Alkali and alkaline earth metallic (AAEM) species water leaching and Cu(II) sorption by biochar prepared from two invasive plants, Spartina alterniflora (SA) and water hyacinth (WH), were explored in this work. Significant amounts of Na and K can be released (maximum leaching for Na 59.0mgg(-1) and K 79.9mgg(-1)) from SA and WH biochar when they are exposed to contact with water. Cu(II) removal by biochar is highly related with pyrolysis temperature and environmental pH with 600-700°C and pH of 6 showing best performance (29.4 and 28.2mgg(-1) for SA and WH biochar). Cu(II) sorption exerts negligible influence on Na/K/Mg leaching but clearly promotes the release of Ca. Biochars from these two plant species provide multiple benefits, including nutrient release (K), heavy metal immobilization as well as promoting the aggregation of soil particles (Ca) for soil amelioration. AAEM and Cu(II) equilibrium concentrations in sorption were analyzed by positive matrix factorization (PMF) to examine the factors underlying the leaching and sorption behavior of biochar. The identified factors can provide insightful understanding on experimental phenomena.
Oxidized hydrothermal biochar was prepared by hydrothermal carbonization of Spartina alterniflora biomass (240°C for 4h) and subsequent oxidization (240°C for 10min) under air. Oxidized hydrochar achieved a Fe(III) reducing capacity of 2.15mmol/g at pH 2.0 with 120h, which is 1.2 times higher than un-oxidized hydrochar. Low temperature oxidization increases the contents of carboxyl and carbonyl groups on hydrochar surface. It is supposed that carboxyl groups provide bonding sites for soluble Fe species and carbonyl groups are responsible for Fe(3+) reduction. A Fenton-like process was established with Fe(2+) replaced by oxidized hydrochar and tested for methylene blue (MB) decoloration. Oxidized hydrochar achieved a MB decolorization (200mg/L, pH 7.0) rate of 99.21% within 3h and demonstrates prominent prevail over H2O2 absent control test. This study reveals low temperature oxidization is an effective way to improve and restore abiotic reducing ability of hydrochar.
Normal human colonic epithelial cells (HCECs) are not immortalized by telomerase alone but also require CDK4. Some human cell types growth-arrest due to stress- or aberrant signaling-induced senescence (stasis). Stasis represents the consequences of growth conditions culture that are inadequate to maintain long-term proliferation. Overexpressed CDK4 titers out p16 and allows cells to ignore the growth arrest signals produced by stasis. To identify factors contributing to the inadequate culture environment, we used a 62,000-member shRNA library to knock down factors cooperating with human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) in the immortalization of HCECs. Knockdown of Klotho gamma (KLG; also known as KLPH and LCTL) allowed hTERT to immortalize HCECs. KLG is one isoform of the Klotho family of factors that coordinate interaction between different FGF ligands and the FGF receptor. We also found that knockdown of KLG induced another member of the Klotho family, Klotho beta (KLB). Induction of KLB was maintained and could activate ERK1/2 in immortalized cells. Supplementation of the culture medium with the KLB ligand FGF19 had a similar effect on hTERT-expressing HCECs as knockdown of KLG regarding both immortalization and down-regulation of the tumor suppressor Klotho alpha. Together, these data suggest that KLB is an important regulator in the immortalization of HCECs by facilitating FGF19 growth factor signaling.
Rearrangements of JAK2 are rare and have been described in various hematological neoplasms. We report a novel JAK2 rearrangement resulting from a t(9;22)(p24;q11.2) in a 14-year-old male with a diagnosis of B lymphoblastic leukemia. He was treated with Childrens Oncology Groups protocol (AALL0232) but failed to achieve remission by day 29. He underwent a second induction and entered remission. His clinical course suggested that this JAK2 rearrangement might portend an unfavorable prognosis. This case brings the total number of JAK2 rearranged lymphoblastic leukemia cases in the literature to seven. The molecular genetic and clinicopathologic features of these cases were reviewed.
We report a case of a 6-month-old boy with a mixed phenotype acute leukemia (MPAL), bilineal and biphenotypic immunophenotype (B-lymphoid lineage and combined B-lymphoid and monocytic lineage) with t(10;11)(p12;q23);MLL-MLLT10. He was treated with acute myeloid leukemia protocol and in complete remission at 7-month follow-up. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported MLL-MLLT10 rearranged case presenting as MPAL in an infant. From a clinical practice standpoint, this case illustrates the importance of detection of MLL rearrangement due to its prognostic implication and the effectiveness of flow cytometry immunophenotyping in diagnosing MPAL and monitoring minimal residual disease.
Endogenous genes regulated by telomere length have not previously been identified in human cells. Here we show that telomere length regulates the expression of interferon stimulated gene 15 (ISG15, 1p36.33). ISG15 expression (RNA and protein) increases in human cells with short telomeres, and decreases following the elongation of telomeres by human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT). The short-telomere-dependent up-regulation of ISG15 is not mediated by replicative senescence/DNA damage signaling or type I interferons. In human skin specimens obtained from various aged individuals, ISG15 is up-regulated in a subset of cells in older individuals. Our results demonstrate that endogenous human genes can be regulated by the length of telomeres prior to the onset of DNA damage signals, and suggest the possibility that cell turnover/telomere shortening may provide a mechanism for adjusting cellular physiology. The upregulation of ISG15 with telomere shortening may contribute to chronic inflammatory states associated with human aging.
A cost-effective biochar (SABC) was prepared from Spartina alterniflora by pyrolysis at low temperatures (? 500 °C) under anoxic conditions. The obtained biochar was examined for its ability to adsorb copper ions from aqueous solution and the Cu(II) removal mechanisms were explored. Cu(II) adsorption on SABC was found to fit well with Langmuir isotherm and pseudo-second-order kinetic model. The maximum Cu(II) adsorption capacity of SABC reached 48.49 mg g(-1), which is about 5 times higher than the raw biomass. Ion exchange had negligible effect on Cu(II) removal. Based on FTIR spectra and potentiometric titration, a complexation model including two acidic and one basic functional groups was proposed. However, metal ions complexation with the surface sites could not account for the uptake amounts of Cu(II) by SABC, alternative binding mechanisms might involve simultaneously.
Related JoVE Video
Journal of Visualized Experiments
What is Visualize?
JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.
How does it work?
We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.
Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...
In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.