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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Preparation of two-qubit steady entanglement through driving a single qubit.
Opt Lett
PUBLISHED: 11-01-2014
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Inspired by a recent paper [J. Phys. B47, 055502 (2014)10.1088/0953-4075/47/5/055502JPAPEH0953-4075], we propose a simplified scheme to generate and stabilize a Bell state of two qubits coupled to a resonator. In the scheme only one qubit is needed to be driven by external classical fields, and the entanglement dynamics is independent of the phases of these fields and insensitive to their amplitude fluctuations. This is a distinct advantage as compared with the previous ones that require each qubit to be addressed by well-controlled classical fields. Numerical simulation shows that the steady singlet state with high fidelity can be obtained with currently available techniques in circuit quantum electrodynamics.
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[Treatment of calcaneal fractures by fixation of Kirschner needle and thread cancellous bone screw through sinus tarsi interstice].
Zhongguo Gu Shang
PUBLISHED: 10-24-2014
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To explore the effect of fixation of Kirschner needle and thread cancellous bone screw through the sinus tarsi interstice for the treatment of calcaneal fractures.
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HSP70 promoter-driven activation of gene expression for immunotherapy using gold nanorods and near infrared light.
Vaccines (Basel)
PUBLISHED: 10-21-2014
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Modulation of the cytokine milieu is one approach for vaccine development. However, therapy with pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as IL-12, is limited in practice due to adverse systemic effects. Spatially-restricted gene expression circumvents this problem by enabling localized amplification. Intracellular co-delivery of gold nanorods (AuNR) and a heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) promoter-driven expression vector enables gene expression in response to near infrared (NIR) light. AuNRs absorb the light, convert it into heat and thereby stimulate photothermal expression of the cytokine. As proof-of-concept, human HeLa and murine B16 cancer cells were transfected with a HSP70-Enhanced Green Fluorescent Protein (EGFP) plasmid and polyethylenimine (PEI)-conjugated AuNRs. Exposure to either 42 °C heat-shock or NIR light induced significant expression of the reporter gene. In vivo NIR driven expression of the reporter gene was confirmed at 6 and 24 h in mice bearing B16 melanoma tumors using in vivo imaging and flow-cytometric analysis. Overall, we demonstrate a novel opportunity for site-directed, heat-inducible expression of a gene based upon the NIR-absorbing properties of AuNRs and a HSP70 promoter-driven expression vector.
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Inhibitory effect of reinioside C on vascular smooth muscle cells proliferation induced by angiotensin II via inhibiting NADPH oxidase-ROS-ENK1/2-NF-kappaB-AP-1 pathway.
Pharmazie
PUBLISHED: 10-03-2014
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The proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) induced by angiotensin II (Ang II) plays a vital role in the pathogenesis of arteriosclerosis and restenosis. In the present study, the effect of reinioside C, a main active ingredient of Polygala fallax Hemsl, on proliferation of VSMCs induced by Ang II was investigated. It was found that Ang II (1 microM) markedly stimulated proliferation of VSMCs. Pretreatment of reinioside C (3, 10 or 30 microM) concentration-dependently inhibited the proliferative effect of Ang II. To determine the possible mechanism, NADPH oxidase subunits (Nox-1, Nox-4) mRNA expression, intracellular ROS level, phosphorylation of ERK1/2, NF-kappaB activity, and mRNA expression of AP-1 subunits (c-fos, c-jun) and c-myc were measured. The results demonstrated that reinioside C attenuated Ang II-induced NADPH oxidase mRNA expression, generation of ROS, ERK1/2 phosphorylation, activation of NF-kappaB, and mRNA expression of AP-1 and c-myc in VSMCs in a concentration-dependent manner. The effects of Ang II were also inhibited by diphenyleneiodonium (DPI, the NADPH oxidase inhibitor), PD98059 (the ERK1/2 inhibitor) and pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC, the NF-kappaB inhibitor). These results suggest reinioside C attenuates Ang II-induced proliferation of VSMCs by inhibiting NADPH oxidase-ROS-ERK1/2-NF-kappaB-AP-1 pathway.
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Mechanical stress is a pro-inflammatory stimulus in the gut: in vitro, in vivo and ex vivo evidence.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 09-02-2014
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Inflammatory infiltrates and pro-inflammatory mediators are found increased in obstructive and functional bowel disorders, in which lumen distention is present. However, what caused the low level inflammation is not well known. We tested the hypothesis that lumen distention- associated mechanical stress may induce expression of specific inflammatory mediators in gut smooth muscle.
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Experimental observation of lateral emission in freestanding GaN-based membrane devices.
Opt Lett
PUBLISHED: 08-15-2014
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This Letter describes a double-sided process to fabricate freestanding membrane devices on a GaN-on-silicon platform. The photoluminescence measurement is taken to characterize the optical performance. A large portion of the excited light from InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells is trapped as waveguide modes and propagates in different directions. Experimental results show that the propagation direction of the waveguide mode can be converted into the direction normal to the surface at the edge of a freestanding membrane, and the emitted light is attenuated due to light propagation loss before it gets out from the edge. Subwavelength grating can also convert waveguide modes into air modes on a freestanding membrane. These results suggest that the emission efficiency can be greatly improved by employing more efficient light extraction methods and that GaN-based photonic waveguides are promising in the visible range.
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Alteration of lipid profile in subclinical hypothyroidism: a meta-analysis.
Med. Sci. Monit.
PUBLISHED: 08-14-2014
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Previous studies yielded controversial results about the alteration of lipid profiles in patients with subclinical hypothyroidism. We performed a meta-analysis to investigate the association between subclinical hypothyroidism and lipid profiles.
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Involvement of Anandamide Transporter in Calcitonin Gene-related Peptide Expression Stimulated by Nitroglycerin and Influence of ALDH2 Glu504Lys Polymorphism.
J. Cardiovasc. Pharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 08-08-2014
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: The aim of this study was to investigate whether N-arachidonic acid ethanolamine (anandamide, AEA) transporter contributed to calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) expression mediated by nitroglycerin (GTN) in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of healthy volunteers and its association with the mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase-2 (ALDH2) Glu504Lys (ALDH2*2) polymorphism. In 10 ALDH2*2-genotyped Chinese volunteers, we assessed the activity of AEA transporter and expression of CGRP messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) in cultured PBMCs treated with different concentration of GTN with or without pretreatment with AM404 (the AEA transporter blocker). In this study, the activity of AEA transporter and expression of CGRP mRNA elevated with the increase in the concentration of GTN. Pretreatment of the cells with AM404 (1 ?M) 2 hours before GTN reduced the GTN-induced increase in both AEA transporter activity and CGRP mRNA expression significantly, and cells with the ALDH2*1/*1 homozygote genotype showed significantly higher activity of AEA transporter and CGRP mRNA expression than carriers of the ALDH2*2 allele. Therefore, we strongly suggested that GTN can stimulate CGRP expression by elevating the AEA transporter activity, which is affected by ALDH2 Glu504Lys polymorphism.
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Half-quadratic-based iterative minimization for robust sparse representation.
IEEE Trans Pattern Anal Mach Intell
PUBLISHED: 08-06-2014
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Robust sparse representation has shown significant potential in solving challenging problems in computer vision such as biometrics and visual surveillance. Although several robust sparse models have been proposed and promising results have been obtained, they are either for error correction or for error detection, and learning a general framework that systematically unifies these two aspects and explores their relation is still an open problem. In this paper, we develop a half-quadratic (HQ) framework to solve the robust sparse representation problem. By defining different kinds of half-quadratic functions, the proposed HQ framework is applicable to performing both error correction and error detection. More specifically, by using the additive form of HQ, we propose an ?1-regularized error correction method by iteratively recovering corrupted data from errors incurred by noises and outliers; by using the multiplicative form of HQ, we propose an ?1-regularized error detection method by learning from uncorrupted data iteratively. We also show that the ?1-regularization solved by soft-thresholding function has a dual relationship to Huber M-estimator, which theoretically guarantees the performance of robust sparse representation in terms of M-estimation. Experiments on robust face recognition under severe occlusion and corruption validate our framework and findings.
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[Effect of diets with different fat levels on the body size and development of Lucilia sericata].
Zhongguo Ji Sheng Chong Xue Yu Ji Sheng Chong Bing Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 07-29-2014
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To observe the effect of diets with different fat levels on the body size and development of Lucilia sericata.
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Alcoholic liver disease. Are there any differences between China and Western countries in clinical features?
Saudi Med J
PUBLISHED: 07-17-2014
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To investigate the clinical features of alcoholic liver disease (ALD) in hospitalized Chinese patients, and their differences compared with western countries.
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Efficacy of auriculotherapy for constipation in adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.
J Altern Complement Med
PUBLISHED: 07-14-2014
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To assess the clinical evidence of auriculotherapy for constipation treatment and to identify the efficacy of groups using Semen vaccariae or magnetic pellets as taped objects in managing constipation.
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Single-step implementation of a multiple-target-qubit controlled phase gate without need of classical pulses.
Opt Lett
PUBLISHED: 05-31-2014
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We propose a simple method for achieving a multiqubit phase gate of one qubit simultaneously controlling n target qubits, by using three-level quantum systems (i.e., qutrits) coupled to a cavity or resonator. The gate can be realized via one operational step, without need of classical pulses, and by a virtual photon process. Thus, the gate operation is greatly simplified and decoherence from the cavity decay is much reduced, when compared with previous proposals. In addition, the operation time is independent of the number of qubits and no adjustment of the qutrit level spacings or the cavity frequency is needed during the operation.
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Triterpenoids and ?-glucosidase inhibitory constituents from Salacia hainanensis.
Fitoterapia
PUBLISHED: 05-26-2014
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Thirteen triterpenoids (1-13), including two new lupane triterpenoids, salacinins A and B (1 and 2), as well as one new friedelane triterpenoid, salacinin C (3), were isolated from the roots and stems of Salacia hainanensis. The structures of new compounds were elucidated by extensive spectroscopic analysis including 1D and 2D NMR, and MS experiments. Compound 1 possesses rare 2,3-seco-lupane skeleton. Compounds 4, 6 and 7 showed inhibitory effects on ?-glucosidase in vitro.
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[Impact of wind-water alternate erosion on the characteristics of sediment particles].
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 05-17-2014
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Wind and water are the two dominant erosion agents that caused soil and water losses in the wind-water alternate erosion region on the Loess Plateau. It is meaningful to study the impact of wind-water alternate erosion on the characteristics of soil particles for understanding the response of soil quality and environment to erosion. Through wind tunnel combined rainfall simulation, this paper studied the characteristics of the erosive sediment particles under the effect of wind-water alternate erosion. The results showed that the particles of 0-1 cm soil were coarsened by wind erosion at the wind speeds of 11 and 14 m x s(-1) compared with no wind erosion. Soil fine particles (< 0.01 mm) decreased by 9.8%-10.8%, and coarse particles (> 0.05 mm) increased by 16.8%-20.8%. The physical property of surface soil was changed by the wind erosion, which, in turn, caused an increase in finer particles content in the sediment. Compared with no wind erosion, fine particles (< 0.01 mm) in sediment under the water-wind alternate erosion increased by 2.7%-18.9% , and coarse particles (> 0.05 mm) decreased by 3.7%-9.3%. However, the changing trend of erosive sediment particles after the wind erosion at wind speeds of 11 and 14 m x s(-1) was different along with the rainfall intensity and duration. The erosive sediment particles at the rainfall intensities of 60, 80, 100 mm x h(-1) changed to greater extents than at the 150 mm x h(-1) rainfall intensity with longer than 15 min runoff flowing.
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Association of the AGXT2 V140I Polymorphism with Risk for Coronary Heart Disease in a Chinese Population.
J. Atheroscler. Thromb.
PUBLISHED: 05-16-2014
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Asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) is a nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitor that decreases NO production and promotes the development of cardiovascular diseases. Alanine-glyoxylate aminotransferase 2 (AGXT2) plays an important role in ADMA metabolism. This study was designed to explore the association of the AGXT2 V140I (rs37369 G?A) polymorphism with risk for coronary heart disease (CHD) in a Chinese population.
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Role of the texture features of images in the diagnosis of solitary pulmonary nodules in different sizes.
Chin. J. Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 05-10-2014
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To explore the role of the texture features of images in the diagnosis of solitary pulmonary nodules (SPNs) in different sizes.
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Size of solitary pulmonary nodule was the risk factor of malignancy.
J Thorac Dis
PUBLISHED: 04-12-2014
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The purpose of this study was to analyze the role of the sizes of solitary pulmonary nodules (SPNs) in predicting their potential malignancies.
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In silico identification of novel kinase inhibitors targeting wild-type and T315I mutant ABL1 from FDA-approved drugs.
Mol Biosyst
PUBLISHED: 04-01-2014
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The constitutively active fusion protein BCR-ABL1 is the major cause of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), and selective inhibition of ABL1 is a promising approach for the treatment of CML. Reported drugs worked well in clinical practice, such as imatinib, dasatinib, nilotinib and bosutinib. However, resistance arises due to ABL1 mutation in patients, especially the T315I gate-keeper mutation. Thus, wide spectrum drugs targeting ABL1 are urgently needed. In order to screen potential drugs targeting wild-type ABL1 and T315I mutant ABL1, 1408 FDA approved small molecule drugs were subjected to molecular docking. With subsequent molecular dynamic (MD) simulation and MM/GBSA binding free energy calculation and energy decomposition, we identified chlorhexidine and sorafenib as potential "new use" drugs targeting wild-type ABL1, while nicergoline and plerixafor targeted T315I ABL1. Meanwhile, we also found that residues located in the ATP-binding site and A-loop motif played key roles in drug discovery towards ABL1. These findings may not only serve as a paradigm for the repositioning of existing approved drugs, but also instill new vitality to ABL1-targeted anti-CML therapeutics.
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Regulation of endothelial progenitor cell differentiation and function by dimethylarginine dimethylaminohydrolase 2 in an asymmetric dimethylarginine-independent manner.
Cell Biol. Int.
PUBLISHED: 03-20-2014
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Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) are involved in the repair of vessels and angiogenesis and are useful in the treatment of ischemic diseases. The dimethylarginine dimethylaminohydrolase (DDAH)/asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) pathway is regulated by silent information regulator 1 (SIRT1), leading to the senescence of endothelial cells (ECs). Here, we demonstrated that peripheral blood EPCs predominantly expressed DDAH2 that increased with EPC differentiation. EPC senescence and dysfunction were induced on interruption of DDAH2 expression, whereas the mRNA expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and kinase-domain insert containing receptor (KDR) were downregulated. Moreover, SIRT1 expression increased with EPC differentiation. Interruption of SIRT1 inhibited DDAH2, VEGF, and KDR expression, but had no effect on the level of ADMA. From our data, we concluded that DDAH2 is involved in the differentiation of EPCs and regulates the senescence and function of EPCs through the VEGF/KDR pathway by activation of SIRT1.
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Silencing the expression of Cbl-b enhances the immune activation of T lymphocytes against RM-1 prostate cancer cells in vitro.
J Chin Med Assoc
PUBLISHED: 03-18-2014
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The ubiquitin ligase Cbl-b potently modulates T lymphocyte immune responses and is critical in modulating tumor-induced immunosuppression. The influence of Cbl-b in modulating T lymphocyte activity against prostate cancer remains ill defined. We have determined the effects of silencing Cbl-b expression in T lymphocytes and their subsequent cytotoxic activity against prostate cancer cells.
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Oxytocin decreases colonic motility of cold water stressed rats via oxytocin receptors.
World J. Gastroenterol.
PUBLISHED: 03-13-2014
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To investigate whether cold water intake into the stomach affects colonic motility and the involvement of the oxytocin-oxytocin receptor pathway in rats.
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A preliminary analysis of association between the down-regulation of microRNA-181b expression and symptomatology improvement in schizophrenia patients before and after antipsychotic treatment.
J Psychiatr Res
PUBLISHED: 03-11-2014
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Despite the growing evidences on the relation of altered expression of miRNAs and schizophrenia, most schizophrenia subjects have an extensive antipsychotic treatment history and the pharmacological effects on miRNA expression are largely unknown. This study aimed to investigate the change of plasma microRNA-181b level and improvement of symptomatology before and after six-week antipsychotic treatment in schizophrenia patients, and explore their association. A total of 20 schizophrenia patients absent of antipsychotics and 20 age-and gender-matched normal controls were enrolled, and tested for 9 schizophrenia-associated microRNA (miR-30e, miR-34a, miR-181b, miR-195, miR-346, miR-432, miR-7, miR-132 and miR-212) expression levels in plasma using quantitative RT-PCR and for symptomatology improvement using Positive And Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) before and after treatment (olanzapine, quetiapine, ziprasidone and risperidone) for the patients only. Compared with the normal control group, the expression levels of miRNA-181b, miRNA-30e, miRNA-34a and miRNA-7 of the patients group were significantly higher (p < 0.05). Compared with those before treatment in the patient group, the symptomatology scores were significantly lower (p < 0.001), and the expression level of microRNA-181b was significantly down-regulated after treatment (p < 0.05). The change of miRNA-181b expression was positively correlated with the improvement of negative symptoms and lack of response symptoms (r = 0.502 and 0.557, P < 0.05, accounting for 20.2% and 26.4% respectively), and their therapeutic effects with OR being 11.283 and 5.119 respectively. We conclude that miRNA-181b, miRNA-30e, miRNA-34a and miRNA-7 are probably involved in pathogenesis of SZ, and the significant down-regulation of miRNA-181b expression predicts improvement of negative symptoms to treatment, and thus can serve as a potential plasmamolecular marker for antipsychotic responses.
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Synthesis, physiochemical characterization, and biocompatibility of a chitosan/dextran-based hydrogel for postsurgical adhesion prevention.
J Mater Sci Mater Med
PUBLISHED: 03-03-2014
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An amine-functionalized succinyl chitosan and an oxidized dextran were synthesized and mixed in aqueous solution to form an in situ chitosan/dextran injectable, surgical hydrogel for adhesion prevention. Rheological characterization showed that the rate of gelation and moduli were tunable based on amine and aldehyde levels, as well as polymer concentrations. The CD hydrogels have been shown to be effective post-operative aids in prevention of adhesions in ear, nose, and throat surgeries and abdominal surgeries in vivo. In vitro biocompatibility testing was performed on CD hydrogels containing one of two oxidized dextrans, an 80 % oxidized (CD-100) or 25 % (CD-25) oxidized dextran. However, the CD-100 hydrogel showed moderate cytotoxicity in vitro to Vero cells. SC component of the CD hydrogel, however, showed no cytotoxic effect. In order to increase the biocompatibility of the hydrogel, a lower aldehyde level hydrogel was developed. CD-25 was found to be non-cytotoxic to L929 fibroblasts. The in vivo pro-inflammatory response of the CD-25 hydrogel, after intraperitoneal injection in BALB/c mice, was also determined by measuring serum TNF-? levels and by histological analysis of tissues. TNF-? levels were similar in mice injected with CD-25 hydrogel as compared to the negative saline injected control; and were significantly different (P < 0.05) as compared to the positive, lipopolysaccharide, injected control. Histological examination revealed no inflammation seen in CD hydrogel injected mice. The results of these in vitro and in vivo studies demonstrate the biocompatibility of the CD hydrogel as a post-operative aid for adhesion prevention.
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Oleanolic acid and ursolic acid inhibit proliferation in transformed rat hepatic oval cells.
World J. Gastroenterol.
PUBLISHED: 02-28-2014
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To investigate H2O2-induced promotion proliferation and malignant transformation in WB-F344 cells and anti-tumor effects of ursolic acid (UA) and oleanolic acid (OA).
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Surface-normal emission from subwavelength GaN membrane grating.
Opt Express
PUBLISHED: 02-12-2014
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We present here the fabrication of subwavelength GaN membrane grating with a double-side process. Controllable GaN membrane thickness is achieved by backside thinning technique, which is essential to realize guided-mode resonant GaN grating in the visible range. Subwavelength GaN grating can serve as an optical resonator and accommodate surface-normal emission coupling. The measured photoluminescence (PL) spectra are sensitive to the parameters and shapes of GaN gratings. Both numerical simulation and reflectivity measurement are in consistent with the PL experimental results. This work opens a promising way to embed GaN-based photon emitter inside subwavelength grating to further produce a surface emitting device with a single layer GaN grating.
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Optical diagnosis of gallbladder cancers via two-photon excited fluorescence imaging of unstained histological sections.
Lasers Med Sci
PUBLISHED: 02-09-2014
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Two-photon excited fluorescence (TPEF) microscopy, based on signal from cells, can provide detailed information on tissue architecture and cellular morphology in unstained histological sections to generate subcellular-resolution images from tissue directly. In this paper, we used TPEF microscopy to image microstructure of human normal gallbladder and three types of differentiated carcinomas in order to investigate the morphological changes of tissue structure, cell, cytoplasm, and nucleus without hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining. It displayed that TPEF microscopy can well image the stratified normal gallbladder tissue, including the mucosa, the muscularis, and the serosa. The typical cancer cell, characterized by cellular and nuclear pleomorphism, enlarged nuclei, and augmented nucleolus, can be identified in histological sections without H-E staining as well. The quantitative results showed that the areas of the nucleus and the nucleolus in three types of cancerous cells were all significantly greater than those in normal gallbladder columnar epithelial cells derived from TPEF microscopic images. The studies demonstrated that TPEF microscopy has the ability to characterize tissue structures and cell morphology of gallbladder cancers differentiated from a normal gallbladder in a manner similar to traditional histological analysis. As a novel tool, it has the potential for future retrospective studies of tumor staging and migration by utilizing histological section specimens without H-E staining.
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Association of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) gene polymorphism with lung cancer risk: a systematic review.
J. Recept. Signal Transduct. Res.
PUBLISHED: 02-04-2014
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Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is a member of the tyrosine kinase receptor family, which is thought to be involved in the development of cancer, as the EGFR gene is often amplified, and/or mutated in cancer cells. Lung cancer remains one of the most major causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide, accounting for more deaths than any other cancer cause. Gene polymorphism factor has been reported to be an important factor which increases the susceptibility of lung cancer. There lacks a well-documented diagnostic approach for the lung cancer risk, and the etiology of lung cancer is not clear. The current systematic review was performed to explore the association of EGFR gene polymorphism with lung cancer risk. In this review, association of EGFR 181946C?>?T, 8227G?>?A gene polymorphism with lung cancer was found, and EGFR Short genotype of cytosine adenine repeat number polymorphism was significantly associated with an increased risk of lung cancer.
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Mangiferin facilitates islet regeneration and ?-cell proliferation through upregulation of cell cycle and ?-cell regeneration regulators.
Int J Mol Sci
PUBLISHED: 01-16-2014
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Mangiferin, a xanthonoid found in plants including mangoes and iris unguicularis, was suggested in previous studies to have anti-hyperglycemic function, though the underlying mechanisms are largely unknown. This study was designed to determine the therapeutic effect of mangiferin by the regeneration of ?-cells in mice following 70% partial pancreatectomy (PPx), and to explore the mechanisms of mangiferin-induced ?-cell proliferation. For this purpose, adult C57BL/6J mice after 7-14 days post-PPx, or a sham operation were subjected to mangiferin (30 and 90 mg/kg body weight) or control solvent injection. Mangiferin-treated mice exhibited an improved glycemia and glucose tolerance, increased serum insulin levels, enhanced ?-cell hyperplasia, elevated ?-cell proliferation and reduced ?-cell apoptosis. Further dissection at the molecular level showed several key regulators of cell cycle, such as cyclin D1, D2 and cyclin-dependent kinase 4 (Cdk4) were significantly up-regulated in mangiferin-treated mice. In addition, critical genes related to ?-cell regeneration, such as pancreatic and duodenal homeobox 1 (PDX-1), neurogenin 3 (Ngn3), glucose transporter 2 (GLUT-2), Forkhead box protein O1 (Foxo-1), and glucokinase (GCK), were found to be promoted by mangiferin at both the mRNA and protein expression level. Thus, mangiferin administration markedly facilitates ?-cell proliferation and islet regeneration, likely by regulating essential genes in the cell cycle and the process of islet regeneration. These effects therefore suggest that mangiferin bears a therapeutic potential in preventing and/or treating the diabetes.
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Dynamics and instabilities of lipid bilayer membrane shapes.
Adv Colloid Interface Sci
PUBLISHED: 01-12-2014
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Biological membranes undergo constant shape remodeling involving the formation of highly curved structures. The lipid bilayer represents the fundamental architecture of the cellular membrane with its shapes determined by the Helfrich curvature bending energy. However, the dynamics of bilayer shape transitions, especially their modulation by membrane proteins, and the resulting shape instabilities, are still not well understood. Here, we review in a unifying manner several theories that describe the fluctuations (i.e. undulations) of bilayer shapes as well as their local coupling with lipid or protein density variation. The coupling between local membrane curvature and lipid density gives rise to a 'slipping mode' in addition to the conventional 'bending mode' for damping the membrane fluctuation. This leads to a number of interesting experimental phenomena regarding bilayer shape dynamics. More importantly, curvature-inducing proteins can couple with membrane shape and eventually render the membrane unstable. A criterion for membrane shape instability is derived from a linear stability analysis. The instability criterion reemphasizes the importance of membrane tension in regulating the stability and dynamics of membrane geometry. Recent progresses in understanding the role of membrane tension in regulating dynamical cellular processes are also reviewed. Protein density is emphasized as a key factor in regulating membrane shape transitions: a threshold density of curvature coupling proteins is required for inducing membrane morphology transitions.
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Fast and simple scheme for generating NOON states of photons in circuit QED.
Sci Rep
PUBLISHED: 01-10-2014
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The generation, manipulation and fundamental understanding of entanglement lies at very heart of quantum mechanics. Among various types of entangled states, the NOON states are a kind of special quantum entangled states with two orthogonal component states in maximal superposition, which have a wide range of potential applications in quantum communication and quantum information processing. Here, we propose a fast and simple scheme for generating NOON states of photons in two superconducting resonators by using a single superconducting transmon qutrit. Because only one superconducting qutrit and two resonators are used, the experimental setup for this scheme is much simplified when compared with the previous proposals requiring a setup of two superconducting qutrits and three cavities. In addition, this scheme is easier and faster to implement than the previous proposals, which require using a complex microwave pulse, or a small pulse Rabi frequency in order to avoid nonresonant transitions.
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Regulation of cell-matrix adhesion by OLA1, the Obg-like ATPase 1.
Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.
PUBLISHED: 01-08-2014
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Attachment of cells to the extracellular matrix induces clustering of membrane receptor integrins which in turn triggers the formation of focal adhesions (FAs). The adaptor/scaffold proteins in FAs provide linkage to actin cytoskeleton, whereas focal adhesion kinase (FAK) and other FA-associated kinases and phosphatases transduce integrin-mediated signaling cascades, promoting actin polymerization and progression of cell spreading. In this study, we explored the role of OLA1, a newly identified member of Obg-like ATPases, in regulating cell adhesion processes. We showed that in multiple human cell lines RNAi-mediated downregulation of OLA1 significantly accelerated cell adhesion and spreading, and conversely overexpression of OLA1 by gene transfection resulted in delayed cell adhesion and spreading. We further found that OLA1-deficient cells had elevated levels of FAK protein and decreased Ser3 phosphorylation of cofilin, an actin-binding protein and key regulator of actin filament dynamics, while OLA1-overexpressing cells exhibited the opposite molecular alterations in FAK and cofilin. These findings suggest that OLA1 plays an important negative role in cell adhesion and spreading, in part through the regulation of FAK expression and cofilin phosphorylation, and manipulation of OLA1 may lead to significant changes in cell adhesion and the associated phenotypes.
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Specific and sensitive tumor imaging using biostable oligonucleotide aptamer probes.
Theranostics
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Although several imaging modalities are widely used for tumor imaging, none are tumor type-specific. Different types of cancer exhibit differential therapeutic responses, thus necessitating development of an imaging modality able to detect various tumor types with high specificity. To illustrate this point, CD30-specific oligonucleotide aptamer in vivo imaging probes were conjugated to the near-infrared IRD800CW reporter. Mice bearing xenografted CD30-positive or control CD30-negative lymphoma tumors on contralateral sides of the same mouse were developed. Following a systemic administration of aptamer probes, whole body imaging of tumor-bearing mice was performed. Imaging signal from tumor sites was analyzed and imaging specificity confirmed by tissue immunostaining. The in vivo biodistribution of aptamer probes was also evaluated. Whole body scans revealed that the RNA-based aptamer probes selectively highlighted CD30-expressing lymphoma tumors immediately after systemic administration, but did not react with control tumors in the same mouse. The resultant imaging signal lasted up to 1 hr and the aptamer probes were rapidly eliminated from the body through urinary and lower intestinal tracts. For more sensitive imaging, biostable CD30-specific ssDNA-based aptamer probes were also generated. Systemic administration of these probes also selectively highlighted the CD30-positive lymphoma tumors, with imaging signal detected 4-5 folds higher than that derived from control tumors in the same animal, and lasted for up to 24hr. This study demonstrates that oligonucleotide aptamer probes can provide tumor type-specific imaging with high sensitivity and a long-lasting signal, indicating their potential for clinical applications.
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Molecular switch role of Akt in Polygonatum odoratum lectin-induced apoptosis and autophagy in human non-small cell lung cancer A549 cells.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Polygonatum odoratum lectin (POL), isolated from traditional Chinese medicine herb (Mill.) Druce, has drawn rising attention due to its wide biological activities. In the present study, anti-tumor effects, including apoptosis- and autophagy-inducing properties of POL, were determined by a series of cell biology methods such as MTT, cellular morphology observation, flow cytometry, immunoblotting. Herein, we found that POL could simultaneously induce apoptosis and autophagy in human non-small cell lung cancer A549 cells. POL initiated apoptosis through inhibiting Akt-NF-?B pathway, while POL triggered autophagy via suppressing Akt-mTOR pathway, suggesting the molecular switch role of Akt in regulating between POL-induced apoptosis and autophagy. Moreover, ROS was involved in POL-induced inhibition of Akt expression, and might therefore mediate both apoptosis and autophagy in A549 cells. In addition, POL displayed no significant cytotoxicity toward normal human embryonic lung fibroblast HELF cells. Due to the anti-tumor activities, POL might become a potent anti-cancer drug in future therapy, which might pave the way for exploring GNA-related lectins into effective drugs in cancer treatment.
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Mutations in BIN1 associated with centronuclear myopathy disrupt membrane remodeling by affecting protein density and oligomerization.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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The regulation of membrane shapes is central to many cellular phenomena. Bin/Amphiphysin/Rvs (BAR) domain-containing proteins are key players for membrane remodeling during endocytosis, cell migration, and endosomal sorting. BIN1, which contains an N-BAR domain, is assumed to be essential for biogenesis of plasma membrane invaginations (T-tubules) in muscle tissues. Three mutations, K35N, D151N and R154Q, have been discovered so far in the BAR domain of BIN1 in patients with centronuclear myopathy (CNM), where impaired organization of T-tubules has been reported. However, molecular mechanisms behind this malfunction have remained elusive. None of the BIN1 disease mutants displayed a significantly compromised curvature sensing ability. However, two mutants showed impaired membrane tubulation both in vivo and in vitro, and displayed characteristically different behaviors. R154Q generated smaller membrane curvature compared to WT N-BAR. Quantification of protein density on membranes revealed a lower membrane-bound density for R154Q compared to WT and the other mutants, which appeared to be the primary reason for the observation of impaired deformation capacity. The D151N mutant was unable to tubulate liposomes under certain experimental conditions. At medium protein concentrations we found 'budding' structures on liposomes that we hypothesized to be intermediates during the tubulation process except for the D151N mutant. Chemical crosslinking assays suggested that the D151N mutation impaired protein oligomerization upon membrane binding. Although we found an insignificant difference between WT and K35N N-BAR in in vitro assays, depolymerizing actin in live cells allowed tubulation of plasma membranes through the K35N mutant. Our results provide insights into the membrane-involved pathophysiological mechanisms leading to human disease.
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Premature graying as a consequence of compromised antioxidant activity in hair bulb melanocytes and their precursors.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Intricate coordinated mechanisms that govern the synchrony of hair growth and melanin synthesis remain largely unclear. These two events can be uncoupled in prematurely gray hair, probably due to oxidative insults that lead to the death of oxidative stress-sensitive melanocytes. In this study, we examined the gene expression profiles of middle (bulge) and lower (hair bulb) segments that had been micro-dissected from unpigmented and from normally pigmented hair follicles from the same donors using quantitative real-time RT-PCR (qPCR) arrays. We found a significant down-regulation of melanogenesis-related genes (TYR, TYRP1, MITF, PAX3, POMC) in unpigmented hair bulbs and of marker genes typical for melanocyte precursor cells (PAX3, SOX10, DCT) in unpigmented mid-segments compared with their pigmented analogues. qPCR, western blotting and spin trapping assays revealed that catalase protein expression and hydroxyl radical scavenging activities are strongly repressed in unpigmented hair follicles. These data provide the first clear evidence that compromised antioxidant activity in gray hair follicles simultaneously affects mature hair bulb melanocytes and their immature precursor cells in the bulge region.
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Inflammation induced by mast cell deficiency rather than the loss of interstitial cells of Cajal causes smooth muscle dysfunction in W/W(v) mice.
Front Physiol
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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The initial hypothesis suggested that the interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) played an essential role in mediating enteric neuronal input to smooth muscle cells. Much information for this hypothesis came from studies in W/W(v) mice lacking ICC. However, mast cells, which play critical roles in regulating inflammation in their microenvironment, are also absent in W/W(v) mice. We tested the hypothesis that the depletion of mast cells in W/W(v) mice generates inflammation in fundus muscularis externa (ME) that impairs smooth muscle reactivity to Ach, independent of the depletion of ICC. We performed experiments on the fundus ME from wild type (WT) and W/W(v) mice before and after reconstitution of mast cells by bone marrow transplant. We found that mast cell deficiency in W/W(v) mice significantly increased COX-2 and iNOS expression and decreased smooth muscle reactivity to Ach. Mast cell reconstitution or concurrent blockade of COX-2 and iNOS restored smooth muscle contractility without affecting the suppression of c-kit in W/W(v) mice. The expression of nNOS and ChAT were suppressed in W/W(v) mice; mast cell reconstitution did not restore them. We conclude that innate inflammation induced by mast cell deficiency in W/W(v) mice impairs smooth muscle contractility independent of ICC deficiency. The impairment of smooth muscle contractility and the suppression of the enzymes regulating the synthesis of Ach and NO in W/W(v) mice need to be considered in evaluating the role of ICC in regulating smooth muscle and enteric neuronal function in W/W(v) mice.
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[A study of HLA-DPA1 and DPB1 matching status for unrelated donor-recipient pairs matched at allele level for HLA-A, -B, -C, -DRB1 and -DQB1 loci].
Zhonghua Yi Xue Yi Chuan Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 12-12-2013
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To analyze the status of HLA-DPA1 and DPB1 matching for unrelated donor-recipient pairs matched at high-resolution allele level for HLA-A, B, C, DRB1 and DQB1 loci.
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Somatotopic reorganization of hand representation in bilateral arm amputees with or without special foot movement skill.
Brain Res.
PUBLISHED: 12-11-2013
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Bilateral arm amputees usually are excellent foot users. To explore the plasticity of the primary motor cortex in upper-extremities amputees and to determine if the acquisition of special foot movement skill is related with the bilateral hand amputation, we studied the primary motor cortex by using combined task and resting state functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI). We investigated 6 bilateral arm amputees with or without special foot movement skill. In the task fMRI study, we found that toe tapping of all the amputees activated the bilateral hand area, including cases without special foot skill. In addition, cases without special foot skill mainly activated the precentral gyrus, which differed from those with more adept foot motor skill who activated both the precentral and postcentral gyri. To further understand the plasticity of the hand area, the resting state functional connectivity was investigated between the foot and hand regions. One-tailed two-sample t-test suggested that the connections between two areas became significantly stronger in the amputee group. Our study demonstrates that hand region of the cortex does not remain silent after bilateral arm amputation, but rather is recruited by other modalities such as adjacent or nonadjacent cortexes to process motor information in a functionally relevant manner. From the data presented, it seems that the bilateral arm amputees have a strong potential to develop new skills in their remaining extremities and practice may further enhance this potential.
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[Electroacupuncture for post-stroke urinary incontinence: a multi-center randomized controlled study].
Zhongguo Zhen Jiu
PUBLISHED: 12-05-2013
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To evaluate the clinical efficacy of electroacupuncture(EA) for apoplectic urinary incontinence.
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Exploiting imperfections in the bulk to direct assembly of surface colloids.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
PUBLISHED: 11-04-2013
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We exploit the long-ranged elastic fields inherent to confined nematic liquid crystals (LCs) to assemble colloidal particles trapped at the LC interface into reconfigurable structures with complex symmetries and packings. Spherical colloids with homeotropic anchoring trapped at the interface between air and the nematic LC 4-cyano-4-pentylbiphenyl create quadrupolar distortions in the director field causing particles to repel and consequently form close-packed assemblies with a triangular habit. Here, we report on complex open structures organized via interactions with defects in the bulk. Specifically, by confining the nematic LC in an array of microposts with homeotropic anchoring conditions, we cause defect rings to form at well-defined locations in the bulk of the sample. These defects source elastic deformations that direct the assembly of the interfacially trapped colloids into ring-like assemblies, which recapitulate the defect geometry even when the microposts are completely immersed in the nematic. When the surface density of the colloids is high, they form a ring near the defect and a hexagonal lattice far from it. Because topographically complex substrates are easily fabricated and LC defects are readily reconfigured, this work lays the foundation for a versatile, robust mechanism to direct assembly dynamically over large areas by controlling surface anchoring and associated bulk defect structure.
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Consistent proportional increments in responses of belowground net primary productivity to long-term warming and clipping at various soil depths in a tallgrass prairie.
Oecologia
PUBLISHED: 10-14-2013
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Root distribution patterns in soil are critical to understanding the interactions between climate and vegetation. However, it is not clear how climate change and land use practices affect belowground net primary productivity (BNPP) at various soil depths. In order to explore the effects of warming and clipping on root-distribution patterns along soil profile (0-15, 15-30, and 30-45 cm), we conducted a field experiment from 2005 to 2010 in a tallgrass prairie. We used infrared heaters to elevate soil temperature by approximately 2 °C and annual clipping to mimic hay harvest. Results showed that roots were not evenly distributed through the soil profile. On average across treatments and years, 53 and 83 % of the BNPP to 45 cm was distributed in the top 15- and 30-cm soil layers, respectively. Warming- and clipping-induced increases in BNPP were distributed to different soil depths at the proportions similar to those of BNPP. The proportional distribution of BNPP at various soil depths to total BNPP (0-45 cm) was little affected by warming, clipping, and their interactions, resulting in non-significant changes in the distribution of BNPP through the soil profile. These findings suggest that the proportionally vertical distribution of BNPP may remain stable even when the amount of BNPP changes simultaneously in response to climate change and land use practices.
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Structural variation of bamboo lignin before and after ethanol organosolv pretreatment.
Int J Mol Sci
PUBLISHED: 09-18-2013
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In order to make better use of lignocellulosic biomass for the production of renewable fuels and chemicals, it is necessary to disrupt its recalcitrant structure through pretreatment. Specifically, organosolv pretreatment is a feasible method. The main advantage of this method compared to other lignocellulosic pretreatment technologies is the extraction of high-quality lignin for the production of value-added products. In this study, bamboo was treated in a batch reactor with 70% ethanol at 180 °C for 2 h. Lignin fractions were isolated from the hydrolysate by centrifugation and then precipitated as ethanol organosolv lignin. Two types of milled wood lignins (MWLs) were isolated from the raw bamboo and the organosolv pretreated residue separately. After the pretreatment, a decrease of lignin (preferentially guaiacyl unit), hemicelluloses and less ordered cellulose was detected in the bamboo material. It was confirmed that the bamboo MWL is of HGS type (p-hydroxyphenyl (H), vanillin (G), syringaldehyde (S)) associated with a considerable amount of p-coumarate and ferulic esters of lignin. The ethanol organosolv treatment was shown to remove significant amounts of lignin and hemicelluloses without strongly affecting lignin primary structure and its lignin functional groups.
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[Effects of acupuncture combined general anesthesia on endorphin and hemodynamics of laparoscopic cholecystectomy patients in the perioperative phase].
Zhongguo Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 08-29-2013
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To observe the effects of different anesthesia ways on endorphin and hemodynamics of laparoscopic cholecystectomy patients in the perioperative phase.
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Visible-light activatable organic CO-releasing molecules (PhotoCORMs) that simultaneously generate fluorophores.
Org. Biomol. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 08-13-2013
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Novel organic photoCORMs based on micelle-encapsulated unsaturated cyclic ?-diketones were designed and synthesized. These photoCORMs can be activated by visible light, have potentially low toxicity, allow the delivery of carbon monoxide to be monitored by fluorescence imaging techniques, and thus are useful tools for the study of the biological function of CO.
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The relationship between plasma D-dimer levels and outcome of Chinese acute ischemic stroke patients in different stroke subtypes.
J Neural Transm
PUBLISHED: 08-07-2013
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High-level plasma D-dimer suggests hypercoagulable states. There is a lack of correlation study of plasma D-dimer level and prognosis according to the Trial of Org 10172 in Acute Stroke Treatment (TOAST) classification. The goal of this study is to explore the relationship between the plasma D-dimer level and the outcome of acute ischemic stroke patients among different stroke subtypes. We conducted a study of acute ischemic stroke patients admitted to the Department of Neurology in Second Hospital of Lanzhou University within 7 days of symptom onset. They were divided into different groups based on their subtypes according to TOAST criteria. In all the patients the plasma D-dimer levels were detected within 24 h of admission. Clinical neurological assessments were performed in line with National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) once daily on the day of admission and on the 14th day. The outcome was evaluated by neurological improvement rate. Comparisons were made among the different subtypes based on the level of plasma D-dimer and the outcome. A total of 300 patients with acute ischemic stroke were included, 40 with cardioembolism; 47 with large-artery atherosclerosis; 143 with small-artery occlusion, 5 with other etiology stroke; and 65 with undetermined etiology stroke. The level of plasma D-dimer was negatively related to the outcome (r = -0.41; P = 0.013). Patients with cardioembolism had the highest level of plasma D-dimer and they suffered the most serious neurological deficit and the worst outcome among the five subtypes, the difference was statistically significant (F = 5.34; P = 0.012); while the lacunar stroke patients had the best outcome with the lowest level of D-dimer. High-level plasma D-dimer of acute period strongly indicates an unfavorable clinical outcome.
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The effect of quercetin on doxorubicin cytotoxicity in human breast cancer cells.
Anticancer Agents Med Chem
PUBLISHED: 08-06-2013
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Multidrug resistance has became the major obstacle to cancer chemotherapy. Recent studies suggest that quercetin could enhance the response of tumors to chemotherapy although the mechanism by which quercetin enhances the sensitivity of tumor cells to chemical drugs remains elusive. Therefore, in this study, we examined the effects of quercetin on doxorubicin cytotoxicity in human breast cancer cells and investigated the underlying mechanisms. MCF-7 and MCF-7/ dox cells were exposed to doxorubicin, quercetin, or combination of both agents for 36 hours. Cell proliferation, cell invasion, intracellular doxorubicin concentration and expression of hypoxia-inducible factor-1 alpha (HIF-1?) and P-glycoprotein (P-gp) were then assessed. Quercetin had little effect on cell proliferation at concentrations less than 0.7 ?M. Compared to treatment with doxorubicin alone, combined treatment with doxorubicin and quercetin (0.7 ?M) significantly inhibited cell proliferation and invasion and suppressed the expression of HIF-1? and P-gp. Quercetin (0.7 ?M) increased the intracellular doxorubicin concentration and enhanced doxorubicin cytotoxicity as 1.49-fold in MCF-7 cells and 1.98-fold in MCF-7/dox cells. These data suggest that quercetin can increase the chemosensitivity of breast cancer cells to doxorubicin.
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Development of a simple LC-MS/MS method for the determination of febuxostat in human plasma and its application to a bioequivalence study.
Pharmazie
PUBLISHED: 07-24-2013
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The purpose of this study was to design a simple, sensitive and rapid liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method for a febuxostat bioequivalence study in healthy Chinese male volunteers. In this method, febuxostat and etodolac (internal standard) were isolated from plasma samples by protein precipitation with acetonitrile. The supernatant was chromatographed on a Zorbax SB-C18 (150 x 3.0 mm, 3.5-microm particle size, Agilent) column with a SecurityGuard Inertsil Symmetry C18 column (12.5 x 4.6 mm, 5-microm particle size, Waters). The lower limit of quantification for febuxostat in 0.2 mL of human plasma was 13.40 ng x mL(-1), and the linearity was achieved over a concentration range from 13.40 to 21440 ng x mL(-1). Febuxostat tablets from Hengrui Medicine Co., Ltd (test, Jiangsu, China) and from Takeda pharmaceuticals america, Inc. (reference, Deerfield, IL) were evaluated following a single 80 mg oral dose to 18 healthy volunteers. Bioequivalence was determined by calculating 90% confidence intervals (90% CI) for the ratio of C(max), AUC(0-t), and AUC(0-infinity) values for the test and reference products, using logarithmic transformed data. The calculated 90% CIs for the ratio of C(max) (88.7-131.2%), AUC(0-t) (99.2-122.7%) and AUC(0-infinity) (99.5-123.1%) values for the test and reference products were all located within the bioequivalence criteria range (80-125% for AUC, and 70-143% for Ca(mzax)), proposed by State of Food and Drug Administration [SFDA, 2005. China]. It was concluded that the two febuxostat formulations (test and reference) analyzed were bioequivalent in terms of rate and extent of absorption and the method met the principle of quick and easy clinical analysis.
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Antitumor effects of concanavalin A and Sophora flavescens lectin in vitro and in vivo.
Acta Pharmacol. Sin.
PUBLISHED: 07-15-2013
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Aim:Proteins with legume lectin domains are known to possess a wide range of biological functions. Here, the antitumor effects of two representative legume lectins, concanavalin A (ConA) and Sophora flavescens lectin (SFL), on human breast carcinoma cells were investigated in vitro and in vivo.Methods:Human breast carcinoma MCF-7 cells and human normal mammary epithelial MCF-10A cells were examined. Cell viability was detected using WST-1 and CCK-8 assays. Cell apoptosis was analyzed with Hoechst 33258 staining. Cell cycle was investigated using flow cytometry. The expression of relevant proteins was measured using Western blotting. Breast carcinoma MCF-7 bearing nude mice were used to study the antitumor effects in vivo. The mice were injected with ConA (40 mg/kg, ip) and SFL (55 mg/kg, ip) daily for 14 d.Results:ConA and SFL inhibited the growth of MCF-7 cells in dose- and time-dependent manners (IC50 values were 15 and 20 ?g/mL, respectively). Both ConA and SFL induced apoptotic morphology in MCF-7 cells without affecting MCF-10A cells. ConA and SFL dose-dependently increased the sub-G1 proportion in MCF-7 cells, while SFL also triggered the G2/M phase cell cycle arrest. Both ConA and SFL dose-dependently increased the activities of caspase-3 and caspase-9 and release of cytochrome C from mitochondria into cytoplasm, up-regulated Bax and Bid, and down-regulated Bcl-2 and Bcl-XL in MCF-7 cells. ConA reduced NF-?B, ERK, and JNK levels, and increased p53 and p21 levels, while SFL caused similar changes in NF-?B, ERK, p53, and p21 levels, but did not affect JNK expression. Administration of ConA and SFL significantly decreased the subcutaneous tumor mass volume and weight in MCF-7 bearing nude mice.Conclusion:ConA and SFL exert anti-tumor actions against human breast carcinoma MCF-7 cells both in vitro and in vivo.
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[Prevention and treatment of age-related macular degeneration by extract of Fructus lycii and its constituents lutein/zeaxanthin: an in vive and in vitro experimental research].
Zhongguo Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 07-12-2013
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To investigate the in vivo inhibition of extract of Fructus lycii (FL) on the expressions of cathepsin B (Cat B) and cystatin C (Cys C) in high-fat diet and hydroquinone (HQ) induced model mice with age-related macular degeneration (AMD), and to explore the in vitro effects of lutein and zeaxanthin on hydrogen peroxide (H2O2,) induced expressions of matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP-2) and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 2 (TIMP-2) on ARPE-19 cells.
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Targeted introduction of tissue plasminogen activator (TPA) at the AAVS1 locus in mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and its stable and effective expression.
Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.
PUBLISHED: 06-10-2013
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Thrombolytic therapy using tissue plasminogen activator (TPA) is an effective method for treating acute myocardial infarction. However, the systemic administration of TPA is associated with the risk of hemorrhage. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) from bone marrow are characterized by low immunogenicity and homing toward damaged tissues and are therefore ideal cell carriers to achieve lesion-targeting medication. In this article, TPA gene was integrated into the AAVS1 of mesenchymal stem cells, which has been confirmed to be a safe chromosomal locus. The targeting efficiency was 83%. The clones with the site-specific integration retained the stem cell traits of MSCs, displayed a normal karyotype and could persistently and effectively express TPA, as demonstrated by an average expression activity of 1.5 units/mL (3.4-fold that of the control group). After subculture and subsequent growth for two weeks, the clones showed an average TPA activity of 1.43 units/mL and exhibited no significant differences among the individual clones. In summary, the foreign TPA gene can be specifically introduced to the AAVS1 locus, whereby it can be stably and effectively expressed. MSCs can serve as cell carriers for the targeted treatment of a thrombus using TPA.
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A meta-analysis of the association between glutathione S-transferase P1 gene polymorphism and the risk of adenocarcinomas of lung cancer.
Cancer Biomark
PUBLISHED: 06-06-2013
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Results of the published reports on the relationship between glutathione S-transferase P1 (GSTP1) gene polymorphism and the adenocarcinomas of lung cancer are still debated.
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[Function of comparative gene identification-58 (CGI-58) on lipid metabolism in animals].
Yi Chuan
PUBLISHED: 06-05-2013
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There are some proteins on the surfaces of lipid droplets (LDs) in the cells which could regulate the lipogenesis and lipolysis, and play an important role in lipid metabolism of the whole body. Comparative gene identification-58 (CGI-58), distributing predominantly on the surface of LDs, which is a member of the ?/?-hydrolase folding family and an activator of adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL) and acyl-CoA-dependent lysophosphatidic acid acyltransfer (LPAAT). CGI-58 promotes lipolysis by combining with perilipin which is a member of the PAT family and ATGL. At the same time, the function of CGI-58 to activate ATGL is influenced by protein-protein interaction with the members of the perilipin family. This paper reviews the CGI-58 function in lipid metabolism of animals considering the hot topics.
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Half-quadratic based Iterative Minimization for Robust Sparse Representation.
IEEE Trans Pattern Anal Mach Intell
PUBLISHED: 05-29-2013
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Robust sparse representation has shown significant potential in solving challenging problems in computer vision such as biometrics and visual surveillance. Although several robust sparse models have been proposed and promising results have been obtained, they are either for error correction or for error detection, and learning a general framework that systematically unifies these two aspects and explore their relation is still an open problem. In this paper, we develop a half-quadratic (HQ) framework to solve the robust sparse representation problem. By defining different kinds of half-quadratic functions, the proposed HQ framework is applicable to performing both error correction and error detection. More specifically, by using the additive form of HQ, we propose an L1-regularized error correction method by iteratively recovering corrupted data from errors incurred by noises and outliers; by using the multiplicative form of HQ, we propose an L1-regularized error detection method by learning from uncorrupted data iteratively. We also show that the L1-regularization solved by soft-thresholding function has a dual relationship to Huber M-estimator, which theoretically guarantees the performance of robust sparse representation in terms of M-estimation. Experiments on robust face recognition under severe occlusion and corruption validate our framework and findings.
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High-fat feeding-induced hyperinsulinemia increases cardiac glucose uptake and mitochondrial function despite peripheral insulin resistance.
Endocrinology
PUBLISHED: 05-24-2013
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In obesity, reduced cardiac glucose uptake and mitochondrial abnormalities are putative causes of cardiac dysfunction. However, high-fat diet (HFD) does not consistently induce cardiac insulin resistance and mitochondrial damage, and recent studies suggest HFD may be cardioprotective. To determine cardiac responses to HFD, we investigated cardiac function, glucose uptake, and mitochondrial respiration in young (3-month-old) and middle-aged (MA) (12-month-old) male Ldlr(-/-) mice fed chow or 3 months HFD to induce obesity, systemic insulin resistance, and hyperinsulinemia. In MA Ldlr(-/-) mice, HFD induced accelerated atherosclerosis and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, common complications of human obesity. Surprisingly, HFD-fed mice demonstrated increased cardiac glucose uptake, which was most prominent in MA mice, in the absence of cardiac contractile dysfunction or hypertrophy. Moreover, hearts of HFD-fed mice had enhanced mitochondrial oxidation of palmitoyl carnitine, glutamate, and succinate and greater basal insulin signaling compared with those of chow-fed mice, suggesting cardiac insulin sensitivity was maintained, despite systemic insulin resistance. Streptozotocin-induced ablation of insulin production markedly reduced cardiac glucose uptake and mitochondrial dysfunction in HFD-fed, but not in chow-fed, mice. Insulin injection reversed these effects, suggesting that insulin may protect cardiac mitochondria during HFD. These results have implications for cardiac metabolism and preservation of mitochondrial function in obesity.
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Isolation and characterization of a bat SARS-like coronavirus that uses the ACE2 receptor.
Nature
PUBLISHED: 05-16-2013
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The 2002-3 pandemic caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) was one of the most significant public health events in recent history. An ongoing outbreak of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus suggests that this group of viruses remains a key threat and that their distribution is wider than previously recognized. Although bats have been suggested to be the natural reservoirs of both viruses, attempts to isolate the progenitor virus of SARS-CoV from bats have been unsuccessful. Diverse SARS-like coronaviruses (SL-CoVs) have now been reported from bats in China, Europe and Africa, but none is considered a direct progenitor of SARS-CoV because of their phylogenetic disparity from this virus and the inability of their spike proteins to use the SARS-CoV cellular receptor molecule, the human angiotensin converting enzyme II (ACE2). Here we report whole-genome sequences of two novel bat coronaviruses from Chinese horseshoe bats (family: Rhinolophidae) in Yunnan, China: RsSHC014 and Rs3367. These viruses are far more closely related to SARS-CoV than any previously identified bat coronaviruses, particularly in the receptor binding domain of the spike protein. Most importantly, we report the first recorded isolation of a live SL-CoV (bat SL-CoV-WIV1) from bat faecal samples in Vero E6 cells, which has typical coronavirus morphology, 99.9% sequence identity to Rs3367 and uses ACE2 from humans, civets and Chinese horseshoe bats for cell entry. Preliminary in vitro testing indicates that WIV1 also has a broad species tropism. Our results provide the strongest evidence to date that Chinese horseshoe bats are natural reservoirs of SARS-CoV, and that intermediate hosts may not be necessary for direct human infection by some bat SL-CoVs. They also highlight the importance of pathogen-discovery programs targeting high-risk wildlife groups in emerging disease hotspots as a strategy for pandemic preparedness.
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Da-Huang-Fu-Zi-Tang attenuates liver injury in rats with severe acute pancreatitis.
J Ethnopharmacol
PUBLISHED: 05-03-2013
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Da-Huang-Fu-Zi-Tang (DHFZT) is a famous traditional Chinese prescription with strong anti-inflammatory effects. Our previous work found that DHFZT could act against pancreatic injury in rats with severe acute pancreatitis (SAP) via inhibiting the Janus kinase 2/signal transducers and activators of transcription 3 (JAK2/STAT3) signaling pathway in pancreatic tissues.
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Modeling, docking and dynamics simulations of a non-specific lipid transfer protein from Peganum harmala L.
Comput Biol Chem
PUBLISHED: 05-02-2013
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Non-specific lipid transfer proteins (ns-LTPs), ubiquitously found in various types of plants, have been well-known to transfer amphiphilic lipids and promote the lipid exchange between mitochondria and microbody. In this study, an in silico analysis was proposed to study ns-LTP in Peganum harmala L., which may belong to ns-LTP1 family, aiming at constructing its three-dimensional structure. Moreover, we adopted MEGA to analyze ns-LTPs and other species phylogenetically, which brought out an initial sequence alignment of ns-LTPs. In addition, we used molecular docking and molecular dynamics simulations to further investigate the affinities and stabilities of ns-LTP with several ligands complexes. Taken together, our results about ns-LTPs and their ligand-binding activities can provide a better understanding of the lipid-protein interactions, indicating some future applications of ns-LTP-mediated transport.
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Renewed interest in the role of consolidative radiotherapy in advanced stage diffuse large B-cell lymphoma.
Leuk. Lymphoma
PUBLISHED: 04-11-2013
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Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) represents the most common subtype of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) in the United States, and two-thirds of these patients will present with advanced stage (stage III-IV) disease. Although radiation therapy (RT) alone was the first curative therapy for limited stage DLBCL, the advancement of combination chemotherapy with cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine and prednisone (CHOP) with the addition of the anti-CD20 antibody rituximab became the cornerstone of current management. The role of consolidative RT as part of first-line therapy in the management of patients with advanced stage DLBCL remains unclear, and represents an area of controversy with considerable differences in patterns of practice across different institutions. Emerging data now challenge the National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) guidelines, and give support to the use of consolidative RT in patients with advanced stage DLBCL. This review summarizes the major studies as reflected in our current practice and provides further insight into future directions for randomized trials which would help better define the role of consolidative RT in such a cohort.
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CT features of focal organizing pneumonia: An analysis of consecutive histopathologically confirmed 45 cases.
Eur J Radiol
PUBLISHED: 03-21-2013
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OBJECTIVE: To study the CT characteristics of solitary focal organizing pneumonia (FOP). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Chest CT of consecutive 45 patients (34 males and 11 females, median age: 56 years) with confirmed FOP were analyzed. The CT features between large FOP (>3cm, n=27) and small FOP (?3cm, n=18) were compared. RESULTS: FOP lesions predominately located in peripheral lungs (86.7%), with the right lower lobe being most common lobe (44.4%). No lesion mainly located in the inner 1/3 of lungs. All large lesions were polygon in shape and had an irregular margin, while small lesions were more likely to be round or oval with an irregular or smooth border. Air bronchogram or small bubble-like lucency was present in majority of the lesions. 42.2% of lesions had incompact internal structure with inhomogeneous density besides air component. Most lesions were associated with a contraction or convergence of surrounding vessels; while no pulmonary vessel was interrupted abruptly by a small FOP lesion. Majority of large lesions had broad contact with the pleura, while only one patient had mild pleural effusion. Mild mediastinal lymph nodes enlargement was present in about 1/5 of the patients. CONCLUSION: Compared with the known CT features of lung cancer, our results suggest differential diagnosis can often be made for large FOP, while small FOP may resemble lung cancer.
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Kinetics of endophilin N-BAR domain dimerization and membrane interactions.
J. Biol. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 03-12-2013
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The recruitment to plasma membrane invaginations of the protein endophilin is a temporally regulated step in clathrin-mediated endocytosis. Endophilin is believed to sense or stabilize membrane curvature, which in turn likely depends on the dimeric structure of the protein. The dynamic nature of the membrane association and dimerization of endophilin is thus functionally important and is illuminated herein. Using subunit exchange Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET), we determine dimer dissociation kinetics and find a dimerization equilibrium constant orders of magnitude lower than previously published values. We characterize N-BAR domain membrane association kinetics under conditions where the dimeric species predominates, by stopped flow, observing prominent electrostatic sensitivity of membrane interaction kinetics. Relative to membrane binding, we find that protein monomer/dimer species equilibrate with far slower kinetics. Complementary optical microscopy studies reveal strikingly slow membrane dissociation and an increase of dissociation rate constant for a construct lacking the amphipathic segment helix 0 (H0). We attribute the slow dissociation kinetics to higher-order protein oligomerization on the membrane. We incorporate our findings into a kinetic scheme for endophilin N-BAR membrane binding and find a significant separation of time scales for endophilin membrane binding and subsequent oligomerization. This separation may facilitate the regulation of membrane trafficking phenomena.
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Prediction of S-glutathionylation sites based on protein sequences.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 02-13-2013
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S-glutathionylation, the reversible formation of mixed disulfides between glutathione(GSH) and cysteine residues in proteins, is a specific form of post-translational modification that plays important roles in various biological processes, including signal transduction, redox homeostasis, and metabolism inside cells. Experimentally identifying S-glutathionylation sites is labor-intensive and time consuming, whereas bioinformatics methods provide an alternative way to this problem by predicting S-glutathionylation sites in silico. The bioinformatics approaches give not only candidate sites for further experimental verification but also bio-chemical insights into the mechanism of S-glutathionylation. In this paper, we firstly collect experimentally determined S-glutathionylated proteins and their corresponding modification sites from the literature, and then propose a new method for predicting S-glutathionylation sites by employing machine learning methods based on protein sequence data. Promising results are obtained by our method with an AUC (area under ROC curve) score of 0.879 in 5-fold cross-validation, which demonstrates the predictive power of our proposed method. The datasets used in this work are available at http://csb.shu.edu.cn/SGDB.
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Patterns of failure in advanced stage diffuse large B-cell lymphoma patients after complete response to R-CHOP immunochemotherapy and the emerging role of consolidative radiation therapy.
Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.
PUBLISHED: 01-31-2013
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The role of consolidative radiation therapy (RT) after complete response (CR) to rituximab combined with cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone (R-CHOP) for stage III-IV diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) patients is unclear. We aimed to evaluate our institutional experience when consolidative RT is delivered to initial presenting sites or bulky sites in these patients.
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A systems biology analysis of autophagy in cancer therapy.
Cancer Lett.
PUBLISHED: 01-28-2013
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Autophagy, which degrades redundant or damaged cellular constituents, is intricately relevant to a variety of human diseases, most notably cancer. Autophagy exerts distinct effects on cancer initiation and progression, due to the intrinsic overlapping of autophagic and cancer signalling pathways. However, due to the complexity of cancer as a systemic disease, the fate of cancer cells is not decided by any one signalling pathway. Numerous autophagic inter-connectivity and cross-talk pathways need to be further clarified at a systems level. In this review, we propose a systems biology perspective for the comprehensive analysis of the autophagy-cancer network, focusing on systems biology analysis in autophagy and cancer therapy. Together, these analyses may not only improve our understanding on autophagy-cancer relationships, but also facilitate cancer drug discovery.
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CT and MR features of xanthogranulomatous cholecystitis: an analysis of consecutive 49 cases.
Eur J Radiol
PUBLISHED: 01-25-2013
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To study the CT and MR features of xanthogranulomatous cholecystitis (XGC).
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Discriminant subspace learning constrained by locally statistical uncorrelation for face recognition.
Neural Netw
PUBLISHED: 01-14-2013
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High-dimensionality of data and the small sample size problem are two significant limitations for applying subspace methods which are favored by face recognition. In this paper, a new linear dimension reduction method called locally uncorrelated discriminant projections (LUDP) is proposed, which addresses the two problems from a new aspect. More specifically, we propose a locally uncorrelated criterion, which aims to decorrelate learned discriminant factors over data locally rather than globally. It has been shown that the statistical uncorrelation criterion is an important property for reducing dimension and learning robust discriminant projection as well. However, data are always locally distributed, so it is more important to explore locally statistical uncorrelated discriminant information over data. We impose this new constraint into a graph-based maximum margin analysis, so that LUDP also characterizes the local scatter as well as nonlocal scatter, seeking to find a projection that maximizes the difference, rather than the ratio between the nonlocal scatter and the local scatter. Experiments on ORL, Yale, Extended Yale face database B and FERET face database demonstrate the effectiveness of our proposed method.
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A meta-analysis of the relationship between glutathione S-transferase T1 null/presence gene polymorphism and the risk of lung cancer including 31802 subjects.
Mol. Biol. Rep.
PUBLISHED: 01-10-2013
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The relationship between glutathione S-transferase T1 (GSTT1) null/presence gene polymorphism and the risk of lung cancer from the published reports are still conflicting. This study was conducted to evaluate the relationship between GSTT1 null/presence gene polymorphism and the risk of lung cancer using meta-analysis method. The association studies were identified from PubMed, and Cochrane Library on July 1, 2012, and eligible investigations were included and synthesized using meta-analysis method. 51 reports were recruited into this meta-analysis for the association of null genotype of GSTT1 with lung cancer susceptibility, consisting of 15,140 patients with lung cancer and 16,662 controls. There was a marked association between GSTT1 null genotype and lung cancer risk in overall populations (OR = 1.15, 95 % CI 1.04-1.27, P = 0.007). Furthermore, GSTT1 null genotype was associated with the lung cancer risk in Asians (OR = 1.47, 95 % CI 1.23-1.76, P < 0.0001). However, GSTT1 null genotype was not associated with the risk of lung cancer in Caucasians, Brazilian population and Africans. In conclusion, GSTT1 null genotype is associated with the lung cancer in overall populations and in Asians.
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Are interstitial cells of Cajal involved in mechanical stress-induced gene expression and impairment of smooth muscle contractility in bowel obstruction?
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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The network of interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) is altered in obstructive bowel disorders (OBD). However, whether alteration in ICC network is a cause or consequence of OBD remains unknown. This study tested the hypothesis that mechanical dilation in obstruction disrupts the ICC network and that ICC do not mediate mechanotranscription of COX-2 and impairment of smooth muscle contractility in obstruction.
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[Analysis of full intronic sequences of HLA-A alleles].
Zhonghua Yi Xue Yi Chuan Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 12-14-2011
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To analyze the full intronic sequences of human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-A alleles in Han Chinese.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.