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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Acute toxicity formation potential of benzophenone-type UV filters in chlorination disinfection process.
J Environ Sci (China)
PUBLISHED: 08-01-2014
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Benzophenones (BPs) are a class of widely used UV filters, which have been frequently detected within multiple environmental matrices. Disinfection is a necessary process in water treatment processes. The transformation behaviors and toxicity changes of 14 BP-type UV filters during chlorination disinfection treatment were investigated in this study. A new index, the acute toxicity formation potential, was proposed to evaluate the toxicity changes and potential risks of BP-type UV filters during chlorination treatment. It was found that 13 of 14 BP-type UV filters exhibited toxicity decreases in the chlorination disinfection process, more or less, while one showed a toxicity increase. The toxicity changes were dependent on substitution effects, such that 2,4-di-hydroxylated or 3-hydroxylated BPs exhibited significant toxicity decreases after chlorination treatment due to the ready cleavage of the aromatic ring. Importantly, the acute toxicity changes could be duplicated in an ambient water matrix.
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Mutations in specific codons of the KRAS oncogene are associated with variable resistance to neoadjuvant chemoradiation therapy in patients with rectal adenocarcinoma.
Ann. Surg. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 03-02-2013
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Mutations in KRAS and TP53 are common in colorectal carcinogenesis and are associated with resistance to therapy. Rectal cancers carrying both mutations are less likely to respond to neoadjuvant chemoradiation therapy (CRT) compared with wild-type tumors. Codon-specific KRAS mutations are associated with variable resistance to targeted therapies, but their association with rectal cancer response to CRT remains unclear. Our objective was to establish a correlation between specific KRAS mutations and rectal cancer response to CRT and to investigate if the correlation was related to a different association between KRAS and TP53 mutations.
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Distribution of residual cancer cells in the bowel wall after neoadjuvant chemoradiation in patients with rectal cancer.
Dis. Colon Rectum
PUBLISHED: 01-11-2013
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The standard treatment for locally advanced rectal cancer is preoperative chemoradiation and total mesorectal excision. After surgery, tumors are classified according to the depth of tumor invasion, nodal involvement, and tumor regression grade. However, these staging systems do not provide information about the distribution of residual cancer cells within the bowel wall.
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Surgical complications and pathologic complete response after neoadjuvant chemoradiation in locally advanced rectal cancer.
Am Surg
PUBLISHED: 12-01-2011
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Pathologic complete response (pCR) to neoadjuvant chemoradiation (CRT) in patients with rectal cancer is associated with improved prognosis, whereas postoperative surgical complications have been linked with poor oncologic outcomes. Our objective was to examine the association between postoperative complications and pCR. We analyzed 127 patients enrolled in a prospective multicenter study investigating rectal cancer response to CRT. Surgical complications were scored according to the Clavien-Dindo scale (Grade 1 to 4). Among the 127 patients analyzed, 28 (22%) patients had a pCR. In the pCR group, six surgical Grade 3+ complications occurred in five (18%) patients, including anastomotic leak (n = 2), ureteral injury (n = 2), pelvic abscess (n = 1), and pneumonia (n = 1). In the non-pCR group, there were 10 Grade 3+ complications in eight (8%) patients, including severe obstruction (n = 1), postoperative hemorrhage (n = 1), leak (n = 2), pelvic abscess (n = 2), ureteral injury (n = 1), and severe morbidity (stroke, n = 1; acute respiratory distress, n = 1; and cardiac event, n = 1). There was no significant difference in the frequency of total surgical complications between pCR and non-pCR patients; and no association was observed between pCR and major postoperative complications. In conclusion, postoperative complication rates do not differ between pCR and non-pCR groups. The occurrence of major postoperative complications is not associated with response to neoadjuvant CRT.
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Identification of a biomarker profile associated with resistance to neoadjuvant chemoradiation therapy in rectal cancer.
Ann. Surg.
PUBLISHED: 08-26-2011
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To identify a biomarker profile associated with tumor response to chemoradiation (CRT) in locally advanced rectal cancer.
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Preparative separation and purification of rebaudioside a from steviol glycosides using mixed-mode macroporous adsorption resins.
J. Agric. Food Chem.
PUBLISHED: 08-09-2011
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Preparative separation and purification of rebaudioside A from steviol glycosides using mixed-mode macroporous adsorption resins (MARs) were systematically investigated. Mixed-mode MARs were prepared by a physical blending method. By evaluation of the adsorption/desorption ratio and adsorption/desorption capacity of mixed-mode MARs with different proportions toward RA and ST, the mixed-mode MAR 18 was chosen as the optimum strategy. On the basis of the static tests, it was found that the experimental data fitted best to the pseudosecond-order kinetics and Temkin-Pyzhev isotherm. Furthermore, the dynamic adsorption/desorption experiments were performed on the mini column packed with mixed-mode MAR 18. After one run treatment, the purity of rebaudioside A in purified product increased from 40.77 to 60.53%, with a yield rate of 38.73% (W/W), and that in residual product decreased from 40.77 to 36.17%, with a recovery yield of 57.61% (W/W). The total recovery yield reached 96.34% (W/W). The results showed that this method could be utilized in large-scale production of rebaudioside A from steviol glycosides in industry.
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New way to analyze the adsorption behavior of flavonoids on macroporous adsorption resins functionalized with chloromethyl and amino groups.
Langmuir
PUBLISHED: 06-29-2011
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A series of macroporous adsorption resins (MARs) with novel structure were synthesized on the basis of the Friedel-Crafts catalyzed and amination reaction. Adsorption feature of the synthetic resins with respect to the purification effect were investigated systemically by employing rutin as the adsorbate. Different from traditional adsorption patterns, the results showed interesting conclusions: (1) With the increase in the temperature of the experiment, the adsorption capacity increased gradually; with the increase in the concentration of the initial solution, the adsorption capacity increased to the maximum and then decreased gradually. (2) The classical models that the inductive effect transmitted to the first layer and the adsorption process contained in one compartment could not explain our experimental results reasonably. Thus, a new adsorption isotherm model that the inductive effect passed on to a higher layer and a new adsorption kinetics model in which the adsorption process contained more compartments were created according to the multiparameter theory and Karickhoffs theory by investigating the regression of the experimental results. The conclusion that the inductive effect passed to the fourth layer and the adsorption process contained four compartments was drawn.
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Chromosomal copy number alterations are associated with tumor response to chemoradiation in locally advanced rectal cancer.
Genes Chromosomes Cancer
PUBLISHED: 03-02-2011
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Rectal cancer response to chemoradiation (CRT) varies from no response to a pathologic complete response (pCR). Identifying predictive biomarkers of response would therefore be useful. We assessed whether chromosomal copy number alterations (CNAs) can assist in predicting pCR. Pretreatment tumor biopsies and paired normal surgical tissues from the proximal resection margin were collected from 95 rectal cancer patients treated with preoperative CRT and total mesorectal excision in a prospective Phase II study. Tumor and control DNA were extracted, and oligonucleotide array-based comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) was used to identify CNAs, which were correlated with pCR. Ingenuity pathway analysis (IPA) was then used to identify functionally relevant genes in aberrant regions. Finally, a predictive model for pCR was built using support vector machine (SVM), and leave-one-out cross validation assessed the accuracy of aCGH. Chromosomal regions most commonly affected by gains were 20q11.21-q13.33, 13q11.32-23, 7p22.3-p22.2, and 8q23.3-q24.3, and losses were present at 18q11.32-q23, 17p13.3-q11.1, 10q23.1, and 4q32.1-q32.3. The 25 (26%) patients who achieved a pCR had significantly fewer high copy gains overall than non-pCR patients (P = 0.01). Loss of chromosomal region 15q11.1-q26.3 was significantly associated with non-pCR (P < 0.00002; Q-bound < 0.0391), while loss of 12p13.31 was significantly associated with pCR (P < 0.0003; Q-bound < 0.097). IPA identified eight genes in the imbalanced chromosomal regions that associated with tumor response. SVM identified 58 probes that predict pCR with 76% sensitivity, 97% specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of 91% and 92%. Our data indicate that chromosomal CNAs can help identify rectal cancer patients more likely to develop a pCR to CRT.
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An integrated physical and biological model for anaerobic lagoons.
Bioresour. Technol.
PUBLISHED: 01-24-2011
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A computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model that integrates physical and biological processes for anaerobic lagoons is presented. In the model development, turbulence is represented using a transition k-? model, heat conduction and solar radiation are included in the thermal model, biological oxygen demand (BOD) reduction is characterized by first-order kinetics, and methane yield rate is expressed as a linear function of temperature. A test of the model applicability is conducted in a covered lagoon digester operated under tropical climate conditions. The commercial CFD software, ANSYS-Fluent, is employed to solve the integrated model. The simulation procedures include solving fluid flow and heat transfer, predicting local resident time based on the converged flow fields, and calculating the BOD reduction and methane production. The simulated results show that monthly methane production varies insignificantly, but the time to achieve a 99% BOD reduction in January is much longer than that in July.
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Gene expression variations in microsatellite stable and unstable colon cancer cells.
J. Surg. Res.
PUBLISHED: 01-08-2011
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Microsatellite instability (MSI) is a marker of chemoresistance, but it is associated with improved survival compared with microsatellite-stable (MSS) colon cancers. We hypothesized that MSI tumors overexpress chemoresistance-associated genes and underexpress DNA damage/repair genes. We used ultra high-throughput sequencing (UHTS) to assess the expression of representative genes in MSI and MSS colon cancer cell lines.
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Molecular diagnosis of response to neoadjuvant chemoradiation therapy in patients with locally advanced rectal cancer.
J. Am. Coll. Surg.
PUBLISHED: 01-06-2011
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Pathologic complete response (pCR) to neoadjuvant chemoradiation (CRT) is an important prognostic factor in locally advanced rectal cancer. However, it is uncertain if histopathological techniques accurately detect pCR. We tested a novel molecular approach for detecting pCR and compared it with current histopathological approaches.
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Triamine-bonded stationary phase for open tubular capillary electrochromatography.
J Sep Sci
PUBLISHED: 09-09-2010
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A multi-functional separation column modified with 3-[2-(2-aminoethylamino)ethylamino] propyl-trimethoxysilane was developed for open tubular capillary electrochromatography. This functional hydrophilic triamine-bonded open tubular column could generate both anodic and cathodic EOF. When the pH of the running buffer was below 5.3 (30% 3-[2-(2-aminoethylamino)ethylamino] propyl-trimethoxysilane, v/v), the anodic EOF was exhibited, which greatly prevented the undesired adsorptions of basic proteins on the capillary inner wall. Favorable separation of four basic proteins (viz. trypsin, ribonuclease A, lysozyme and cytochrome c) was successfully achieved at pH 3.5 of 10 ?mmol/L phosphate buffer. The column efficiencies of proteins were in the range from 87,000 to 110,000? plates/m, and the RSD values for migration time of four proteins were less than 1.2% (run-to-run, n=5). The ionic analytes were also separated efficiently in the co-electroosmotic mode. The average efficiencies ranged from 81,000 to 190,000 ?plates/m for seven aromatic acids and 186,000-245,000 ?plates/m for four nucleoside monophosphates, respectively, and good capillary column repeatability was gained with RSD of the migration time not more than 3.0%. The triamine-bonded open tubular capillary column is favorable to be an alternative functional medium for the further analysis of basic proteins and anionic analytes.
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Study on the adsorption feature of rutin aqueous solution on macroporous adsorption resins.
J Phys Chem B
PUBLISHED: 03-26-2010
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The adsorption feature of different kinds of polystyrene-based macroporous adsorption resins (MARs) was investigated systemically at constant temperature employing Rutin as the adsorbate. Different from traditional adsorption patterns, Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption, and the results showed interesting aspects: (1) With the increase of the volume of the initial solution, the adsorption capacity increased to the maximum, and then decreased gradually. (2) Experimental results clearly verified the opinion that the adsorption process of MARs could be divided into three stages-macropores, mesopores, and micropores-by the capillary effects occurring at the two intersections, and the adsorption feature for every stage could be described well by the fourth type of Brunauer model. (3) The model that the inductive effect transmitted to the first layer could not interpret our experimental results reasonably. Thus, the model that the inductive effect passed on to a higher layer was proposed by investigating regression of the experimental results and the conclusion that the inductive effect transmitted to the third layer was drawn.
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Effect of vascular endothelial growth factor on remodeling of C6 glioma tissue in vivo.
J. Neurooncol.
PUBLISHED: 01-14-2010
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Pathological characteristics and biological behaviors of tumor are considered to result from pathological tissue remodeling regulated by the interaction of factors in the tumor microecosystem (TMES). Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is one of the factors that probably play an important role in the process of tissue remodeling. This study was a comprehensive investigation of the effects of VEGF on remodeling of glioma tissue in vivo. C6 cells with expression vectors containing sense (C6/VEGF+) or antisense (C6/VEGF-) VEGF(164) complementary DNA (cDNA) or an empty vector (C6/vec) were implanted into athymic mice, which served as an in vivo model with different levels of VEGF expression. VEGF expression, water content, and morphological characteristics of these tumor tissues were assayed. Expression of VEGF and water content in C6/VEGF- glioma (C6/VEGF-G) tissues were lower than in C6, C6/VEGF+, and C6/vec glioma (C6G, C6/VEGF+G, C6/vecG) (P < 0.01, P < 0.05); water content correlated with VEGF expression (r = 0.791, P = 0.000). In C6/VEGF-G, tumor cells were not tightly adhered to vascular walls, and the basal lamina surrounded by collagen fibers was monolayer and not continuous. However, in C6G, C6/VEGF+G, and C6/vecG, tumor cells were very close to the vascular walls, with some extending their processes to the wall. Generally, loose basal laminae surrounded by small amounts of collagen fibers were multilayer, integrated, and continuous. Vesicular vacuolar organelle (VVO) structures were observed in plasma of vascular endothelial cells (VECs), and significant correlation was found between VEGF expression level and VVO density (Spearmans r = 0.642, P = 0.007). No correlation was found between VEGF expression and fenestrae formation in VECs (Pearsons correlation r = -0.053, P = 0.846), and fenestrae in neither VECs nor intercellular clefts correlated with water content of tumor tissue (Pearsons correlation r = 0.018, P = 0.947). These results demonstrate that VEGF can aggravate edema in tumor tissues by increasing VVOs and plays critical roles in the stickiness of tumor cells to vessel wall and in the integrity and continuity of the basal lamina of vessels. Our data indicate a possible mechanism of remodeling of glioma tissue and suggest that blocking VEGF might contribute to a therapeutic strategy for glioma.
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Skeletal muscle-derived stem cells exhibit cardiocyte competences.
J. Huazhong Univ. Sci. Technol. Med. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 12-29-2009
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Adult stem cells from skeletal muscle cells were induced to differentiate into cardiocytes to see if stem cells from another different but histologically-comparable tissues can differentiate to the target cells. Skeletal muscles-derived stem cells (MDSCs) were isolated from adult skeleton muscle tissues by differential adhesion, and immunocytochemically identified by using Sca-1. In order to induce the proliferation but not differentiation of MDSCs, the cells were cultured in Dulbeccos modified Eagles medium/F12 (DMEM/F12) supplemented with 1:50 B27, 20 ng/mL basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), 20 ng/mL epidermal growth factor (EGF) in a suspension for 6 days. Then these stem cells were treated with 5 mumol/L 5-azacytidine for 24 h in an adherence culture. The characteristics of induced cells were examined by immunocytochemistry, quantitative real time RT-PCR and morphological observation of cell phenotype. Our results showed that the appearance of some cells gradually changed from spindle-shape into polygonal or short-column-shape. Some of these post-treated cells could contract spontaneously and rhythmically. The expression of GATA-4 and cTnT was increased 1 and 2 week(s) after the treatment. And about 16.6% of post-treated cells were cTnT-positive. Therefore, we are led to conclude that skeletal muscle-derived stem cells could differentiate into cardiocyte-like cells, which exhibited some characteristics of cardiocytes.
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Analysis of cancer mutation signatures in blood by a novel ultra-sensitive assay: monitoring of therapy or recurrence in non-metastatic breast cancer.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 04-20-2009
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Tumor DNA has been shown to be present both in circulating tumor cells in blood and as fragments in the plasma of metastatic cancer patients. The identification of ultra-rare tumor-specific mutations in blood would be the ultimate marker to measure efficacy of cancer therapy and/or early recurrence. Herein we present a method for detecting microinsertions/deletions/indels (MIDIs) at ultra-high analytical selectivity. MIDIs comprise about 15% of mutations.
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Gene polymorphisms predict toxicity to neoadjuvant therapy in patients with rectal cancer.
Cancer
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Toxicity from neoadjuvant chemoradiation therapy (NT) increases morbidity and limits therapeutic efficacy in patients with rectal cancer. The objective of this study was to determine whether specific polymorphisms in genes associated with rectal cancer response to NT were correlated with NT-related toxicity.
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Chromosomal copy number alterations are associated with persistent lymph node metastasis after chemoradiation in locally advanced rectal cancer.
Dis. Colon Rectum
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Lymph node metastasis is an important indicator of oncologic outcome for patients with rectal cancer. Identifying predictive biomarkers of lymph node metastasis could therefore be clinically useful.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.