-induction repression of P53, P27 and Bax gene transcription, acting via H3K9 deacetylation. Taken together, our data suggest that HDAC3 participates in the pathogenesis and progression of pancreatic cancer through histone modification, which might be a pivotal epigenetic target against this devastating disease.
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Aurora A orchestrates entosis by regulating a dynamic MCAK-TIP150 interaction.
J Mol Cell Biol
PUBLISHED: 05-20-2014
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Entosis, a cell-in-cell process, has been implicated in the formation of aneuploidy associated with an aberrant cell division control. Microtubule plus-end-tracking protein TIP150 facilitates the loading of MCAK onto the microtubule plus ends and orchestrates microtubule plus-end dynamics during cell division. Here we show that TIP150 cooperates with MCAK to govern entosis via a regulatory circuitry that involves Aurora A-mediated phosphorylation of MCAK. Our biochemical analyses show that MCAK forms an intra-molecular association, which is essential for TIP150 binding. Interestingly, Aurora A-mediated phosphorylation of MCAK modulates its intra-molecular association, which perturbs the MCAK-TIP150 interaction in vitro and inhibits entosis in vivo. To probe if MCAK-TIP150 interaction regulates microtubule plasticity to affect the mechanical properties of cells during entosis, we used an optical trap to measure the mechanical rigidity of live MCF7 cells. We find that the MCAK cooperates with TIP150 to promote microtubule dynamics and modulate the mechanical rigidity of the cells during entosis. Our results show that a dynamic interaction of MCAK-TIP150 orchestrated by Aurora A-mediated phosphorylation governs entosis via regulating microtubule plus-end dynamics and cell rigidity. These data reveal a previously unknown mechanism of Aurora A regulation in the control of microtubule plasticity during cell-in-cell processes.
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[Association of TNF-?-308 polymorphisms with risk of chronic HBV infection in the Chinese population: a meta-analysis].
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 05-17-2014
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To explore the association between TNF-? gene 308 locus polymorphism and the risk of chronic HBV infection in Chinese population.
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Estrogen receptor expression in lumbar intervertebral disc of the elderly: gender- and degeneration degree-related variations.
Joint Bone Spine
PUBLISHED: 05-15-2014
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Sexual dimorphism does occur in intervertebral disc (IVD) degeneration. The involvement of estrogen on IVD health has been well reported in recent years. The estrogen receptors (ER) are the main mediators of estrogen action. ER might play specific roles in the sexual variations of the IVD degeneration.
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[Operative and long term results after diseased bowel resection for chronic radiation enteritis complicated with intestinal obstruction].
Zhonghua Wai Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 05-10-2014
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To report operative and long-term results after surgery for chronic radiation enteritis and to evaluate the therapeutic efficacy of surgery and investigate the risk factors of postoperative survival rate.
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Telocytes damage in endometriosis-affected rat oviduct and potential impact on fertility.
J. Cell. Mol. Med.
PUBLISHED: 05-09-2014
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Women with endometriosis (EMs) have unexplained infertility. The recently identified telocytes (TCs) might participate in the maintenance of structural and functional integrity of oviduct tissue, but so far the involvement of TCs in EMs-affected oviduct tissue and potential impact on fertility capacity remain unknown. By an integrated technique of haematoxylin and eosin staining, in situ immunohistochemistry and double-labelled immunofluorescence staining and electron microscopy approach, TCs were studied in the autotransplantation Sprague-Dawley rat model of EMs-affected oviduct tissue and in sham control, respectively, together with determination of iNOS, COX-2, LPO and estradiol. TCs were found in perivascular connective tissue and smooth muscle bundles in sham oviduct, with typical ultrastructural features (a slender piriform/spindle/triangular cell body, and one or more extremely long prolongations, emerged from cell bodies and extend to various directions), and specific immunophenotype of CD34-positive/vimentin-positive/c-kit-negative. However, in EMs-affected oviduct tissue (grade III), extensive ultrastructural damage (degeneration, discontinue, dissolution and destruction), significant decrease or loss of TCs and interstitial fibrosis were observed, together with elevated level of iNOS, COX-2, LPO and estradiol, thus suggestive of inflammation and ischaemia-induced TCs damage. Based on TCs distribution and intercellular connections, we proposed that such damage might be involved in structural and functional abnormalities of oviduct, such as attenuated intercellular signalling and oviduct contractility, impaired immunoregulation and stem cell-mediated tissue repair, 3-D interstitial architectural derangement and tissue fibrosis. Therefore, TCs damage might provide a new explanation and potential target for EMs-induced tubal damage and fertility disorders.
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Impact of Disease Activity on Resting Energy Expenditure and Body Composition in Adult Crohn's Disease: A Prospective Longitudinal Assessment.
JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr
PUBLISHED: 03-27-2014
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Background: There is controversy about nutrition status and calorie needs during phases of active versus inactive adult Crohn's disease (CD). Results have been reported in cross-sectional studies, but longitudinal data are unavailable. Our aim was to explore whether disease activity had an impact on resting energy expenditure (REE) and body composition in adult patients with CD. Materials and Methods: Adult patients were studied on 2 occasions with active and inactive CD. REE was measured by indirect calorimetry. Body composition was estimated from bioelectrical impedance analysis. Disease activity was measured using the Crohn's Disease Activity Index (CDAI). Regression analyses of REE with CDAI score, C-reactive protein, and erythrocyte sedimentation rate were also performed. Results: Seventy-five patients were included. Patients with active CD had increased REE/body weight compared with patients with inactive disease (28.8 ± 5.4 vs 25.9 ± 4.3 kcal/kg, P < .001). Disease behavior and location, but not sex, had an impact on REE/body weight. Body mass index was lower in active disease than in remission (17.4 ± 3.0 vs 18.1 ± 2.6 kg/m(2), P = .010). Body composition was not affected by disease behavior or location. Conclusion: Patients with remission had a better nutrition status and decreased REE compared with those with active CD. REE could also be affected by disease location and behavior.
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Seventeen new species and additional records of Lathrobium (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae) from mainland China.
Zootaxa
PUBLISHED: 03-19-2014
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Material of the paederine genus Lathrobium Gravenhorst, 1802 from the Chinese provinces Heilongjiang, Ningxia, Qinghai, Henan, Anhui, Zhejiang, Jiangxi, Hunan, Chongqing, Guizhou, Yunnan and Guangdong was examined. Twenty-one species were identified, seventeen of which are described as new: L. liuae (Heilongjiang: Hongwei); L. ningxiaense sp. n. (Ningxia: Heshangpu); L. baiyunense sp. n. (Henan: Baiyun Shan); L. ayui sp. n. (Anhui: Yaoluoping); L. yaoluopingense sp. n. (Anhui: Yaoluoping); L. chenae sp. n. (Zhejiang: Qingliangfeng); L. fengae sp. n. (Zhejiang: Qingliangfeng); L. gutianense sp. n. (Zhejiang: Gutian Shan); L. nannani sp. n. (Zhejiang: Gutian Shan); L. sanqingense sp. n. (Jiangxi: Sanqing Shan); L. badagongense sp. n. (Hunan: Badagong Shan); L. xui sp. n. (Chongqing: Huanggangou); L. fanjingense sp. n. (Guizhou: Fanjing Shan); L. lui sp. n. (Guizhou: Kuankuoshui); L. zhaigei sp. n. (Guizhou: Kuankuoshui); L. zizhiense sp. n. (Yunnan: Zizhi) and L. guangdongense sp. n. (Guangdong: Nanling). The female sexual characters of L. lingae Peng, Li & Zhao and L. longwangshanense Peng, Li & Zhao are described and illustrated for the first time. The junior primary homonym Lathrobium pilosum Peng & Li, 2012 is replaced with Lathrobium zhui nom. n. Including the new taxa described here, 189 Lathrobium species are currently known from the mainland China. 
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Investigation of halide-induced aggregation of Au nanoparticles into spongelike gold.
Langmuir
PUBLISHED: 03-03-2014
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We present a facile method for fabricating spongelike Au structures by halide-induced aggregation and fusion of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs). Halide ions (F(-), Cl(-), Br(-), and I(-)) showed distinctly different effects on the synthesized AuNPs, which were characterized by localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) and dynamic light scattering measurements. A noticeable red-shift in the LSPR peak was found after Br(-) and I(-) ion treatment, which indicates the adsorption of halide atoms or ions on the AuNPs. The surface potential of AuNPs varied by treatment with different types of halides; this finding indicates that different halide ions have different effects on the AuNPs. Br(-) and I(-) ions showed strong affinity toward the AuNPs. The different affinities of halide ions toward the AuNPs play an important role in controlling the formation process of spongelike gold. Citrate ions adsorbed on AuNPs were displaced by halide ions to different extents. Such displacement determined the aggregation and fusion behaviors of the AuNPs and eventually the formation of different spongelike structures.
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Visceral Fat Area Is Associated with a High Risk for Early Postoperative Recurrence in Crohn's Disease.
Colorectal Dis
PUBLISHED: 02-25-2014
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Mesenteric hypertrophy has been recognised as an indicator of the complicated course of Crohn's disease. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the visceral fat area (VFA) was associated with postoperative clinical and endoscopic recurrence.
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Multifunctional mesoporous nanoparticles as pH-responsive Fe(2+) reservoirs and artemisinin vehicles for synergistic inhibition of tumor growth.
Biomaterials
PUBLISHED: 02-20-2014
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Artemisinin (ART) is an iron-dependent anti-cancer drug. However, simultaneous delivery of hydrophobic ART and Fe(2+) ions into cancer cells remains a major challenge. Herein, we reported Fe3O4@C/Ag@mSiO2 (FCA@mSiO2) multifunctional nanocarriers which can load ART as high as 484 mg/g. Moreover, FCA@mSiO2 nanoparticles demonstrated pH-responsive Fe(2+) release, the concentration of Fe(2+) ions can reach 2.765 nmol/L in HeLa cells cultured with FCA@mSiO2 nanoparticles. The antitumor efficacy of ART-loaded FCA@mSiO2 nanoparticles measured by MTT assay was significantly enhanced compared with free ART. It was suggested that the ART-loaded FCA@mSiO2 nanoparticles are internalized by HeLa cells and located at the acidic compartments of endosomes and lysosomes, releasing Fe(2+) ions to non-enzymatically convert ART to toxic products for killing cancer cells. This result provides a way for using promising natural drugs in anti-cancer therapeutics.
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Recent advances in heterogeneous selective oxidation catalysis for sustainable chemistry.
Chem Soc Rev
PUBLISHED: 02-20-2014
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Oxidation catalysis not only plays a crucial role in the current chemical industry for the production of key intermediates such as alcohols, epoxides, aldehydes, ketones and organic acids, but also will contribute to the establishment of novel green and sustainable chemical processes. This review is devoted to dealing with selective oxidation reactions, which are important from the viewpoint of green and sustainable chemistry and still remain challenging. Actually, some well-known highly challenging chemical reactions involve selective oxidation reactions, such as the selective oxidation of methane by oxygen. On the other hand some important oxidation reactions, such as the aerobic oxidation of alcohols in the liquid phase and the preferential oxidation of carbon monoxide in hydrogen, have attracted much attention in recent years because of their high significance in green or energy chemistry. This article summarizes recent advances in the development of new catalytic materials or novel catalytic systems for these challenging oxidation reactions. A deep scientific understanding of the mechanisms, active species and active structures for these systems are also discussed. Furthermore, connections among these distinct catalytic oxidation systems are highlighted, to gain insight for the breakthrough in rational design of efficient catalytic systems for challenging oxidation reactions.
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A new species of Lasinus Sharp (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae: Pselaphinae) from East China.
Zootaxa
PUBLISHED: 02-12-2014
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Lasinus orientalis Yin & Bekchiev, new species, is described from the eastern Chinese provinces of Zhejiang and Jiangxi, with major diagnostic features illustrated. The new species is compared with, and distinguished from related congeners.
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Expression of stromal cell-derived factor 1 and CXCR7 ligand receptor system in pancreatic adenocarcinoma.
World J Surg Oncol
PUBLISHED: 02-01-2014
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Stromal cell-derived factor 1 (SDF-1) is a chemokine that is expressed in some cancer cells and is involved in tumor cell migration and metastasis. CXCR7, a novel receptor for SDF-1, has been identified recently. Research has demonstrated that SDF-1/CXCR7 interaction could play an important role in cancer progression. In this study, we aimed to investigate the expression of the SDF-1/CXCR7 ligand receptor system and the relationship between this expressions and clinicopathological characteristics in pancreatic adenocarcinoma.
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Schatzker type IV medial tibial plateau fractures: a computed tomography-based morphological subclassification.
Orthopedics
PUBLISHED: 01-30-2014
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Schatzker type IV medial tibial plateau fractures have an unfavorable prognosis, likely due to the mechanism of injury (fracture-dislocation/subluxation type) and possibly due to the involvement of the posterolateral plateau, which is different from previously thought. The aim of this study was to propose a new subclassification of Schatzker type IV fracture patterns based on 2-dimensional (2-D) computed tomography and three-dimensional (3-D) reconstruction. The authors defined Schatzker type IV medial tibial plateau fractures as AO/OTA 41 type B fractures (partial articular), with partial or total medial plateau involvement, leaving at least the anterolateral quadrant intact. The images of 42 fractures (42 patients) were evaluated. The fractures were further anatomically divided into 2 groups: Group 1 were classic medial unicondylar fractures and Group 2 were more complicated variants involving both condyles, characterized by medial condyle fractures with lateral plateau extension, usually with articular impaction of the centroposterior lateral plateau. Twelve (29%) cases involved only the medial condyle, and 30 (71%) involved both the medial and lateral condyles. Twenty-nine (69%) cases demonstrated posterior coronal fractures. The most common patterns were bicondylar posteromedial plateau fractures with posterolateral quadrant depression (bicondylar posterior fractures: 14 cases, 33%) and total/subtotal medial condyle fractures with posterolateral quadrant depression (13 cases, 31%). The isolated unicondylar posteromedial split fracture was uncommon (2 cases, 5%). Computed tomography-based reconstruction enhances the understanding of fracture anatomy and the relationships between fracture fragments. In Schatzker type IV medial tibial plateau fractures, the involvement of posterolateral quadrants is common.
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Aptamer-affinity column clean-up coupled with ultra high performance liquid chromatography and fluorescence detection for the rapid determination of ochratoxin A in ginger powder.
J Sep Sci
PUBLISHED: 01-15-2014
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Aptamers are single-stranded oligonucleotides with high affinity and specificity and are widely used in targets separation and enrichment. Here, an aptamer-affinity column (AAC) was firstly prepared in-house through a covalent immobilization strategy. Then, ochratoxin A (OTA) in ginger powder was absorbed and enriched using the new aptamer-based clean-up technology for the first time, and was further analyzed by ultra high performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection. After optimization, the average recoveries for blank samples spiked with OTA at 5, 15, and 45 ?g/kg ranged from 85.36 to 96.83%. Furthermore, the AAC exhibited a similar accuracy as an immunoaffinity column to clean up OTA in ginger powder. Above all, it exhibited better reusability, twice that of the immunoaffinity column, had lower toxicity and cost, and took less time. Of 25 contaminated ginger powder samples, OTA contamination levels ranged from 1.51 to 4.31 ?g/kg, which were lower than the European Union (EU) regulatory limits. All the positive samples were further confirmed by ultra-fast LC with MS/MS. In conclusion, the method of clean-up based on the AAC coupled to ultra-HPLC with fluorescence detection was rapid, specific, and sensitive for the quantitative analysis of OTA in a complex matrix.
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Cloning, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray studies of HMO2 from Saccharomyces cerevisiae.
Acta Crystallogr F Struct Biol Commun
PUBLISHED: 01-15-2014
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The high-mobility group protein (HMO2) of Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a component of the chromatin-remodelling complex INO80, which is involved in double-strand break (DSB) repair. HMO2 can also bind DNA to protect it from exonucleolytic cleavage. Nevertheless, little structural information is available regarding these functions of HMO2. Since determination of three-dimensional structure is a powerful means to facilitate functional characterization, X-ray crystallography has been used to accomplish this task. Here, the expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary crystallographic analysis of HMO2 from S. cerevisiae are reported. The crystal belonged to space group P222, with unit-cell parameters a = 39.35, b = 75.69, c = 108.03?Å, and diffracted to a resolution of 3.0?Å. The crystals are most likely to contain one molecule in the asymmetric unit, with a VM value of 3.19?Å(3)?Da(-1).
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Species-dependent neuropathology in transgenic SOD1 pigs.
Cell Res.
PUBLISHED: 01-13-2014
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Mutations in the human copper/zinc superoxide dismutase 1 (hSOD1) gene cause familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). It remains unknown whether large animal models of ALS mimic more pathological events seen in ALS patients via novel mechanisms. Here, we report the generation of transgenic pigs expressing mutant G93A hSOD1 and showing hind limb motor defects, which are germline transmissible, and motor neuron degeneration in dose- and age-dependent manners. Importantly, in the early disease stage, mutant hSOD1 did not form cytoplasmic inclusions, but showed nuclear accumulation and ubiquitinated nuclear aggregates, as seen in some ALS patient brains, but not in transgenic ALS mouse models. Our findings revealed that SOD1 binds PCBP1, a nuclear poly(rC) binding protein, in pig brain, but not in mouse brain, suggesting that the SOD1-PCBP1 interaction accounts for nuclear SOD1 accumulation and that species-specific targets are key to ALS pathology in large mammals and in humans.
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Description of Bryantinus gen. n. from Sarawak, and New Distributional Records for Cerochusa cilioceps in Thailand (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae: Pselaphinae).
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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A new genus and species of the subtribe Batrisina from western Sarawak, Bryantinus matangus gen. et sp. n., is described, illustrated, and compared with related taxa. In addition, examination of a small series of batrisine material from Thailand revealed a new country record for Cerochusa cilioceps Yin & Nomura, which was previously known only from the island of Hainan in southern China.
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Production of transgenic pigs over-expressing the antiviral gene Mx1.
Cell Regen (Lond)
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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The myxovirus resistance gene (Mx1) has a broad spectrum of antiviral activities. It is therefore an interesting candidate gene to improve disease resistance in farm animals. In this study, we report the use of somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) to produce transgenic pigs over-expressing the Mx1 gene. These transgenic pigs express approximately 15-25 times more Mx1 mRNA than non-transgenic pigs, and the protein level of Mx1 was also markedly enhanced. We challenged fibroblast cells isolated from the ear skin of transgenic and control pigs with influenza A virus and classical swine fever virus (CFSV). Indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA) revealed a profound decrease of influenza A proliferation in Mx1 transgenic cells. Growth kinetics showed an approximately 10-fold reduction of viral copies in the transgenic cells compared to non-transgenic controls. Additionally, we found that the Mx1 transgenic cells were more resistant to CSFV infection in comparison to non-transgenic cells. These results demonstrate that the Mx1 transgene can protect against viral infection in cells of transgenic pigs and indicate that the Mx1 transgene can be harnessed to develop disease-resistant pigs.
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Methyllycaconitine Alleviates Amyloid-? Peptides-Induced Cytotoxicity in SH-SY5Y Cells.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a chronic progressive neurodegenerative disorder. As the most common form of dementia, it affects more than 35 million people worldwide and is increasing. Excessive extracellular deposition of amyloid-? peptide (A?) is a pathologic feature of AD. Accumulating evidence indicates that macroautophagy is involved in the pathogenesis of AD, but its exact role is still unclear. Although major findings on the molecular mechanisms have been reported, there are still no effective treatments to prevent, halt, or reverse Alzheimer's disease. In this study, we investigated whether A?25-35 could trigger an autophagy process and inhibit the growth of SH-SY5Y cells. Furthermore, we examined the effect of methyllycaconitine (MLA) on the cytotoxity of A?25-35. MLA had a protective effect against cytotoxity of A?, which may be related to its inhibition of A?-induced autophagy and the involvement of the mammalian target of rapamycin pathway. Moreover, MLA had a good safety profile. MLA treatment may be a promising therapeutic tool for AD.
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Two new species of Lobrathium Mulsant & Rey (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae, Paederinae) from China.
Zookeys
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Lobrathiumjianqingi sp. n. (Guangxi: Shiwanda Shan) and Lobrathiumatanggei sp. n. (Yunnan: Nabanhe) from southwest China are described and illustrated.
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Review of nitidotachinus campbell (staphylinidae, tachyporinae) from mainland china.
Zookeys
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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The genus Nitidotachinus Campbell of Mainland China is reviewed with descriptions of five new species: Nitidotachinusanhuiensis sp. n. (Anhui), Nitidotachinusbini sp. n. (Zhejiang), Nitidotachinusbrunneus sp. n. (Zhejiang), Nitidotachinuscapillosus sp. n. (Zhejiang), and Nitidotachinusxiangi sp. n. (Hubei). Nitidotachinusexcellensconcolor Schülke is synonymized with Nitidotachinusexcellens syn. n. All treated species are described with their major diagnostic characters illustrated. An identification key to the species is given.
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Decreased expression of histone deacetylase 10 predicts poor prognosis of gastric cancer patients.
Int J Clin Exp Pathol
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Aberrant expression of histone deacetylase (HDACs) was associated with carcinogenesis and progression of various tumors. However, the association of HDAC10 with clinical outcomes in gastric cancer patients is unclear. Thus, the objective of the current study was to evaluate the association of expression level of HDAC10 with clinicopathologic factors and prognosis of patients with gastric cancer. The expression level of HDAC10 in 179 paraffin-embedded gastric cancer tissue specimens was examined by immunohistochemistry (IHC). As a result, we found that expression of HDAC10 in gastric cancer was significantly decreased in gastric cancer tissues as compared with adjacent tissues (51.4% vs. 87.3%, P < 0.001). HDAC10 expression was significantly correlated with gender (P = 0.023), tumor size (P = 0.015), histological grade (P = 0.009), tumor invasion (P = 0.033), lymph node metastatic status (P = 0.019) and tumor stage (P = 0.004), but not correlated with age and lauren classification (all P > 0.05). Kaplan-Meier survival curves showed that the overall survival rate was significantly lower in the patients with low expression of HDAC10 compared with those patients with high HDAC10 (P < 0.001). Moreover, multivariate analysis revealed that HDAC10 expression was an independent prognostic factor for gastric cancer patients (P = 0.001). These results suggest that HDAC10 expression could see as a prognosis marker for gastric cancer patients.
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Descriptions of three new species of the Termitophilous tribe Termitopaediini in China (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae, Aleocharinae).
Zookeys
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Three new species belonging to two genera of the aleocharine tribe Termitopaediini Seevers, viz., Dioxeuta rara Song & Li, sp. n., D. yunnanensis Song & Li, sp. n., and Termitopulex sinensis Song & Li, sp. n. from Baihualing Natural Reserve (Southwest China: Yunnan) are described and illustrated. This is the first record of Termitopulex Fauvel, 1899 from China.
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A new species of Diartiger Sharp (Staphylinidae, Pselaphinae, Clavigeritae) from the Fengyangshan - Baishanzu Nature Reserve, East China.
Zookeys
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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A new clavigerine pselaphine, Diartiger zhejiangensis Yin & Li, sp. n., from the Fengyangshan - Baishanzu Nature Reserve, southern Zhejiang, is described, illustrated, and compared with congeners. The species is hosted by ants in the genus Lasius. The key to Diartiger species from China is modified to accommodate the new species.
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New data on the Paederus biacutus species group from mainland China (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae, Paederinae).
Zookeys
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Paederus jianyueae Peng & Li, sp. n. (Zhejiang: Qingliangfeng) is described and illustrated. Additional records of P. biacutus Li, Zhou & Solodovnikov, 2014 and P. parvidenticulatus Li, Zhou & Solodovnikov, 2014 are reported.
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A new species of Dysanabatium Bernhauer and additional records of D. jacobsoni Bernhauer (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae, Paederinae).
Zookeys
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Dysanabatium hainanense Peng & Li, sp. n. (Hainan: Wuzhi Shan, Diaoluo Shan) is described and illustrated. Additional records of D. jacobsoni Bernhauer, 1915 are reported. The habitus, the sexual characters, and the distribution of this enormously variable species are illustrated.
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The genus Scaphidium Olivier in East China (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae, Scaphidiinae).
Zookeys
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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A review of 21 species of Scaphidium Olivier from East China is presented, including 6 new species: S. jinmingi sp. n. (Zhejiang, Anhui, Chongqing), S. crypticum sp. n. (Zhejiang, Fujian, Jiangxi, Guangxi), S. varifasciatum sp. n. (Zhejiang, An'hui), S. robustum sp. n. (Fujian, Guizhou, Chongqing, Guangxi, Yunnan), S. connexum sp. n. (Zhejiang, Fujian, Guangxi), and S. bayibini sp. n. (An'hui). New province records for S. comes Löbl, S. grande Gestro, S. sauteri Miwa & Mitono, S. formosanum Pic, S. carinense Achard, S. sinense Pic, S. delatouchei Achard, S. biwenxuani He, Tang & Li, S. klapperichi Pic, S. stigmatinotum Löbl, S. wuyongxiangi He, Tang & Li, and S. direptum Tang & Li as well as some biological notes are reported. Habitus and diagnostic characters of all species are photographed and a key to Scaphidium species of East China is provided.
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[Cannulation related complications and prevention for extracorporeal membrane oxygenation: clinical report and reviews of experience of 34 cases].
Zhonghua Wai Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 12-17-2013
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To review the cannulation strategies and associated vascular complications of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) and to investigate the etiology and preventive procedures for those complications.
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The Life Cycle of Bare Branch Families in China---A Simulation Study.
Can Stud Popul
PUBLISHED: 11-01-2013
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China is and will be characterized by a large number of men who are unable to marry: these men are often referred to as "bare branches." In this paper we define the bare branch family and divide its life cycle into three stages: the unmarried co-resident with both parents, co-resident with a surviving parent, and living alone. Using life tables and probability methods, we find that up to age 60, the bare branch male faces cumulative probabilities of 0.8 and 0.6, for his fathers and mothers death, respectively. The definition of the age at which bare branch status is initialized influences the length of these stages. As the childbearing age of parents increases, the age of a bare branch at the death of his parents decreases, and the duration of his living alone lengthens. An increase in the mothers childbearing age, holding that of the father constant, shortens the stage of co-residence with both parents, and lengthens the stage of living alone.
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[One stage anterior debridement, bone fusion and internal fixation for the treatment of lumbosacral tuberculosis].
Zhongguo Gu Shang
PUBLISHED: 10-19-2013
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To explore the clinical effect of the anterior debridement,bone fusion, single screw-rod fixation for the treatment of lumbosacral tuberculosis.
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[Real-time UV imaging of chloramphenicol intrinsic dissolution characteristics from ophthalmic in situ gel].
Yao Xue Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 10-19-2013
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In this paper, chloramphenicol was selected as a model drug to prepare in situ gels. The intrinsic dissolution rate of chloramphenicol from in situ gel was evaluated using the surface dissolution imaging system. The results indicated that intrinsic dissolution rate of chloramphenicol thermosensitive in situ gel decreased significantly when the poloxamer concentration increased. The addition of the thickener reduced the intrinsic dissolution rate of chloramphenicol thermosensitive gel, wherein carbomer had the most impact. Different dilution ratios of simulated tear fluid greatly affected gel temperature, and had little influence on the intrinsic dissolution rate of chloramphenicol from the thermosensitive in situ gel. The pH of simulated tear fluid had little influence on the intrinsic dissolution rate of chloramphenicol thermosensitive in situ gel. For the pH sensitive in situ gel, the dissolution rates of chloramphenicol in weak acidic and neutral simulated tear fluids were slower than that in weak alkaline simulated tear fluid. In conclusion, the intrinsic dissolution of chloramphenicol from in situ gel was dependent on formulation and physiological factors. With advantages of small volume sample required and rapid detection, the UV imaging method can be an efficient tool for the evaluation of drug release characteristics of ophthalmic in situ gel.
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Ontogeny of excitatory spinal neurons processing distinct somatic sensory modalities.
J. Neurosci.
PUBLISHED: 09-13-2013
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Spatial and temporal cues govern the genesis of a diverse array of neurons located in the dorsal spinal cord, including dI1-dI6, dIL(A), and dIL(B) subtypes, but their physiological functions are poorly understood. Here we generated a new line of conditional knock-out (CKO) mice, in which the homeobox gene Tlx3 was removed in dI5 and dIL(B) cells. In these CKO mice, development of a subset of excitatory neurons located in laminae I and II was impaired, including itch-related GRPR-expressing neurons, PKC?-expressing neurons, and neurons expressing three neuropeptide genes: somatostatin, preprotachykinin 1, and the gastrin-releasing peptide. These CKO mice displayed marked deficits in generating nocifensive motor behaviors evoked by a range of pain-related or itch-related stimuli. The mutants also failed to exhibit escape response evoked by dynamic mechanical stimuli but retained the ability to sense innocuous cooling and/or warm. Thus, our studies provide new insight into the ontogeny of spinal neurons processing distinct sensory modalities.
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The crystal structure of human protein ?1M reveals a chromophore-binding site and two putative protein-protein interfaces.
Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.
PUBLISHED: 08-19-2013
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Lipocalin ?1-microglobulin (?1M) is a conserved glycoprotein present in plasma and in the interstitial fluids of all tissues. ?1M is linked to a heterogeneous yellow-brown chromophore of unknown structure, and interacts with several target proteins, including ?1-inhibitor-3, fibronectin, prothrombin and albumin. To date, there is little knowledge about the interaction sites between ?1M and its partners. Here, we report the crystal structure of the human ?1M. Due to the crystallization occurring in a low ionic strength solution, the unidentified chromophore with heavy electron density is observed at a hydrophobic inner tube of ?1M. In addition, two conserved surface regions of ?1M are proposed as putative protein-protein interface sites. Further study is needed to unravel the detailed information about the interaction between ?1M and its partners.
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Cloning, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray studies of the putative transcriptional regulator SPD0280 from Streptococcus pneumoniae D39.
Acta Crystallogr. Sect. F Struct. Biol. Cryst. Commun.
PUBLISHED: 07-14-2013
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Streptococcus pneumoniae SPD0280 is a hypothetical protein that has been putatively identified as a transcriptional regulator. However, it has very low sequence identity to other well characterized transcriptional regulators. Determination of the three-dimensional structure may provide information for the characterization of proteins; therefore, it was decided to use X-ray diffraction analysis to learn more about this protein. Here, the expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary crystallographic analysis of SPD0280 from S. pneumoniae are reported. The crystals belonged to space group P2(1)2(1)2(1), with unit-cell parameters a = 45.886, b = 66.785, c = 150.050?Å, and diffracted to a resolution of 2.5?Å. The crystals are likely to contain one molecule in the asymmetric unit, with a VM value of 2.06?Å(3)?Da(-1).
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.