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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Integrated metagenomic and metaproteomic analyses of marine biofilm communities.
Biofouling
PUBLISHED: 11-20-2014
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Metagenomic and metaproteomic analyses were utilized to determine the composition and function of complex air-water interface biofilms sampled from the hulls of two US Navy destroyers. Prokaryotic community analyses using PhyloChip-based 16S rDNA profiling revealed two significantly different and taxonomically rich biofilm communities (6,942 taxa) in which the majority of unique taxa were ascribed to members of the Gammaproteobacteria, Alphaproteobacteria and Clostridia. Although metagenomic sequencing indicated that both biofilms were dominated by prokaryotic sequence reads (> 91%) with the majority of the bacterial reads belonging to the Alphaproteobacteria, the Ship-1 metagenome harbored greater organismal and functional diversity and was comparatively enriched for sequences from Cyanobacteria, Bacteroidetes and macroscopic eukaryotes, whereas the Ship-2 metagenome was enriched for sequences from Proteobacteria and microscopic photosynthetic eukaryotes. Qualitative liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry metaproteome analyses identified 678 unique proteins, revealed little overlap in species and protein composition between the ships and contrasted with the metagenomic data in that ~80% of classified and annotated proteins were of eukaryotic origin and dominated by members of the Bacillariophyta, Cnidaria, Chordata and Arthropoda (data deposited to the ProteomeXchange, identifier PXD000961). Within the shared metaproteome, quantitative (18)O and iTRAQ analyses demonstrated a significantly greater abundance of structural proteins from macroscopic eukaryotes on Ship-1 and diatom photosynthesis proteins on Ship-2. Photosynthetic pigment composition and elemental analyses confirmed that both biofilms were dominated by phototrophic processes. These data begin to provide a better understanding of the complex organismal and biomolecular composition of marine biofilms while highlighting caveats in the interpretation of stand-alone environmental '-omics' datasets.
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A previously uncharacterized, non-photosynthetic member of the Chromatiaceae is the primary CO2 fixing constituent in a self-regenerating biocathode.
Appl. Environ. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 11-16-2014
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Biocathode extracellular electron transfer (EET) may be exploited for biotechnology applications, including microbially-mediated O2 reduction in microbial fuel cells and microbial electrosynthesis. However, biocathode mechanistic studies needed to improve or engineer functionality are limited to a few select species that form sparse, homogenous biofilms characterized by little or no growth. Attempts to cultivate isolates from biocathode environmental enrichments often fail due to a lack of some advantage provided by life in a consortium, highlighting the need to study and understand biocathode consortia in situ. Here we present metagenomic and metaproteomic characterization of a previously described biocathode biofilm (+310 mV vs. SHE) enriched from seawater, reducing O2, and presumably fixing CO2 for biomass generation. Metagenomics identified 16 distinct cluster genomes, 15 of which could be assigned at the family or genus level, and whose abundance was roughly divided between Alpha- and Gammaproteobacteria. A total of 644 proteins were identified from shotgun metaproteomics and have been deposited to the ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD001045. Cluster genomes were used to assign the origin of 599 identified proteins with Marinobacter, Chromatiaceae, and Labrenzia most represented. RubisCo and phosphoribulokinase, along with 9 other Calvin-Benson-Bassham cycle proteins, were identified from Chromatiaceae. In addition, proteins similar to those predicted for iron oxidation pathways of known iron-oxidizing bacteria were observed for Chromatiaceae. These findings represent the first description of putative EET and CO2 fixation mechanisms for a self-regenerating, self-sustaining multispecies biocathode, providing potential targets for functional engineering as well as new insights into biocathode EET pathways using proteomics.
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Laparoscopic varicocelectomy: virtual reality training and learning curve.
JSLS
PUBLISHED: 11-14-2014
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To explore the role that virtual reality training might play in the learning curve of laparoscopic varicocelectomy.
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[Regional differences in patterns of alcohol consumption: findings from the China Kadoorie Biobank study on half a million people from 10 regions].
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 11-08-2014
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To describe the regional differences on patterns of alcohol consumption across 10 study in the China Kadoorie Biobank (CKB) areas involving half a million adults.
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Protective effects of resveratrol on postmenopausal osteoporosis: regulation of SIRT1-NF-?B signaling pathway.
Acta Biochim. Biophys. Sin. (Shanghai)
PUBLISHED: 11-06-2014
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Postmenopausal osteoporosis severely jeopardizes human health. Seeking for therapeutic drugs without side effects is of great necessity. Our study was designed to investigate whether resveratrol, an agonist of SIRT1, could have favorable effect on osteoporosis and to explore the underlying mechanisms. Rat osteoporosis model (ovariectomy group, OVX) was established by bilateral ovariectomy. Three different doses of resveratrol were used: 5 mg/kg/d (low-dosed, RES(LD)), 25 mg/kg/d (medium-dosed, RES(MD)), and 45 mg/kg/d (high-dosed, RES(HD)). Results showed that RES(LD) did not show any significant effect on OVX alterations, while RES(MD) and RES(HD) significantly elevated the decreased bone mineral density induced by osteoporosis (RES(MD) 0.205±0.023, RES(HD) 0.214 ± 0.053 vs. OVX 0.165 ± 0.050, g/cm(2) respectively; P < 0.05). Serum markers alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and osteocalcin were moderately restored by resveratrol. Moreover, resveratrol improved bone structure in OVX rats, demonstrated by hematoxylin-eosin staining and micro-computed tomographic results. In vitro results revealed that resveratrol promoted osteoblast differentiation of bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells, evidenced by the increase of ALP generation and mRNA expression of collagen 1 (P < 0.05; RES(MD), RES(HD) vs. control group). SIRT1 gene silencing by siRNA transfection blocked these beneficial effects of resveratrol (P < 0.05; RES+ SIRT1(KD) vs. RES(HD)). Western blot results showed that resveratrol activated SIRT1 and subsequently suppressed the activity of NF-?B with decreased expression level of p-I?B? and NF-?B p65 (P < 0.05). Our findings verified the effects of specific dosed resveratrol on postmenopausal osteoporosis through osteoblast differentiation via SIRT1-NF-?B signaling pathway. This study suggested the therapeutic potential of resveratrol against osteoporosis and stressed the importance of effective doses.
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[A standard protocol for detection of EGFR mutations in cytologic specimens].
Zhonghua Zhong Liu Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 10-21-2014
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The aim of this study was to establish a standard protocol for detection of EGFR mutations in cytologic specimens.
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Disrupting the balance between tumor epithelia and stroma is a possible therapeutic approach for pancreatic cancer.
Med. Sci. Monit.
PUBLISHED: 10-21-2014
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Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is a type of highly lethal malignant tumor. PDAC is locally invasive and is surrounded by a dense desmoplasia or fibrosis, which can involve adjacent vital structures. Previously, the effect of pancreatic stellate cells (PSCs) of stroma in the progression of PDAC has received more attention, and most in vitro and in vivo studies revealed that PSCs appear to confer biological aggressiveness. However, clinical trials targeting desmoplasia or PSCs showed disappointing results. Recent studies found that stromal components, especially activated PSCs, are able to inhibit the occurrence and progression of PDAC. Inhibition of the stroma or desmoplasia through genetic regulations or drugs accelerates the formation and progression of PDAC. Thus, we hypothesized that in various times and spaces, there is a balance between the tumor epithelia and stroma; once the balance is upset, the tumor traits may undergo certain changes. Therefore, finding the key changing points of this relationship to corrupt or influence it, instead of blindly inhibiting the stroma motivation or simply maintaining stroma activation, will destroy the cooperation or promote the competition and antagonism among cells. This approach may render tumors more vulnerable and thus unable to resist anti-cancer therapies.
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Two birds with one stone: dendrimer surface engineering enables tunable periphery hydrophobicity and rapid endosomal escape.
Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
PUBLISHED: 10-01-2014
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Multifunctional thermosensitive dendrimeric nanocarriers were generated via tailored surface modification. Such design not only facilitated the rapid endosomal escape of dendrimers, but also achieved tunable surface hydrophobicity, which could be employed to achieve on-demand cargo release. These smart dendrimers are promising for enhancing intracellular drug delivery.
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The use of six sigma in health care management: are we using it to its full potential?
Qual Manag Health Care
PUBLISHED: 09-27-2014
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Popular quality improvement tools such as Six Sigma (SS) claim to provide health care managers the opportunity to improve health care quality on the basis of sound methodology and data. However, it is unclear whether this quality improvement tool is being used correctly and improves health care quality. The authors conducted a comprehensive literature review to assess the correct use and implementation of SS and the empirical evidence demonstrating the relationship between SS and improved quality of care in health care organizations. The authors identified 310 articles on SS published in the last 15 years. However, only 55 were empirical peer-reviewed articles, 16 of which reported the correct use of SS. Only 7 of these articles included statistical analyses to test for significant changes in quality of care, and only 16 calculated defects per million opportunities or sigma level. This review demonstrates that there are significant gaps in the Six Sigma health care quality improvement literature and very weak evidence that Six Sigma is being used correctly to improve health care quality.
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Inhibition of protein phosphatase 2A with a small molecule LB100 radiosensitizes nasopharyngeal carcinoma xenografts by inducing mitotic catastrophe and blocking DNA damage repair.
Oncotarget
PUBLISHED: 09-24-2014
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Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC), while uncommon worldwide, is a major health problem in China. Although local radiation and surgery provide good control of NPC, better treatments that permit reductions in radiation dosing are needed. Inhibition of protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A), a ubiquitous multifunctional enzyme with critical roles in cell cycle regulation and DNA-damage response, reportedly sensitizes cancer cells to radiation and chemotherapy. We studied PP2A inhibition with LB100, a small molecule currently in a Phase I clinical trial, on radiosensitization of two human nasopharyngeal cell lines: CNE1, which is reportedly radioresistant, and CNE2. In both cell lines, LB100 exposure increased intracellular p-Plk1, TCTP, and Cdk1 and decreased p53, changes associated with cell cycle arrest, mitotic catastrophe and radio-inhibition of cell proliferation. Mice bearing subcutaneous xenografts of either cell line were administered 1.5 mg/kg LB100 daily for three days and a single dose of 20 Gy radiation (day 3), which produced marked and prolonged tumor mass regression (dose enhancement factors of 2.98 and 2.27 for CNE1 and CNE2 xenografts, respectively). Treatment with either LB100 or radiation alone only transiently inhibited xenograft growth. Our results support further exploration of PP2A inhibition as part of radiotherapy regimens for NPC and potentially other solid tumors.
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Olfactory schwannoma: a report of two cases and literature review.
Neurol India
PUBLISHED: 09-20-2014
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Intracranial schwannoma is a kind of benign intracranial tumors, derived from neuron myelin sheath, growing slowly and curable. Olfactory schwannoma is an exceedingly rare kind of schwannoma, whose origin is still uncovered. Although several theories have been put up for pathogenesis of olfactory schwannoma, till now, none of these hypotheses has been widely accepted and acknowledged officially. Up to date, only 46 cases of olfactory schwannoma were reported across numerous institutes worldwide. Here we gathered two cases from Department of Neurosurgery in Beijing Tiantan Hospital across two years collection.
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Long-term outcomes after D2 gastrectomy for early gastric cancer: survival analysis of a single-center experience in China.
Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev.
PUBLISHED: 09-18-2014
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Early gastric cancer (EGC) is well accepted as having a favorable prognosis, but some patients experience an ominous outcome after curative resection. This study was aimed at evaluating predictive factors associated with prognosis of D2 gastrectomies in patients with early gastric cancer.
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Examination of the Dimerization States of the Single-stranded RNA Recognition Protein Pentatricopeptide Repeat 10 (PPR10).
J. Biol. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 09-17-2014
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Pentatricopeptide repeat (PPR) proteins, particularly abundant in plastids and mitochrondria of angiosperms, include a large number of sequence-specific RNA binding proteins that are involved in diverse aspects of organelle RNA metabolisms. PPR proteins contain multiple tandom repeats, and each repeat can specifically recognize a RNA base through residues 2, 5, and 35 in a modular fashion. The crystal structure of PPR10 from maize chloroplast exhibits dimeric existence both in the absence and presence of the 18-nucleotide psaJ RNA element. However, previous biochemical analysis suggested a monomeric shift of PPR10 upon RNA binding. In this report, we show that the amino-terminal segments of PPR10 determine the dimerization state of PPR10. A single amino acid alteration of cysteine to serine within repeat 10 of PPR10 further drives dimerization of PPR10. The biochemical elucidation of the determinants for PPR10 dimerization may provide an important foundation to understand the working mechanisms of PPR proteins underlying their diverse physiological functions.
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Analysis of ureteral injuries for laparoscopic rectal cancer surgery.
J Laparoendosc Adv Surg Tech A
PUBLISHED: 09-16-2014
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Abstract Ureteral injury is one of the major complications for rectal surgery. However, few studies focused on ureteral injuries from laparoscopic rectal surgery have been reported. Characteristics of this kind of ureteral injuries and the related reasons are unclear. This study was designed to illustrate the characteristics of ureteral injuries during the procedure of laparoscopic rectal surgery and to analyze the related reasons. Of 1120 patients with rectal cancer who underwent laparoscopic surgery between July 2007 and July 2013, 11 cases had the complication of ureteral injuries. Data of these 11 patients were collected and analyzed retrospectively. In our study, the total incidence of ureteral injuries from laparoscopic rectal surgery was 0.98%, and left ureteral injuries were more common. Five cases of ureteral injuries occurred at the takeoff of the inferior mesenteric artery, 4 cases occurred at the small pelvic inlet, and 2 cases occurred at the location where the infundibulopelvic ligament crosses the pelvic brim. Four reasons accounted for the ureteral injuries: 5 cases resulted from massive ligation or cutting off without recognizing the anatomical structure, 3 cases resulted from unfamiliarity with normal anatomical structure under laparoscopy and unskilled laparoscopic operation, 2 cases resulted from an abnormal anatomical structure due to invasion of the tumor, and 1 case resulted from an unusual anatomical variation of ureter. It was easier to damage the left ureter during the procedure of laparoscopic rectal surgery. In conclusion, ureteral injuries usually occurred at three locations, and massive ligation or cutting off without recognizing the anatomical structure was the most common reason for laparoscopy-related ureteral injuries.
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Hypoxia-induced autophagy reduces radiosensitivity by the HIF-1?/miR-210/Bcl-2 pathway in colon cancer cells.
Int. J. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 09-11-2014
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Autophagy is an evolutionarily conserved cellular response to conditions of stress such as hypoxia, which induce radioresistance in cancer cells. We studied the mechanism of action of hypoxia on autophagy and radiosensitivity in colon cancer cells. In the human colon cancer cell lines SW480 and SW620, autophagosomes were analyzed to evaluate autophagy by flow cytometry. The expression of hypoxia inducible factor-1? (HIF-1?), Bcl-2, and miR-210 was detected by western blotting and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). HIF-1? and miR-210 inhibition was induced by siRNA transfections. Apoptosis detection and colony assays were performed to determine radiosensitivity. HIF-1? and miR-210 showed a significant increase under hypoxic condition. The inhibition of HIF-1? decreased miR-210 expression and autophagy. Silencing of miR-210 upregulated Bcl-2 expression and reduced the survival fraction of colon cancer cells after radiation treatment. Under hypoxia, HIF-1? induces miRNA-210 which in turn enhances autophagy and reduces radiosensitivity by downregulating Bcl-2 expression in colon cancer cells. Our results imply that autophagy contributes to the reduction of radiosensitivity in hypoxic environment, and the process is mediated through the HIF-1?/miR-210/Bcl-2 pathway in human colon cancer cells.
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5-Caffeoylquinic acid decreases diet-induced obesity in rats by modulating PPAR? and LXR? transcription.
J. Sci. Food Agric.
PUBLISHED: 09-03-2014
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Chlorogenic acids (CGAs) are widely distributed in plant material, including foods and beverages. 5-Caffeoylquinic acid (5-CQA) is the most studied CGA, but the mechanism of its hypolipidaemic effect remains unclear. This study aimed to determine the effect of 5-CQA on lipid metabolism in the liver of Sprague-Dawley rats fed a high-fat diet (HFD).
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New technique of intracorporeal anastomosis and transvaginal specimen extraction for laparoscopic sigmoid colectomy.
Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev.
PUBLISHED: 08-30-2014
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Despite the growing acceptance of laparoscopic colon surgery, an abdominal incision is needed to remove the specimen and perform an anastomosis. Recently, natural orifice specimen extraction (NOSE) and intracorporeal anastomosis have been proposed to minimize abdominal wall trauma and improve the quality of laparoscopic colon resections Objective: To evaluate the feasibility and safety of a new approach combining intracorporeal delta-shaped anastomosis and transvaginal specimen extraction for totally laparoscopic sigmoid colectomy.
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Inter-foot coordination dynamics of quiet standing postures.
Neurosci Biobehav Rev
PUBLISHED: 08-27-2014
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It has long been held that the net center of pressure (COPNET) is the controlling variable to human stance that indirectly represents postural sway. The formation of the COPNET trajectory emerges from an active control of transporting the body weight from one foot to the other and the self-organized coordination of the COP of each individual foot - properties that cannot be determined from the typical single force platform protocol. The findings of recent studies, with the application of the two-force platform paradigm, have revealed the coordination properties of the lower limbs in regulating COPNET. In this article, we review these new findings and insights into the control of postural stability within the framework of a dynamic systems approach. The issues include: (1) the active asymmetrical body weight distribution and transportation process during both short- and long-term stances; (2) the spatial and temporal characteristics of the inter- and intra-foot COP coupling dynamics; (3) the influence of mechanical constraints (e.g., foot position, foot orientation, etc.) on the inter-foot and intra-foot COP coordination dynamics; and (4) the role of the specificity of task context to the functional asymmetry of the feet and its relation to footedness. The findings from foot coordination dynamics reveal subtle regulation of stability and instability in postural control that needs to be mapped to the coordination dynamics of the multi-link postural control system.
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UNC-6 (netrin) stabilizes oscillatory clustering of the UNC-40 (DCC) receptor to orient polarity.
J. Cell Biol.
PUBLISHED: 08-25-2014
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The receptor deleted in colorectal cancer (DCC) directs dynamic polarizing activities in animals toward its extracellular ligand netrin. How DCC polarizes toward netrin is poorly understood. By performing live-cell imaging of the DCC orthologue UNC-40 during anchor cell invasion in Caenorhabditis elegans, we have found that UNC-40 clusters, recruits F-actin effectors, and generates F-actin in the absence of UNC-6 (netrin). Time-lapse analyses revealed that UNC-40 clusters assemble, disassemble, and reform at periodic intervals in different regions of the cell membrane. This oscillatory behavior indicates that UNC-40 clusters through a mechanism involving interlinked positive (formation) and negative (disassembly) feedback. We show that endogenous UNC-6 and ectopically provided UNC-6 orient and stabilize UNC-40 clustering. Furthermore, the UNC-40-binding protein MADD-2 (a TRIM family protein) promotes ligand-independent clustering and robust UNC-40 polarization toward UNC-6. Together, our data suggest that UNC-6 (netrin) directs polarized responses by stabilizing UNC-40 clustering. We propose that ligand-independent UNC-40 clustering provides a robust and adaptable mechanism to polarize toward netrin.
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Selective inhibition of CDK7 ameliorates experimental arthritis in mice.
Clin. Exp. Med.
PUBLISHED: 08-23-2014
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Cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) have emerged as anti-inflammatory targets. The purpose of this study was to explore the therapeutic effects of a selective CDK7 inhibitor, BS-181, on mice with established collagen-induced arthritis (CIA). CIA mice were administered intraperitoneally with BS-181 (10 mg/kg) twice daily for 2 weeks. Control mice received vehicle only. Arthritis severity and joint histopathology were examined. The proinflammatory cytokines and anti-type II collagen antibodies (anti-CII) were determined by ELISA. IkB kinase (IKK)-?/NF-?B activation in the arthritic joints was assessed by Western blot. The ratio of Th17 cells was determined by flow cytometry. In vitro, splenocytes from mice with established CIA were stimulated with CII in the presence or absence of BS-181 and cytokines were detected. BS-181 treatment reduced the clinical score and histological damage in CIA mice. The serum proinflammatory cytokines (IL-6, IL-1? and IL-17) and anti-CII IgG2a levels were also decreased by BS-181 administration. Moreover, IKK-?/NF-?B signaling pathway was inhibited in arthritic joints. BS-181 administration also decreased the ratio of Th17 cells. In addition, CIA splenocytes pretreated with BS-181 produced less proinflammatory cytokines in vitro. These findings indicate that CDK7 inhibition by BS-181 is effective in the treatment of CIA, which might be mediated by suppression of IKK-?/NF-?B activation and Th17 cell response.
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Novel myeloid differentiation factor 88, EsMyD88, exhibits EsTube-binding activity in Chinese mitten crab Eriocheir sinensis.
Dev. Comp. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 08-19-2014
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Myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88) is a universal and essential adapter protein that participates in the activation of the Toll-like receptor/interleukin-1 receptor-mediated signaling pathway. In the present study, a new MyD88 gene (named EsMyD88) was identified in the Chinese mitten crab Eriocheir sinensis. The cDNA of EsMyD88 was 2210?bp long with a 1416?bp open reading frame that encoded a protein with 472 amino acids. Predicted EsMyD88 protein had a death domain at the N-terminal and a TIR domain at the C-terminal. BLASTP and phylogenetic analysis results showed that EsMyD88 was clustered in one group together with other crustaceans MyD88 (SpMyD88, FcMyD88, LvMyD88, and LvMyD88-1). EsMyD88 was detected in all the examined tissues of healthy crabs, and was mainly expressed in the hemocytes and nerves. When normal crabs were challenged with lipopolysaccharide, peptidoglycan, Staphylococcus aureus, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, or Aeromonas hydrophila, the expression levels of EsMyD88 significantly increased either in the hepatopancreas or hemocytes. Results of the pull-down assay showed that EsMyD88 could bind to downstream cytosolic adaptor EsTube. Overexpression of EsMyD88 protein in Drosophila Schneider 2 cells led to the activation of antimicrobial peptide genes. RNA interference assay showed that EsMyD88 is involved in regulating the transcription of ALF1 and ALF2, Cru1 and Cru2, and Lys in crab challenged with V. parahaemolyticus. All the results mentioned earlier indicated that EsMyD88 gene has a key function in antibacterial innate immune defense.
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MIG-10 (Lamellipodin) stabilizes invading cell adhesion to basement membrane and is a negative transcriptional target of EGL-43 in C. elegans.
Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.
PUBLISHED: 08-19-2014
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Cell invasion through basement membrane (BM) occurs in many physiological and pathological contexts. MIG-10, the Caenorhabditis elegans Lamellipodin (Lpd), regulates diverse biological processes. Its function and regulation in cell invasive behavior remain unclear. Using anchor cell (AC) invasion in C. elegans as an in vivo invasion model, we have previously found that mig-10's activity is largely outside of UNC-6 (netrin) signaling, a chemical cue directing AC invasion. We have shown that MIG-10 is a target of the transcription factor FOS-1A and facilitates BM breaching. Combining genetics and imaging analyses, we report that MIG-10 synergizes with UNC-6 to promote AC attachment to the BM, revealing a functional role for MIG-10 in stabilizing AC-BM adhesion. MIG-10 is also required for F-actin accumulation in the absence of UNC-6. Further, we identify mig-10 as a transcriptional target negatively regulated by EGL-43A (C. elegans Evi-1 proto-oncogene), a transcription factor positively controlled by FOS-1A. The revelation of this negative regulation unmasks an incoherent feedforward circuit existing among fos-1, egl-43 and mig-10. Moreover, our study suggests the functional importance of the negative regulation on mig-10 expression by showing that excessive MIG-10 impairs AC invasion. Thus, we provide new insight into MIG-10's function and its complex transcriptional regulation during cell invasive behavior.
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Facile and green fabrication of electrospun poly(vinyl alcohol) nanofibrous mats doped with narrowly dispersed silver nanoparticles.
Int J Nanomedicine
PUBLISHED: 08-18-2014
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Submicrometer-scale poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) nanofibrous mats loaded with aligned and narrowly dispersed silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are obtained via the electrospinning process from pure water. This facile and green procedure did not need any other chemicals or organic solvents. The doped AgNPs are narrowly distributed, 4.3±0.7 nm and their contents on the nanofabric mats can be easily tuned via in situ ultraviolet light irradiation or under preheating conditions, but with different particle sizes and size distributions. The morphology, loading concentrations, and dispersities of AgNPs embedded within PVA nanofiber mats are characterized by transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, ultraviolet-visible spectra, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction, respectively. Moreover, the biocidal activities and cytotoxicity of the electrospun nanofiber mats are determined by zone of inhibition, dynamic shaking method, and cell counting kit (CCK)-8 assay tests.
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Correlation of discoloration and biomechanical properties in porcine sclera induced by genipin.
Int J Ophthalmol
PUBLISHED: 08-18-2014
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To study the feasibility of using the discoloration to evaluate the biomechanical properties after treating with genipin.
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RNA-seq of 272 gliomas revealed a novel, recurrent PTPRZ1-MET fusion transcript in secondary glioblastomas.
Genome Res.
PUBLISHED: 08-18-2014
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Studies of gene rearrangements and the consequent oncogenic fusion proteins have laid the foundation for targeted cancer therapy. To identify oncogenic fusions associated with glioma progression, we catalogued fusion transcripts by RNA-seq of 272 gliomas. Fusion transcripts were more frequently found in high-grade gliomas, in the classical subtype of gliomas, and in gliomas treated with radiation/temozolomide. Sixty-seven in-frame fusion transcripts were identified, including three recurrent fusion transcripts: FGFR3-TACC3, RNF213-SLC26A11, and PTPRZ1-MET (ZM). Interestingly, the ZM fusion was found only in grade III astrocytomas (1/13; 7.7%) or secondary GBMs (sGBMs, 3/20; 15.0%). In an independent cohort of sGBMs, the ZM fusion was found in three of 20 (15%) specimens. Genomic analysis revealed that the fusion arose from translocation events involving introns 3 or 8 of PTPRZ and intron 1 of MET. ZM fusion transcripts were found in GBMs irrespective of isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1) mutation status. sGBMs harboring ZM fusion showed higher expression of genes required for PIK3CA signaling and lowered expression of genes that suppressed RB1 or TP53 function. Expression of the ZM fusion was mutually exclusive with EGFR overexpression in sGBMs. Exogenous expression of the ZM fusion in the U87MG glioblastoma line enhanced cell migration and invasion. Clinically, patients afflicted with ZM fusion harboring glioblastomas survived poorly relative to those afflicted with non-ZM-harboring sGBMs (P < 0.001). Our study profiles the shifting RNA landscape of gliomas during progression and reveled ZM as a novel, recurrent fusion transcript in sGBMs.
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Apoptotic effect of genistein on human colon cancer cells via inhibiting the nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-?B) pathway.
Tumour Biol.
PUBLISHED: 08-16-2014
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Genistein possesses a wide variety of biological activities, and it is best known for its ability to inhibit cancer progression. Its cancer-preventive effect has been attributed to various mechanisms, including the induction of cell cycle arrest and apoptosis as well as the antioxidant functions. Nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-?B) is a signaling pathway that controls transcriptional activation of genes important for the tight regulation of many cellular processes and is aberrantly expressed in many types of cancer. Inhibitors of NF-?B pathway have shown potential anti-tumor activities. However, it is not fully elucidated in colon cancer. In the present study, we demonstrated that genistein could induce apoptosis in human colon cancer LoVo and HT-29 cells through inhibiting NF-?B pathway, as well as downregulation of Bcl-2 and upregulation of Bax, thus providing basis for clinical application of genistein in colon cancer cases.
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Hyper-coupling between working memory task-evoked activations and amplitude of spontaneous fluctuations in first-episode schizophrenia.
Schizophr. Res.
PUBLISHED: 08-15-2014
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Working memory (WM) deficit is an important component of impaired cognition in schizophrenia. However, between-studies inconsistencies as to the specific functional substrate imply that inter-individual variability (IIV) in the WM performance is associated with IIV in brain activity in schizophrenia. To examine the neural substrate of this WM IIV, we studied whether the neural mechanisms that underlie individual differences in WM capacity are the same in schizophrenia patients and healthy people. We correlated the IIV of the task-evoked brain activity and task performance during an n-back WM task with the IIV of the moment-to-moment variability in intrinsic resting-state activity, as measured by the amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations (ALFFs) and further compared this relationship between 17 patients with first-episode schizophrenia (FES) and 18 healthy controls. Between-group comparisons of the correlation patterns indicated aberrant ALFF-WM activation correlations and ALFF-WM performance correlations in the FES patients, but no significant changes were detected in any single measurement of these three characteristics. Specifically, we found increased positive ALFF-WM activation correlations in the bilateral lateral prefrontal cortices, posterior parietal cortices and fusiform gyri in the FES patients. We also observed significant increases in positive ALFF-WM performance correlations in the bilateral ventromedial prefrontal cortices in the FES patients. This hyper-coupling between the ALFF and fMRI measures during a WM task may indicate that it was difficult for the patients to detach themselves from one state to transition to another and suggests that the inefficient cortical function in schizophrenia stems from the intrinsic functional architecture of the brain.
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Assessment of 5-fluorouracil and 4-nitroquinoline-1-oxide in vivo genotoxicity with Pig-a mutation and micronucleus endpoints.
Environ. Mol. Mutagen.
PUBLISHED: 08-14-2014
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Genotoxicity assessments were conducted on male Sprague Dawley rats treated with 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) and 4-nitroquinoline-1-oxide (4NQO) as part of an international validation trial of the Pig-a mutant phenotype assay. Rats were orally exposed to 0, 11.5, 23, or 46 mg/kg/day 5-FU for three consecutive days (Days 1-3); blood was sampled on Days -1, 4, 15, 29, and 45. Pig-a mutant phenotype reticulocyte (RET(CD59-) ) and mutant phenotype erythrocyte (RBC(CD59-) ) frequencies were determined on Days -1, 15, 29, and 45, and percent micronucleated reticulocytes (%MN-RET) were measured on Day 4. Rats were treated with 4NQO for 28 consecutive days by oral gavage, at doses of 1.5, 3, or 6 mg/kg/day. RBC(CD59-) and RET(CD59-) frequencies were determined on Days -1, 15, and 29, and MN-RET were quantified on Day 29. Whereas 5-FU was found to increase %MN-RET, no significant increases were observed for RBC(CD59-) or RET(CD59-) at any of the time points studied. The high dose of 4NQO (6 mg/kg/day) was observed to markedly increase RBC(CD59-) and RET(CD59-) frequencies, and this same dose level caused a weak but significantly elevated increase in MN-RET (approximately twofold). Collectively, the results provide additional support for the combination of Pig-a mutation and MN-RET into acute and 28-day repeat-dose studies. Environ. Mol. Mutagen. 55:735-740, 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
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Crystal structure of the ubiquitin-like domain-CUT repeat-like tandem of special AT-rich sequence binding protein 1 (SATB1) reveals a coordinating DNA-binding mechanism.
J. Biol. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 08-14-2014
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SATB1 is essential for T-cell development and growth and metastasis of multitype tumors and acts as a global chromatin organizer and gene expression regulator. The DNA binding ability of SATB1 plays vital roles in its various biological functions. We report the crystal structure of the N-terminal module of SATB1. Interestingly, this module contains a ubiquitin-like domain (ULD) and a CUT repeat-like (CUTL) domain (ULD-CUTL tandem). Detailed biochemical experiments indicate that the N terminus of SATB1 (residues 1-248, SATB1((1-248))), including the extreme 70 N-terminal amino acids, and the ULD-CUTL tandem bind specifically to DNA targets. Our results show that the DNA binding ability of full-length SATB1 requires the contribution of the CUTL domain, as well as the CUT1-CUT2 tandem domain and the homeodomain. These findings may reveal a multiple-domain-coordinated mechanism whereby SATB1 recognizes DNA targets.
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Emergent severe acute respiratory distress syndrome caused by adenovirus type 55 in immunocompetent adults in 2013: a prospective observational study.
Crit Care
PUBLISHED: 08-12-2014
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Since 2008, severe cases of emerging human adenovirus type 55 (HAdV-55) in immunocompetent adults have been reported sporadically in China. The clinical features and outcomes of the most critically ill patients with severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) caused by HAdV-55 requiring invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV) and/or extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) are lacking.
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Higher levels of circulating monocyte-platelet aggregates are correlated with viremia and increased sCD163 levels in HIV-1 infection.
Cell. Mol. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 08-11-2014
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Increased levels of monocyte-platelet aggregates (MPAs) are reported to be highly correlated with cardiovascular events. In this study, the MPA levels in different monocyte subsets and the associations between MPA levels, HIV-1 viremia and monocyte activation were evaluated during HIV-1 infection. The results showed that the percentages of MPAs in all three monocyte subsets were higher in HIV-1-infected subjects than in healthy controls, and were associated with the plasma viral load in the non-classical and intermediate monocyte subsets. The plasma levels of sCD14 and sCD163 were upregulated in HIV-1 infection and were positively associated with viral loads and negatively associated with CD4 counts. P-selectin glycoprotein ligand-1 (PSGL-1) was shown to be expressed at significantly lower levels on all three monocyte subsets and was negatively correlated with the sCD163 level. The MPA level was correlated with the levels of plasma sCD163 but negatively correlated with CD163 and PSGL-1 on all three monocyte subsets. An elevated immune activation status was correlated with increased MPA formation, underlying the potential interaction between monocyte activation and MPA formation. This interaction may be related to a higher thromboembolic risk in patients infected with HIV-1.Cellular & Molecular Immunology advance online publication, 11 August 2014; doi:10.1038/cmi.2014.66.
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Celecoxib induces apoptosis via a mitochondria?dependent pathway in the H22 mouse hepatoma cell line.
Mol Med Rep
PUBLISHED: 08-07-2014
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Celecoxib is a potent nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug that has demonstrated promise in cancer chemoprevention and treatment. The present study was conducted to gain insight into the molecular mechanism by which celecoxib induces apoptosis in the H22 mouse hepatoma cell line. The effect of celecoxib on the viability of H22 mouse hepatoma cells was assessed with sulforhodamine B assay. Apoptosis and mitochondrial membrane potential were detected by a flow cytometric assay. The protein expression levels of Bax, Bcl?2, cytochrome c, caspase-3, caspase-9, apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)? and nuclear factor (NF)-?B were determined by western blot analysis. The data demonstrated that celecoxib reduced the percentage of viable H22 cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner, which was associated with cell apoptosis. Furthermore, celecoxib induced apoptosis via the loss of the mitochondrial transmembrane potential (??m), the release of cytochrome c and AIF, and the activation of caspase-9 and caspase-3. Celecoxib also increased the abundance of the pro-apoptotic protein Bax and reduced the levels of the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2. The data demonstrated that celecoxib induced apoptosis in mouse liver cancer cells via the mitochondria-dependent pathway rather than the PPAR?/NF-?B signaling pathway, which indicates that celecoxib may be an effective agent in the clinical management of hepatocellular carcinoma.
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N-methylimidazole promotes the reaction of homophthalic anhydride with imines.
J. Org. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 07-24-2014
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The addition of N-methylimidazole (NMI) to the reaction of homophthalic anhydride with imines such as pyridine-3-carboxaldehyde-N-trifluoroethylimine (9) reduces the amount of elimination byproduct and improves the yield of the formal cycloadduct, tetrahydroisoquinolonic carboxylate 10. Carboxanilides of such compounds are of interest as potential antimalarial agents. A mechanism that rationalizes the role of NMI is proposed, and a gram-scale procedure for the synthesis and resolution of 10 is also described.
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Seniors have a better learning curve for laparoscopic colorectal cancer resection.
Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev.
PUBLISHED: 07-22-2014
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This study was designed to evaluate the outcomes of laparoscopic colorectal resection in a period of learning curve completed by surgeons with different experience and aptitudes with a view to making clear whether seniors had a better learning curve compared with juniors.
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Risk of lymph node metastases from early gastric cancer in relation to depth of invasion: experience in a single institution.
Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev.
PUBLISHED: 07-22-2014
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An accurate assessment of potential lymph node metastasis is important for the appropriate treatment of early gastric cancers. Therefore, this study analyzed predictive factors associated with lymph node metastasis and identified differences between mucosal and submucosal gastric cancers.
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Lymph node ratio is an independent prognostic factor in node positive rectal cancer patients treated with preoperative chemoradiotherapy followed by curative resection.
Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev.
PUBLISHED: 07-22-2014
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The lymph node ratio (LNR) has been shown to be an important prognostic factor for colorectal cancer. However, studies focusing on the prognostic impact of LNR in rectal cancer patients who received neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (CRT) followed by curative resection have been limited. The aim of this study was to investigate LNR in rectal cancer patients who received neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (CRT) followed by curative resection.
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[The clinical application of objective hearing monitoring technology in cochlear implants].
Lin Chung Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 07-17-2014
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Compare the clinical characteristics and application value between elcetrically evoked stapedius responses and neural response telemetry.
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Pentacam could be a useful tool for evaluating and qualifying the anterior chamber morphology.
Int J Clin Exp Med
PUBLISHED: 07-15-2014
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This study aims to investigate the changes of anterior chamber morphology after laser peripheral iridotomy (LPI) in primary angle-closure (PAC) patients using Pentacam.
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Analysis of laparoscopy-assisted gastric cancer operations performed by inexperienced junior surgeons.
Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev.
PUBLISHED: 07-08-2014
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To clarify whether gastric cancer patients can benefit from laparoscopy-assisted surgery completed by junior surgeons under supervision of expert surgeons, data of 232 patients with gastric cancer underwent operation performed by inexperienced junior surgeons were reviewed. Of the 232 patients, 137 underwent laparoscopy- assisted resection and in 118 cases this approach was successful. All of these 118 patients were assigned to laparoscopic group in this study, 19 patients who were switched to open resection were excluded. All laparoscopic operations were performed under the supervision of expert laparoscopic surgeons. Some 95 patients receiving open resection were assigned to the open group. All open operations were completed independently by the same surgeons. Short-term outcomes including oncologic outcomes, operative time intra-operative blood loss, time to first flatus, time to first defecation, postoperative hospital stay and perioperative complication were compared between the two groups. The numbers of lymph nodes harvested in the laparoscopic and open groups were21.1±9.6 and 18.2±9.7 (p=0.029). There was no significant difference in the length of margins. The mean operative time was 215.9±32.2 min in laparoscopic group and 220.1±34.6min in the open group (p=0.866), and the mean blood loss in laparoscopic group was obviously less than that in open group (200.9±197.0ml vs 291.1±191.4ml; p=0.001). Time to first flatus in laparoscopic and open groups was 4.0±1.0 days and 4.3±1.2days respectively and the difference was not significant (p=0.135). Similarly no statically significant difference was noted for time to first defecation (4.7±1.6 vs 4.8±1.6, p=0.586). Eleven patients in the laparoscopic group and 19 in the open group suffered from peri-operative complications and the difference between the two groups was significant (9.3% vs 20.0%, p=0.026). The conversion rate for laparoscopic surgery was 13.9%. Patients with gastric cancer can benefit from laparoscopy-assisted operations completed by inexperienced junior surgeons under supervision of expert laparoscopic surgeons.
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MicroRNAs as ideal biomarkers for the diagnosis of lung cancer.
Tumour Biol.
PUBLISHED: 06-01-2014
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Lung cancer (LC) is one of the most prevalent causes of cancer death with a high mortality rate worldwide. While various sets of microRNAs (miRNAs) have been found to be highly sensitive and specific biomarkers for the early diagnosis of LC (the first word of abstract), conflicting results on their diagnostic accuracy are still present in individual studies. Thus, we aimed to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of the published literature to comprehensively assess the diagnostic value of miRNAs for predicting LC. The sensitivity and specificity of each included study were used to plot the summary receiver operator characteristic (SROC) curve and to calculate the area under the SROC curve (AUC). All analyses were performed using the Stata 12.0 software. Twenty-six articles were involved in our meta-analysis, 18 of which focused on single miRNA assays and 15 on multiple miRNA assays. For single miRNA profiling, the pooled parameters calculated from all studies are as follows: sensitivity (SEN), 0.72; specificity (SPE), 0.74; positive likelihood ratio (PLR), 2.7; negative likelihood ratio (NLR), 0.39; and diagnostic odds ratio (DOR), 7. For multiple miRNA profiling, the pooled estimates for the overall studies are as follows: SEN, 0.81; SPE, 0.84; PLR, 4.9; NLR, 0.23; and DOR, 22, which are significantly better than the diagnostic performance of the single miRNA profiling. In addition, subgroup analyses based on sample types suggested that blood-based multiple miRNA assays were more accurate than non-blood-based studies. In conclusion, the current meta-analysis shows that multiple miRNA assays were more accurate in diagnosing LC than single miRNA assays. However, further large-scale investigations are urgently needed to confirm our results and verify the feasibility of routine clinical utilization.
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Overexpression of DNAJB6 promotes colorectal cancer cell invasion through an IQGAP1/ERK-dependent signaling pathway.
Mol. Carcinog.
PUBLISHED: 05-18-2014
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DNAJB6 is a member of the heat shock protein 40 (Hsp40) family. We here investigated the clinical correlation and biological role of DNAJB6 overexpression in colorectal cancer (CRC). The expression of DNAJB6 protein was examined in 200 cases of colorectal adenocarcinomas by immunohistochemistry (IHC) technology. Gene transfection and RNA interference were performed to determine the effect of DNAJB6 expression on the invasion of CRC cells and to explore the underlying molecular mechanisms in vitro and in vivo. Overexpression of DNAJB6 was found in 39% (78/200) of the CRC tissues, especially in tumors at pT4 as compared with at pT1-3 (P?=?0.02). A Kaplan-Meier survival analysis revealed a correlation between DNAJB6 expression and overall survival (OS) times (P?=?0.003). Multivariate analysis confirmed that DNAJB6 overexpression was an independent prognostic factor for CRC (P?=?0.002). RNA interference-mediated silencing of the DNAJB6 gene inhibited the invasion of CRC cells in vitro were accompanied by a significant reduction in the protein levels of IQ-domain GTPase-activating protein 1 (IQGAP1) and phosphorylated ERK (pERK). An in vivo assay showed that inhibition of DNAJB6 expression decreased the lung metastases of CRC cells. IHC analysis of serial sections showed that there was a positive correlation between DNAJB6 and IQGAP1 expression in primary CRC tissues (P?=?0.013). The data suggest that DNAJB6 plays an important oncogenic role in CRC cell invasion by up-regulating IQGAP1 and activating the ERK signaling pathway and that DNAJB6 may be used as a prognostic marker for CRC. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
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Gene expression profiles analysis identifies key genes for acute lung injury in patients with sepsis.
Diagn Pathol
PUBLISHED: 05-16-2014
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BackgroundTo identify critical genes and biological pathways in acute lung injury (ALI), a comparative analysis of gene expression profiles of patients with ALI¿+¿sepsis compared with patients with sepsis alone were performed with bioinformatic tools.MethodsGSE10474 was downloaded from Gene Expression Omnibus, including a collective of 13 whole blood samples with ALI¿+¿sepsis and 21 whole blood samples with sepsis alone. After pre-treatment with robust multichip averaging (RMA) method, differential analysis was conducted using simpleaffy package based upon t-test and fold change. Hierarchical clustering was also performed using function hclust from package stats. Beisides, functional enrichment analysis was conducted using iGepros. Moreover, the gene regulatory network was constructed with information from Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) and then visualized by Cytoscape.ResultsA total of 128 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified, including 47 up- and 81 down-regulated genes. The significantly enriched functions included negative regulation of cell proliferation, regulation of response to stimulus and cellular component morphogenesis. A total of 27 DEGs were significantly enriched in 16 KEGG pathways, such as protein digestion and absorption, fatty acid metabolism, amoebiasis, etc. Furthermore, the regulatory network of these 27 DEGs was constructed, which involved several key genes, including protein tyrosine kinase 2 (PTK2), v-src avian sarcoma (SRC) and Caveolin 2 (CAV2).ConclusionPTK2, SRC and CAV2 may be potential markers for diagnosis and treatment of ALI.Virtual SlidesThe virtual slide(s) for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/13000_2014_176.
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Specific deficiency of Plzf paralog, Zbtb20, in Sertoli cells does not affect spermatogenesis and fertility in mice.
Sci Rep
PUBLISHED: 05-14-2014
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Ztbt20 is a POK family transcription factor and primarily functions through its conserved C2H2 Krüppel type zinc finger and BTB/POZ domains. The present study was designed to define the function of the Zbtb20, in vivo, during mouse spermatogenesis. Immunohistochemical studies revealed that ZBTB20 protein was localized specifically in the nuclei of Sertoli cells in seminiferous tubules. To investigate its role during spermatogenesis, we crossed Amh-Cre transgenic mice with Zbtb20 floxp mice to generate conditionally knockout mice (cKO) in which Zbtb20 was specifically deleted in Sertoli cells. The cKO mice were fertile and did not show any detectable abnormalities in spermatogenesis. Taken together, though specific deletion of transcription factor Zbtb20 in Sertoli cells has no apparent influence on spermatogenesis, its specific localization in Sertoli cells makes Zbtb20 a useful marker for the identification of Sertoli cells in seminiferous tubules.
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Uniportal complete video-assisted thoracoscopic lobectomy with systematic lymphadenectomy.
J Thorac Dis
PUBLISHED: 05-10-2014
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Video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) has permeated our thoracic surgical practice and now will develop in depth towards a next level of minimally invasive surgery (MIS). Irrespective of generation gaps and diversified perception within thoracic community, more and more surgical teams are adapting to the uniportal lobectomy. This video demonstrates a case undergoing uniportal VATS lobectomy with systematic lymphadenectomy for lung cancer. We here describe our technique for uniportal approach by using a combination of double-jointed and endoscopic instruments to combat the four major obstacles: (I) interference of the thoracoscope, stapler and the instrumentation in and out of the thoracic cavity? (II) whether the field of vision is enough or not without the other 1-3 ports to improve the exposure? (III) the optimal stapler introduction angle especially for upper and middle lobes resection? (IV) more importantly, the oncologic validity of uniportal procedures as well as the reduction of postoperative morbidity? We believe, uniportal VATS lobectomy with systematic lymphadenectomy is technically safe and feasible and alternative approach to conventional thoracoscopic lobectomy in lung cancer treatment. The issues of patient acceptability, the cosmetic and oncologic results, and cost-effectiveness remain to be determined in the future through multi-institution randomized controlled trials and long-term follow-up.
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Development of a new 26plex Y-STRs typing system for forensic application.
Forensic Sci Int Genet
PUBLISHED: 04-05-2014
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In this study, 26plex Y-STRs typing system, including 17 Y-STRs (DYS19, DYS389I, DYS389II, DYS390, DYS391, DYS392, DYS393, DYS385ab, DYS437, DYS438, DYS439, DYS448, DYS456, DYS458, DYS635 and GATA H4) recommended as YHRD standard loci and nine new highly discriminating Y-STRs (DYS549, DYS643, DYS388, DYS570, DYS533, DYS576, DYS460, DYS481 and DYS449), was established with 5-dye fluorescences labelling. Developmental validation indicated that the 26plex Y-STRs typing system was reproducible, accurate, sensitive and robust. The sensitivity of the system was such that a full profile was obtainable even with 125pg of male DNA. Specificity testing was demonstrated by the lack of cross-reactivity with a variety of commonly encountered animal species and bacteria. Also, the multiplex is suitable for mixture study. An average of above 97% of the minor alleles detected with the male/male mixture with 1:3 and 3:1 ratios, while an average of above 70% of the minor alleles detected with the male/male mixture with 1:19 and 19:1 ratios. Full profiles are consistently detected with 125pg of male DNA, even in the presence of excessive amounts of female DNA. In addition, the whole PCR amplification of the 26 Y-STRs can finish in 1h, making the multiplex system suitable for fast-detection. For the forensic evaluation of the multiplex system, 516 haplotypes were found among 517 unrelated males. HD of the multiplex system was 0.9999925 while DC was 0.9980658, which is suitable for forensic application.
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Determination of Hg(2+) by on-line separation and pre-concentration with atmospheric-pressure solution-cathode glow discharge atomic emission spectrometry.
Anal. Chim. Acta
PUBLISHED: 03-30-2014
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A simple and sensitive method to determine Hg(2+) was developed by combining solution-cathode glow discharge atomic emission spectrometry (SCGD-AES) with flow injection (FI) based on on-line solid-phase extraction (SPE). We synthesized l-cysteine-modified mesoporous silica and packed it in an SPE microcolumn, which was experimentally determined to possess a good mercury adsorption capacity. An enrichment factor of 42 was achieved under optimized Hg(2+) elution conditions, namely, an FI flow rate of 2.0 mL min(-1) and an eluent comprised of 10% thiourea in 0.2 mol L(-1) HNO3. The detection limit of FI-SCGD-AES was determined to be 0.75 ?g L(-1), and the precision of the 11 replicate Hg(2+) measurements was 0.86% at a concentration of 100 ?g L(-1). The proposed method was validated by determining Hg(2+) in certified reference materials such as human hair (GBW09101b) and stream sediment (GBW07310).
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Lupeol induces apoptosis and inhibits invasion in gallbladder carcinoma GBC-SD cells by suppression of EGFR/MMP-9 signaling pathway.
Cytotechnology
PUBLISHED: 03-25-2014
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The cytostatic drug from fruits and other plant derived products have acted as a chemotherapeutic agent used in treatment of a wide variety of cancers. Lupeol, a dietary triterpene, present in many fruits and medicinal plants, has been shown to possess many pharmacological properties including anti-cancer effect in both in vitro and in vivo assay systems. However, the cancer proliferative and invasive inhibitory effects and molecular mechanisms on gallbladder carcinoma GBC-SD cells have not been studied. In the present study, GBC-SD cells were treated by lupeol and subjected to methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium analysis, Hoechst 33342 staining, annexin V/propidium iodide double-staining, transwell chamber assay and Western blot analysis. In addition, GBC-SD xenograft tumors were established in male nude BALB/c mice, and lupeol was intravenously administered to evaluate the anti-cancer capacity in vivo. Our results showed that lupeol inhibited the proliferation, migration, invasion and induced apoptosis of GBC-SD cells in a dose-dependent manner in vitro. Furthermore, the expression of p-EGFR, p-AKT and MMP-9 levels were significantly down-regulated. These protein interactions may play a pivotal role in the regulation of apoptosis and invasion. More importantly, our in vivo studies showed that administration of lupeol decreased tumor growth in a dose-dependent manner. Immunohistochemistry analysis demonstrated the down-regulation of p-EGFR and MMP-9 in tumor tissues following lupeol treatment, consistent with the in vitro results. Taken together, our findings indicated that lupeol can induce apoptotic cell death and inhibit the migration as well as invasion of GBC-SD cells. The mechanism may be associated with the suppression of EGFR/MMP-9 signaling. These results might offer a therapeutic potential advantage for human gallbladder carcinoma chemoprevention or chemotherapy.
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Outcome of laparoscopic versus open resection for rectal cancer in elderly patients.
J. Surg. Res.
PUBLISHED: 03-05-2014
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Laparoscopic colorectal resection has been gaining popularity over the past two decades. However, studies about laparoscopic rectal surgery in elderly patients with long-term oncologic outcomes are limited. In this study, we evaluated the short-term and long-term outcomes of laparoscopic and open resection in patients with rectal cancer aged ?70 y.
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A doping technique that suppresses undesirable H2 evolution derived from overall water splitting in the highly selective photocatalytic conversion of CO2 in and by water.
Chemistry
PUBLISHED: 02-18-2014
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Photocatalytic conversion of CO2 to reduction products, such as CO, HCOOH, HCHO, CH3OH, and CH4, is one of the most attractive propositions for producing green energy by artificial photosynthesis. Herein, we found that Ga2O3 photocatalysts exhibit high conversion of CO2. Doping of Zn species into Ga2O3 suppresses the H2 evolution derived from overall water splitting and, consequently, Zn-doped, Ag-modified Ga2O3 exhibits higher selectivity toward CO evolution than bare, Ag-modified Ga2O3. We observed stoichiometric amounts of evolved O2 together with CO. Mass spectrometry clarified that the carbon source of the evolved CO is not the residual carbon species on the photocatalyst surface, but the CO2 introduced in the gas phase. Doping of the photocatalyst with Zn is expected to ease the adsorption of CO2 on the catalyst surface.
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A case study of SNPSTR efficiency in paternity testing with locus incompatibility.
Forensic Sci Int Genet
PUBLISHED: 02-18-2014
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Instead of testing the additional STR loci, SNPSTR was included in the paternity testing for an alleged father-son duo case, with one inconsistency at the CSF1PO locus. We have chosen CSF1PO STR and five closely linked SNPs rs10077461, rs2569076, rs2228422, rs3733673 and rs3829987 to establish the SNPSTR and examined its potential use in paternity testing. A total of 152 haplotypes from 76 unrelated individuals were obtained by the nested-AS-PCR and 60 SNPSTR haplotypes were observed. The discrimination power of the SNPSTR haplotype was greater than either the STR or SNP haplotype alone. Its SNP part could be used to distinguish fathers from uncles. When SNPSTR was introduced into the calculation of parentage statistics, the paternity probability increased to 99.998%. Based on our findings, we concluded that SNPSTR could be considered a useful tool in forensic science.
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Iron-sulfur protein in mitochondrial complexes of Spodoptera litura as potential site for ROS generation.
J. Insect Physiol.
PUBLISHED: 02-16-2014
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Mitochondrial complex I is the main source of reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, but the exact site of superoxide generation or their relative contribution is not clear. This study aims to determine the function of iron-sulfur clusters (ISCU) in the initiation of ROS generation. ISCU2 and ISCU8 were cloned from Spodoptera litura which shared the conserved amino acid sequence with other insects. The expressions of the two genes were ubiquitous throughout the whole development stages and tissues. Knockdown of ISCU2 and ISCU8 resulted in the decline of the ROS, whereas rotenone and azadirachtin treatment up-regulated ROS levels by increasing mRNA expression. Furthermore, antioxidant enzyme activity of SOD and POD were up-regulated by rotenone and azadirachtin treatment and then declined after ISCU was silenced. Our results suggest the possibility that the molecules of ISCU2 and ISCU8 in complex I may serve as potential sites in the initiation of ROS generation.
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PCP-ML: Protein characterization package for machine learning.
BMC Res Notes
PUBLISHED: 01-27-2014
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Machine Learning (ML) has a number of demonstrated applications in protein prediction tasks such as protein structure prediction. To speed further development of machine learning based tools and their release to the community, we have developed a package which characterizes several aspects of a protein commonly used for protein prediction tasks with machine learning.
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Determination of trace heavy metals in environmental and biological samples by solution cathode glow discharge-atomic emission spectrometry and addition of ionic surfactants for improved sensitivity.
Talanta
PUBLISHED: 01-10-2014
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Solution cathode glow discharge-atomic emission spectrometry (SCGD-AES) was evaluated for its ability to determine toxic heavy metals, including cadmium (Cd), mercury (Hg), lead (Pb), and chromium (Cr), in environmental and biological samples. A significant enhancement in heavy metal signal was observed by addition of a small amount of cetyltrimethylammoniumchloride (CTAC, C16H33 (CH3)3NCl) to the samples. The net intensity of atomic emission lines of Cd, Hg, Pb, and Cr increased by 2.1-, 4.8-, 6.6-, and 2.6-fold, respectively, after addition of 0.15% CTAC to the test solutions. The effects of ionic surfactants (CTAC) compared with non-ionic surfactants, e.g., Triton x-45 and Triton x-100, on the sensitivity of Cd, Hg, Pb, and Cr were also investigated in the present study. The enhancement effect is in the order Triton x-45
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Hyper-IL-15 suppresses metastatic and autochthonous liver cancer by promoting tumour-specific CD8(+) T cell responses.
J. Hepatol.
PUBLISHED: 01-09-2014
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Liver cancer has a very dismal prognosis due to lack of effective therapy. Here, we studied the therapeutic effects of hyper-interleukin15 (hyper-IL-15), which is composed of IL-15 and the sushi domain of the IL-15 receptor ? chain, on metastatic and autochthonous liver cancers.
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Visual information and multi-joint coordination patterns in one-leg stance.
Gait Posture
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2014
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This study examined the influence of visual information on the multi-joint coordination patterns in maintaining one-leg stance. 12 participants stood still on their left leg for two 1 min trials with and without visual information. The multi-joint coordination patterns in the frontal plane were examined using a frequency domain principal component analysis (PCAf) on 14 joint angular motion time series. The factor loading spectra of PC1 showed two distinct multi-joint postural coordination strategies that relate to the mechanical constraints on balance identified by Hof (2007) [7]. The more prevalent strategy was the coordination of the left ankle-left knee or the left ankle only motion that is related to the "moving the center of pressure" strategy. A 2nd multi-joint coordination strategy showed larger factor loading of the trunk and upper limbs (i.e., shoulders and elbows) in addition to the left ankle implying the role of the upper limbs to generate "counter-rotational torque against the sway of the center of mass (COM)". With eyes open, the participants predominantly utilized the 1st strategy to maintain balance but switched to the 2nd strategy when visual information was not available during the stance. The role of visual information in determining the prevalence of two dominant multi-joint coordination kinematic patterns in one-leg stance reflects the redundant and emergent properties of the postural control system that channel the biomechanical constraints on balance arising from the interaction of the task, environment and the individual.
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A tri-modality image fusion method for target delineation of brain tumors in radiotherapy.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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To develop a tri-modality image fusion method for better target delineation in image-guided radiotherapy for patients with brain tumors.
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Gene Expression Differences among Three Neurospora Species Reveal Genes Required for Sexual Reproduction in Neurospora crassa.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Many fungi form complex three-dimensional fruiting bodies, within which the meiotic machinery for sexual spore production has been considered to be largely conserved over evolutionary time. Indeed, much of what we know about meiosis in plant and animal taxa has been deeply informed by studies of meiosis in Saccharomyces and Neurospora. Nevertheless, the genetic basis of fruiting body development and its regulation in relation to meiosis in fungi is barely known, even within the best studied multicellular fungal model Neurospora crassa. We characterized morphological development and genome-wide transcriptomics in the closely related species Neurospora crassa, Neurospora tetrasperma, and Neurospora discreta, across eight stages of sexual development. Despite diverse life histories within the genus, all three species produce vase-shaped perithecia. Transcriptome sequencing provided gene expression levels of orthologous genes among all three species. Expression of key meiosis genes and sporulation genes corresponded to known phenotypic and developmental differences among these Neurospora species during sexual development. We assembled a list of genes putatively relevant to the recent evolution of fruiting body development by sorting genes whose relative expression across developmental stages increased more in N. crassa relative to the other species. Then, in N. crassa, we characterized the phenotypes of fruiting bodies arising from crosses of homozygous knockout strains of the top genes. Eight N. crassa genes were found to be critical for the successful formation of perithecia. The absence of these genes in these crosses resulted in either no perithecium formation or in arrested development at an early stage. Our results provide insight into the genetic basis of Neurospora sexual reproduction, which is also of great importance with regard to other multicellular ascomycetes, including perithecium-forming pathogens, such as Claviceps purpurea, Ophiostoma ulmi, and Glomerella graminicola.
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Spiroketal-Based Diphosphine Ligands in Pd-Catalyzed Asymmetric Allylic Amination of Morita-Baylis-Hillman Adducts: Exceptionally High Efficiency and New Mechanism.
J. Am. Chem. Soc.
PUBLISHED: 12-24-2013
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Exceptionally high activity (with a TON up to 4750) of the palladium complexes of SKP ligand was discovered in the catalysis of asymmetric allylic amination of MBH adducts with aromatic amines. A comprehensive mechanistic study indicates that the unique structural features of the SKP ligand, with a long P···P distance in its solid-state structure, were favorable for allowing two P atoms to play a bifunctional role in the catalysis. Herein, one of the P atom forms a C-P ?-bond with the terminal carbon atom of allyl moiety as a Lewis base, and an alternative P atom coordinates to Pd atom. The cooperative action of organo- and organometallic catalysis discovered in the present catalytic system is most likely responsible for its high activity, as well as excellent regio- and enantioselectivities. The mechanism disclosed in the present catalytic system is distinct from most of the currently recognized mechanisms for Pd-catalyzed allylic substitutions.
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CXCL5 contributes to tumour metastasis and recurrence of intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma by recruiting infiltrative intratumoural neutrophils.
Carcinogenesis
PUBLISHED: 11-30-2013
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CXCL5 is a member of the CXC-type chemokine family that may play a role in carcinogenesis and cancer progression. This study investigates the biological function and clinical significance of CXCL5 in intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC). We demonstrated that CXCL5 was overexpressed in ICC cell lines and tumour samples compared with paired normal tissues. CXCL5 had a direct chemoattractant effect on neutrophils in vitro through PI3K-Akt and ERK1/2 signalling pathways. In animal studies, CXCL5 promoted tumour growth and metastasis without altering in vitro proliferative and invasive ability of ICC cells, and this effect was mediated by the recruitment of intratumoural infiltrative neutrophils by tumour-derived CXCL5. Immunohistochemical analysis of ICC samples showed that overexpression of CXCL5 correlated strongly with intratumoural neutrophil infiltration, shorter overall survival, and high tumour recurrence. Multivariate analysis revealed that CXCL5 overexpression alone, or combined with the presence of intratumoural neutrophils, was an independent prognostic indicator for ICC. In conclusion, our data showed that CXCL5 promotes ICC growth and metastasis by recruiting intratumoural neutrophils. CXCL5 alone or combined with intratumoural neutrophils is a novel prognostic predictor for ICC patients and a potential therapeutic target.
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Inter- and Intra-Foot Coordination When Standing on Balance Boards.
Motor Control
PUBLISHED: 11-25-2013
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The experiment was set up to investigate the inter- and intra-foot coordination dynamics of postural control on balance boards. A frequency domain principal component analysis (fPCA) was applied on 4 center of pressure (COP) time series collected from two force platforms to reveal their contributions to postural stability. The orientation of support played a more significant role than its width in channeling the foot coordination dynamics. When the support was oriented along the AP-challenging direction, the 4 COPs revealed a parallel contribution to the 1st principal component (PC1) indicating an inter-dependence of the foot coordination in both directions. When the support was positioned along the ML-challenging direction, the COPs in the AP direction showed larger weightings to PC1 implying an inter-foot coordination. These findings provide evidence that COP coordination operates in adaptive ways to sustain postural stability in light of changing support constraints to standing.
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[A feasibility research of minimally invasive transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (MIS-TLIF) using hybrid internal fixation for recurrent lumbar disc herniation].
Zhonghua Wai Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 11-21-2013
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To investigate the feasibility of minimally invasive transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (MIS-TLIF) using hybrid internal fixation of pedicle screws and a translaminar facet screw for recurrent lumbar disc herniation.
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Global Gene Expression and Focused Knockout Analysis Reveals Genes Associated with Fungal Fruiting Body Development in Neurospora crassa.
Eukaryotic Cell
PUBLISHED: 11-15-2013
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Fungi can serve as highly tractable models for understanding genetic basis of sexual development in multicellular organisms. Applying a reverse-genetic approach to advance such a model, we used random and multitargeted primers to assay gene expression across perithecial development in Neurospora crassa. We found that functionally unclassified proteins accounted for most upregulated genes, whereas downregulated genes were enriched for diverse functions. Moreover, genes associated with developmental traits exhibited stage-specific peaks of expression. Expression increased significantly across sexual development for mating type gene mat a-1 and for mat A-1 specific pheromone precursor ccg-4. In addition, expression of a gene encoding a protein similar to zinc finger, stc1, was highly upregulated early in perithecial development, and a strain with a knockout of this gene exhibited arrest at the same developmental stage. A similar expression pattern was observed for genes in RNA silencing and signaling pathways, and strains with knockouts of these genes were also arrested at stages of perithecial development that paralleled their peak in expression. The observed stage specificity allowed us to correlate expression upregulation and developmental progression and to identify regulators of sexual development. Bayesian networks inferred from our expression data revealed previously known and new putative interactions between RNA silencing genes and pathways. Overall, our analysis provides a fine-scale transcriptomic landscape and novel inferences regarding the control of the multistage development process of sexual crossing and fruiting body development in N. crassa.
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[Analysis of 21 cases treated by total laparoscopic rectosigmoid cancer surgery with transanal natural orifice specimen extraction].
Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 10-31-2013
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To evaluate the feasibility, safety and short-term outcomes of total laparoscopic rectosigmoid cancer surgery with transanal natural orifice specimen extraction.
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Growth in percutaneous coronary intervention capacity relative to population and disease prevalence.
J Am Heart Assoc
PUBLISHED: 10-30-2013
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The access to and growth of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) has not been fully explored with regard to geographic equity and need. Economic factors and timely access to primary PCI provide the impetus for growth in PCI centers, and this is balanced by volume standards and the benefits of regionalized care.
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Caesappin A and B, two novel protosappanins from Caesalpinia sappan L.
Fitoterapia
PUBLISHED: 10-16-2013
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Two novel protosappanins, named Caesappin A (1) and B (2), along with three known protosappanins were isolated from Caesalpinia sappan L. Caesappin A is a new type protosappanin with a seven-membered ring fusing an acetal-type section. Compound 4 was isolated from the genus Caesalpinia for the first time. The structures were elucidated on the basis of spectral analysis and the absolute configuration was determined by the ECD experiment coupled with calculated ECD spectra. Their cytotoxic activities were evaluated using MTT assay.
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Interplay of stimuli-responsiveness, drug loading and release for a surface-engineered dendrimer delivery system.
Int J Pharm
PUBLISHED: 10-15-2013
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The objectives of this study were to generate novel thermo and pH dual responsive poly(amidoamine) (PAMAM) via precise surface engineering, and investigate the interplay of dendrimer stimuli-responsiveness and the loading and release properties of a model agent, vitamin E acetate (VEAc). A higher dendrimer generation and maximized VEAc loading at elevated pH all contributed to a lower cloud point (CP) of the dendrimer-VEAc complex. The drug loading in G3.5 surface-engineered PAMAM was 22mol/mol (pH 7.0) and 10mol/mol (pH 5.0), which corresponded to a complex CP value at ca. 13°C (pH 7.0) and 46°C (pH 5.0), respectively. At physiological conditions, only less than 40% of VEAc was liberated when reaching the plateau, whilst more than 90% of VEAc was released from such system within 6h at pH 5.0. This was due to the transition of dendrimer surface from dehydrated state to hydrated state upon pH dropping, enabling rapid drug release for therapeutic action. This smart stimuli-responsive dendritic delivery system holds promise for the efficient drug delivery to tissues with pH abnormality such as tumor.
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Curcumin promotes neurite outgrowth via reggie-1/flotillin-2 in cortical neurons.
Neurosci. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 10-11-2013
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Curcumin is well known as an antioxidant and anti-inflammatory agent. In this study, we provided convincing evidence for the function of curcumin in neurite outgrowth of cortical neurons. We discovered that curcumin treatment could promote the number of processes, mean process length, and maximum process length of primary neurons, which were inhibited by reggie-1 siRNAs or extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2 antagonist. Furthermore, curcumin-induced neurite growth was related to the ERK1/2 phosphorylation, which was blocked by reggie-1 knockdown. Overall, our results implied that curcumin could mediate neurite outgrowth through reggie-1 and ERK1/2 pathway.
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Role of SMAD4 in the mechanism of valproic acids inhibitory effect on prostate cancer cell invasiveness.
Int Urol Nephrol
PUBLISHED: 10-07-2013
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To investigate the influence of the histone deacetylase inhibitor valproic acid (VPA) on SMAD4 expression and invasive ability of prostate cancer cell lines.
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Identification and characterization of porcine kobuvirus variant isolated from suckling piglet in Gansu province, China.
Viruses
PUBLISHED: 09-19-2013
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Kobuviruses comprise three species, the Aichivirus A, Aichivirus B, and Aichivirus C (porcine kobuvirus). Porcine kobuvirus is endemic to pig farms and is not restricted geographically but, rather, is distributed worldwide. The complete genomic sequences of four porcine kobuvirus strains isolated during a diarrhea outbreak in piglets in the Gansu province of China were determined. Two of these strains exhibited variations relative to the traditional strains. The potential 3C/3D cleavage sites of the variant strains were Q/C, which differed from the Q/S in the traditional porcine kobuvirus genome. A 90-nucleotide deletion in the 2B protein and a single nucleotide insertion in the 3UTR were found in the variant strains. The VP1 regions of all four porcine kobuviruses in our study were highly variable (81%-86%). Ten common amino acid mutations were found specifically at certain positions within the VP1 region. Significant recombination sites were identified using SimPlot scans of whole genome sequences. Porcine kobuviruses were also detected in pig serum, indicating that the virus can escape the gastrointestinal tract and travel to the circulatory system. These findings suggest that mutations and recombination events may have contributed to the high level of genetic diversity of porcine kobuviruses and serve as a driving force in its evolution.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.