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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
[Denitrification performance of PBS as a solid carbon source of denitrification].
Huan Jing Ke Xue
PUBLISHED: 09-24-2014
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Poly-butylenes succinate (PBS) was used as solid denitrification carbon source and biofilm carrier, to investigate the denitrification performance and the influence of adding inert carrier. The experimental results showed that PBS could serve as solid carbon source for denitrification of low C/N ratio wastewater, but the startup time was longer, about 33 d. There was no accumulation of nitrite nitrogen in the process of denitrification, but it produced less than 0.8 mg x L(-1) ammonia nitrogen. Increasing the amount of biofilm in PBS supported denitrification system by adding the inert carrier could improve the denitrification rate. The denitrification rates of PBS, PBS + 30 g gravel, PBS + 60 g gravel and PBS +90 g gravel systems were 5.33, 7.04, 10.05 and 6.93 mg x (L x h)(-1), respectively, and all reactions were zero order. During the denitrification process (0-9 h), DOC increased before it was reduced. At the end of the denitrification reaction (24 h), DOC of the denitrification system with inert carrier 60 g gravel and 90 g gravel was 16.34 mg x L(-1) and 19.22 mg x L(-1), respectively, higher than that without gravel of 13.48 mg x L(-1). The pH of all denitrification systems were lower than the initial value, which was the result of comprehensive function of acidic substances and alkalinity produced in the process of degradation of solid carbon source and denitrification, respectively.
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[Updated relationship between testosterone and prostate cancer].
Zhonghua Nan Ke Xue
PUBLISHED: 09-09-2014
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Androgen deprivation therapy can effectively suppress the progression of prostate cancer, but accumulating evidence for the relationship of testosterone with prostate cancer challenges the conventional wisdom. High levels of testosterone are not risk factors for prostate cancer, nor promote its development. On the contrary, a low testosterone level indicates a worse pathological stage. So far there has been no strong evidence to prove the role of testosterone in the occurrence and progression of prostate cancer. Therefore, the relationship between testosterone and prostate cancer is quite complicated and deserves further investigation.
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Gene regulation of anthocyanin biosynthesis in two blood-flesh peach (Prunus persica (L.) Batsch) cultivars during fruit development.
J Zhejiang Univ Sci B
PUBLISHED: 09-04-2014
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The blood-flesh peach has become popular in China due to its attractive anthocyanin-induced pigmentation and antioxidant properties. In this study, we investigated the molecular mechanisms underlying anthocyanin accumulation by examining the expression of nine genes of the anthocyanin biosynthesis pathway found in the peach mesocarp. Expression was measured at six developmental stages in fruit of two blood-flesh and one white-flesh peach cultivars, using quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Results show that the expression of the chalcone synthase (CHS) gene was closely related to anthocyanin accumulation in both of the blood-flesh peaches. In the white-flesh peach, we found that the transcription level of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) during fruit development was much lower than that in the blood-flesh peach, even though all other genes of the anthocyanin biosynthesis pathway were highly expressed, suggesting that the PAL gene may be limiting in anthocyanin production in the white-flesh peach. Moreover, the transcription levels of the CHS and UDP-glucose-flavonoid 3-O-glucosyltransferase (UFGT) genes were markedly up-regulated at three days after bag removal (DABR) in the blood-flesh peach, suggesting that CHS and UFGT are the key genes in the process of anthocyanin biosynthesis for both of the blood-flesh peaches. The present study will be of great help in improving understanding of the molecular mechanisms involved in anthocyanin accumulation in blood-flesh peaches.
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Giant bandgap renormalization and excitonic effects in a monolayer transition metal dichalcogenide semiconductor.
Nat Mater
PUBLISHED: 08-31-2014
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Two-dimensional (2D) transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) are emerging as a new platform for exploring 2D semiconductor physics. Reduced screening in two dimensions results in markedly enhanced electron-electron interactions, which have been predicted to generate giant bandgap renormalization and excitonic effects. Here we present a rigorous experimental observation of extraordinarily large exciton binding energy in a 2D semiconducting TMD. We determine the single-particle electronic bandgap of single-layer MoSe2 by means of scanning tunnelling spectroscopy (STS), as well as the two-particle exciton transition energy using photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy. These yield an exciton binding energy of 0.55 eV for monolayer MoSe2 on graphene-orders of magnitude larger than what is seen in conventional 3D semiconductors and significantly higher than what we see for MoSe2 monolayers in more highly screening environments. This finding is corroborated by our ab initio GW and Bethe-Salpeter equation calculations which include electron correlation effects. The renormalized bandgap and large exciton binding observed here will have a profound impact on electronic and optoelectronic device technologies based on single-layer semiconducting TMDs.
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Resonance frequency and mass identification of zeptogram-scale nanosensor based on the nonlocal beam theory.
Ultrasonics
PUBLISHED: 08-10-2014
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Free vibration and mass detection of carbon nanotube-based sensors are studied in this paper. Since the mechanical properties of carbon nanotubes possess a size effect, the nonlocal beam model is used to characterize flexural vibration of nanosensors carrying a concentrated nanoparticle, where the size effect is reflected by a nonlocal parameter. For nanocantilever or bridged sensor, frequency equations are derived when a nanoparticle is carried at the free end or the middle, respectively. Exact resonance frequencies are numerically determined for clamped-free, simply-supported, and clamped-clamped resonators. Alternative approximations of fundamental frequency are given in closed form within the relative error less than 0.4%, 0.6%, and 1.4% for cantilever, simply-supported, and bridged sensors, respectively. Mass identification formulae are derived in terms of the frequency shift. Identified masses via the present approach coincide with those using the molecular mechanics approach and reach as low as 10(-24)kg. The obtained results indicate that the nonlocal effect decreases the resonance frequency except for the fundamental frequency of nanocantilever sensor. These results are helpful to the design of micro/nanomechanical zeptogram-scale biosensor.
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A new cytochalasin from endophytic Phomopsis sp. IFB-E060.
Chin J Nat Med
PUBLISHED: 07-24-2014
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To study the chemical constituents of the solid culture of the endophyte Phomopsis sp. IFB-E060 in Vatica mangachapoi.
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Y chromosome haplotype diversity of domestic sheep (Ovis aries) in northern Eurasia.
Anim. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 07-15-2014
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Variation in two SNPs and one microsatellite on the Y chromosome was analyzed in a total of 663 rams representing 59 breeds from a large geographic range in northern Eurasia. SNPA-oY1 showed the highest allele frequency (91.55%) across the breeds, whereas SNPG-oY1 was present in only 56 samples. Combined genotypes established seven haplotypes (H4, H5, H6, H7, H8, H12 and H19). H6 dominated in northern Eurasia, and H8 showed the second-highest frequency. H4, which had been earlier reported to be absent in European breeds, was detected in one European breed (Swiniarka), whereas H7, which had been previously identified to be unique to European breeds, was present in two Chinese breeds (Ninglang Black and Large-tailed Han), one Buryatian (Transbaikal Finewool) and two Russian breeds (North Caucasus Mutton-Wool and Kuibyshev). H12, which had been detected only in Turkish breeds, was also found in Chinese breeds in this work. An overall low level of haplotype diversity (median h = 0.1288) was observed across the breeds with relatively higher median values in breeds from the regions neighboring the Near Eastern domestication center of sheep. H6 is the dominant haplotype in northwestern and eastern China, in which the haplotype distribution could be explained by the historical translocations of the H4 and H8 Y chromosomes to China via the Mongol invasions followed by expansions to northwestern and eastern China. Our findings extend previous results of sheep Y chromosomal genetic variability and indicate probably recent paternal gene flows between sheep breeds from distinct major geographic regions.
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Mulberry leaf phenolics ameliorate hyperglycemia-induced oxidative stress and stabilize mitochondrial membrane potential in HepG2 cells.
Int J Food Sci Nutr
PUBLISHED: 07-15-2014
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Abstract To investigate the effect of phenolics in mulberry leaves (mulberry leaf phenolics; MLP) on hyperglycemia-induced oxidative stress and mitochondrial membrane potential (??m) in HepG2 cells; we treated HepG2 with glucose [5.5 (N-Glc) or 50?mmol/L (Hi-Glc)] with or without MLP at 10 or 100?µmol/L gallic acid equivalents and assessed level of reactive oxidant species (ROS), ??m, malondialdehyde (MDA) and nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-?B) activation. Hi-Glc-induced oxidative damage was demonstrated by a series of increase in superoxides (560%, 0.5?h), MDA (400%, 24?h), NF-?B activation (474%, 4?h) and a wild fluctuation of ??m relative to the control cells (p???0.05). MLP treatments ameliorate Hi-Glc-induced negative effects by a 40% reduction in ROS production, 34-44% reduction in MDA production, over 35% inhibition of NF-?B activation, as well as exert protective effect on HepG2 cells from change in ??m. Our data show that MLP in vitro can protect hepatoctyes from hyperglycemia-induced oxidative damages.
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Development of a novel filter cartridge system with electropositive granule media to concentrate viruses from large volumes of natural surface water.
Environ. Sci. Technol.
PUBLISHED: 06-06-2014
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Exposure to various infectious viruses in environmental drinking water can constitute a public health risk. However, it is difficult to detect viruses in water due to their low concentration. In this study, we have developed a novel filter cartridge system containing electropositive granule media (EGM). Viruses present in large volumes of environmental samples were adsorbed onto the EGM, and then recovered by elution and poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) concentration. To evaluate the system's efficiency in viral recovery, poliovirus (PV-1), a surrogate for enteric viruses, was used to artificially contaminate river water samples which were then assayed by quantitative real-time PCR. To optimize the concentration procedure, the eluent type, water flow rate and properties (e.g., pH, bacterial, and viral loads), were evaluated. The highest virus recovery was obtained by pumping river water at a flow rate of 300 mL/min and then pushing 3 L of an eluent containing 3× broth [1.5% (w/v) NaCl, 3% (w/v) tryptone, 1.5% (w/v) beef powder] with 0.05 mol/L glycine through the filter. Using this procedure, the recovery efficiencies of PV-1 from 10 to 100 L of spiked river water were up to 99%. In addition, this method is virus load and pH dependent. Virus recovery was maximal at a load of between 10(3.5) and 10(5.5) TCID50 and a pH ranging from 5 to 7. The bacterial load in the water has no effect on virus recovery. Different types of viruses and surface water were tested to validate the system's applicability. Results revealed that the EGM filter cartridge was able to concentrate PV-1, human adenoviruses (HAdVs) and noroviruses (HuNoVs) with high efficiency from river, lake, and reservoir water. Furthermore, it showed more efficient recovery than glass wool and 1MDS filters. These data suggest that this system provides rapid and efficient virus recovery from a large volume of natural surface water and, as such, could be a useful tool in revealing the presence of viruses in surface water.
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[Research status of natural compounds combine with antifungal agents against drug-resistent Candida albicans].
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 04-24-2014
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To against the emergence of drug-resistent candidiasis, the studys of synergism of natural compounds combine with antifungal agents in vitro showed a continuous growth in recent years. The paper reviewed recent progresses to compare the synergetic effect by FICI method, and to conclude the synergetic mechanisms which have been confirmed as a reference for futher study.
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The effects of low-frequency ultrasound and microbubbles on rabbit hepatic tumors.
Exp. Biol. Med. (Maywood)
PUBLISHED: 04-09-2014
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High-intensity focused ultrasound in combination with microbubbles (MBs) is able to inhibit the growth of VX2 rabbit liver tumors in vivo and prolong the survival time of the animals. In this study, we attempt to investigate the feasibility of VX2 tumor growth inhibition using low-frequency ultrasound (US)-mediated MB disruption. Forty-eight New Zealand rabbits with hepatic VX2 tumors were divided into four groups: control, MBs group, low-frequency US group, and US?+?MB group. The parameters of the US were 20?kHz, 2?W/cm(2), 40% duty cycle, 5?min, and once every other day for 2 weeks. At the end of the therapy experiment, 24 rabbits were euthanized, and the cancers were collected and cut into five sections for histological examination, immunohistochemistry, laser confocal microscopy, western blotting assays, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Another 24 rabbits were saved, and overall survival time was recorded. The tumor volumes in control, MB, US, and US?+?MB groups were 6.36?±?0.58, 5.68?±?0.42, 5.29?±?0.26, and 2.04?±?0.14?cm(3), respectively (US?+?MB versus the other three groups, P?
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Water-promoted ortho-selective monohydroxymethylation of phenols in the NaBO2 system.
Org. Biomol. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 04-08-2014
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Water-promoted ortho-selective monohydroxymethylation of phenols in the NaBO2 system generates salicyl alcohols in 65-97% yields. A remarkable rate-enhancement by water was observed, and NaBO2 appeared to serve the dual role of a suitable base and an efficient chelating reagent. This protocol possesses many advantages such as short reaction times, expanded substrate scope, and high mono- and regio-selectivities. The experimental results were explained by the calculations based on local ionisation energy minima, leading to a possible reaction mechanism.
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Chemical profiling of Jinqi Jiangtang tablets by HPLC-ESI-Q-TOF/MS.
Chin J Nat Med
PUBLISHED: 04-08-2014
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To profile the chemical constituents in Jinqi Jiangtang tablets.
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Bosutinib efficacy and safety in chronic phase chronic myeloid leukemia after imatinib resistance or intolerance: Minimum 24-month follow-up.
Am. J. Hematol.
PUBLISHED: 03-28-2014
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Bosutinib is an orally active, dual Src/Abl tyrosine kinase inhibitor for treatment of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) following resistance/intolerance to prior therapy. Here, we report the data from the 2-year follow-up of a phase 1/2 open-label study evaluating the efficacy and safety of bosutinib as second-line therapy in 288 patients with chronic phase CML resistant (n?=?200) or intolerant (n?=?88) to imatinib. The cumulative response rates to bosutinib were as follows: 85% achieved/maintained complete hematologic response, 59% achieved/maintained major cytogenetic response (including 48% with complete cytogenetic response), and 35% achieved major molecular response. Responses were durable, with 2-year estimates of retaining response >70%. Two-year probabilities of progression-free survival and overall survival were 81% and 91%, respectively. The most common toxicities were primarily gastrointestinal adverse events (diarrhea [84%], nausea [45%], vomiting [37%]), which were primarily mild to moderate, typically transient, and first occurred early during treatment. Thrombocytopenia was the most common grade 3/4 hematologic laboratory abnormality (24%). Outcomes were generally similar among imatinib-resistant and imatinib-intolerant patients and did not differ with age. The longer-term results of the present analysis confirm that bosutinib is an effective and tolerable second-line therapy for patients with imatinib-resistant or imatinib-intolerant chronic phase CML. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00261846.
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Molecular players involved in temperature-dependent sex determination and sex differentiation in Teleost fish.
Genet. Sel. Evol.
PUBLISHED: 03-24-2014
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The molecular mechanisms that underlie sex determination and differentiation are conserved and diversified. In fish species, temperature-dependent sex determination and differentiation seem to be ubiquitous and molecular players involved in these mechanisms may be conserved. Although how the ambient temperature transduces signals to the undifferentiated gonads remains to be elucidated, the genes downstream in the sex differentiation pathway are shared between sex-determining mechanisms. In this paper, we review recent advances on the molecular players that participate in the sex determination and differentiation in fish species, by putting emphasis on temperature-dependent sex determination and differentiation, which include temperature-dependent sex determination and genetic sex determination plus temperature effects. Application of temperature-dependent sex differentiation in farmed fish and the consequences of temperature-induced sex reversal are discussed.
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Fast vacancy-mediated oxygen ion incorporation across the ceria-gas electrochemical interface.
Nat Commun
PUBLISHED: 03-17-2014
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Electrochemical incorporation reactions are ubiquitous in energy storage and conversion devices based on mixed ionic and electronic conductors, such as lithium-ion batteries, solid-oxide fuel cells and water-splitting membranes. The two-way traffic of ions and electrons across the electrochemical interface, coupled with the bulk transport of mass and charge, has been challenging to understand. Here we report an investigation of the oxygen-ion incorporation pathway in CeO2-? (ceria), one of the most recognized oxygen-deficient compounds, during hydrogen oxidation and water splitting. We probe the response of surface oxygen vacancies, electrons and adsorbates to the electrochemical polarization at the ceria-gas interface. We show that surface oxygen-ion transfer, mediated by oxygen vacancies, is fast. Furthermore, we infer that the electron transfer between cerium cations and hydroxyl ions is the rate-determining step. Our in operando observations reveal the precise roles of surface oxygen vacancy and electron defects in determining the rate of surface incorporation reactions.
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Cinobufacin suppresses cell proliferation via miR-494 in BGC- 823 gastric cancer cells.
Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev.
PUBLISHED: 03-11-2014
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Cinobufacin is used clinically to treat patients with many solid malignant tumors. However, the mechanisms underlying action remain to be detailed. Our study focused on miRNAs involved in cinobufacin inhibition of GC cell proliferation. miRNA microarray analysis and real time PCR identified miR-494 as a significant cinobufacin- associated miRNA. In vivo, ectopic expression of miR-494 inhibited the proliferation and induced apoptosis of BGC-823 cells on CCK-8 and flow cytometry analysis. Further study verified BAG-1 (anti-apoptosis gene) to bea target of miR-494 by luciferase reporter assay and Western blotting. In summary, our study demonstrated that cinobufacin may inhibit the proliferation and promote the apoptosis of BGC-823 cells. Cinobufacin-associated miR-494 may indirectly be involved in cell proliferation and apoptosis by targeting BAG-1, pointing to use as a potential molecular target of cinobufacin in gastric cancer therapy.
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miR-375 inhibits the proliferation of gastric cancer cells by repressing ERBB2 expression.
Exp Ther Med
PUBLISHED: 03-06-2014
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MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNA molecules that regulate the expression of targeted genes in a post-transcriptional manner. Increasing evidence indicates that miRNAs play important roles in cancer pathogenesis, including apoptosis, proliferation and differentiation, as oncogenes or tumor suppressors. Previously, miR-375 was shown to be involved in human gastric cancer, however, the mechanism remains poorly understood. In the present study, miR-375 was shown to be downregulated in gastric cancer tissues, particularly human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (ERBB2)-positive gastric cancer tissues. Identified by dual luciferase assays and western blot analysis, ERBB2 was demonstrated to be a target gene of miR-375. In addition, miR-375 overexpression suppressed the proliferation of human gastric cancer cells in vitro and the suppression effect was restored by ERBB2 overexpression. Thus, the results of the present study indicate that miR-375 is associated with human gastric carcinogenesis by targeting ERBB2. Therefore, miR-375 may be used as a potential clinical classification marker and therapeutic target for human gastric cancer.
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Direct spectroscopic evidence for phase competition between the pseudogap and superconductivity in Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+?
Nat Mater
PUBLISHED: 02-19-2014
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In the high-temperature (Tc) cuprate superconductors, a growing body of evidence suggests that the pseudogap phase, existing below the pseudogap temperature T(?), is characterized by some broken electronic symmetries distinct from those associated with superconductivity. In particular, recent scattering experiments have suggested that charge ordering competes with superconductivity. However, no direct link of an interplay between the two phases has been identified from the important low-energy excitations. Here, we report an antagonistic singularity at Tc in the spectral weight of Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+? as compelling evidence for phase competition, which persists up to a high hole concentration p ~ 0.22. Comparison with theoretical calculations confirms that the singularity is a signature of competition between the order parameters for the pseudogap and superconductivity. The observation of the spectroscopic singularity at finite temperatures over a wide doping range provides new insights into the nature of the competitive interplay between the two orders and the complex phase diagram near the pseudogap critical point.
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Thymine dimer splitting in the T<>T-G trinucleotide model system: a semiclassical dynamics and TD-DFT study.
Int. J. Biol. Macromol.
PUBLISHED: 02-18-2014
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The mechanism leading to bond cleavage of a thymine-thymine cyclobutane dimer (T<>T) in a model system consisting of the dimer flanked by guanine trinucleotide was studied using semiclassical dynamics simulation. Pulsed laser excitation of the guanine molecule is found to cause electron transfer from the guanine molecule to the dimer, which then dissociates via sequential cleavage of the C5C5' and C6C6' bonds. Subsequently, electrons transfer back to the guanine molecule as the dimer splits into two monomers. The splitting of the cyclobutane dimer was found to be in the femtosecond time scale.
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Highly diastereoselective preparation of aldol products using new functionalized allylic aluminum reagents.
Org. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 01-30-2014
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Chloro-substituted triethylsilyl enol ethers derived from cyclohexanone and related ketones are converted with aluminum powder in the presence of indium trichloride to functionalized allylic aluminum reagents which represent a new type of synthetic equivalent of metal enolates. These allylic organometallics undergo highly diastereoselective additions to aldehydes and methyl aryl ketones, giving aldol products with a ?-quaternary center.
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Levels, composition profiles and risk assessment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in sludge from ten textile dyeing plants.
Environ. Res.
PUBLISHED: 01-29-2014
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As components of synthetic dyes, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are present as contaminants in textile dyeing sludge due to the recalcitrance in wastewater treatment process, which may pose a threat to environment in the process of sludge disposal. In order to evaluate PAHs in textile dyeing sludge, comprehensive investigation comprising 10 textile dyeing plants was undertaken. Levels, composition profiles and risk assessment of 16 EPA-priority PAHs were analyzed in this study. The total concentrations of 16 PAHs (?16 PAHs) varied from 1463 ± 177 ng g(-1) to 16,714 ± 1,507 ng g(-1) with a mean value of 6386 ng g(-1). The composition profiles of PAHs were characterized by 3- and 4-ring PAHs, among which phenanthrene, anthracene and fluoranthene were the most dominant components. The mean benzo[a]pyrene equivalent (BaPeq) concentration of ?16 PAHs in textile dyeing sludge was 423 ng g(-1), which was 2-3 times higher than concentrations reported for urban soil. According to ecological risk assessment, the levels of PAHs in the textile dyeing sludge may cause a significant risk to soil ecosystem after landfill or dumping on soil.
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Inhibitory effects of subcutaneous tumors in nude mice mediated by low-frequency ultrasound and microbubbles.
Oncol Lett
PUBLISHED: 01-27-2014
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The aim of the present study was to investigate the sonication effects of 21-kHz ultrasound (US) with microbubbles (MBs) on the subcutaneous prostate tumors of nude mice. In total, 15 tumor-bearing nude mice were divided into three groups: The control group, the low-frequency US group and the US+MB group. The MBs used were from US contrast agent SonoVue. The parameters of the US were as follows: 21 kHz, 26 mW/cm(2) and a 40% duty cycle (2 sec on, 3 sec off) for 3 min, once every other day for 2 weeks. Color Doppler flow imaging, hematoxylin and eosin (HE) staining, immunoblotting and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were used to evaluate the results. Following 2 weeks of treatment, the blood flow signal disappeared in the US+MB group only, and the tumor size was smaller when compared with the control and US groups. For the immunoblotting, the intensity of cyclooxygenase-2 and vascular endothelial growth factor in the US+MB group was lower compared with the other two groups. Tumor necrosis was present and the nucleus disappeared upon HE staining in the US+MB group. Upon TEM analysis, increased cytoplasmic vacuolation and dilatation of the perinuclear cisternae of the tumor cells were found in the US+MB group. In the control and US groups, the tumors had intact vascular endothelia and vessel lumens. However, lumen occlusion of the vessels was observed in the US+MB group. In conclusion, 21-kHz low-intensity US with MBs may result in vessel occlusion and growth inhibitory effects in the subcutaneous tumors of nude mice.
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Decreased astroglial monocarboxylate transporter 4 expression in temporal lobe epilepsy.
Mol. Neurobiol.
PUBLISHED: 01-25-2014
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Efflux of monocaroxylates like lactate, pyruvate, and ketone bodies from astrocytes through monocarboxylate transporter 4 (MCT4) supplies the local neuron population with metabolic intermediates to meet energy requirements under conditions of increased demand. Disruption of this astroglial-neuron metabolic coupling pathway may contribute to epileptogenesis. We measured MCT4 expression in temporal lobe epileptic foci excised from patients with intractable epilepsy and in rats injected with pilocarpine, an animal model of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). Cortical MCT4 expression levels were significantly lower in TLE patients compared with controls, due at least partially to MCT4 promoter methylation. Expression of MCT4 also decreased progressively in pilocarpine-treated rats from 12 h to 14 days post-administration. Underexpression of MCT4 in cultured astrocytes induced by a short hairpin RNA promoted apoptosis. Knockdown of astrocyte MCT4 also suppressed excitatory amino acid transporter 1 (EAAT1) expression. Reduced MCT4 and EAAT1 expression by astrocytes may lead to neuronal hyperexcitability and epileptogenesis in the temporal lobe by reducing the supply of metabolic intermediates and by allowing accumulation of extracellular glutamate.
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Seroprevalence and evolutionary dynamics of genotype 4 hepatitis E virus in Shandong Province, China.
World J. Gastroenterol.
PUBLISHED: 01-16-2014
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To investigate the seroprevalence and evolutionary dynamics of hepatitis E virus (HEV) and assess the ancestor of HEVs in China's Shandong Province.
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Expression and distribution of TNF-? and PGE2 of periodontal tissues in rat periodontitis model.
Asian Pac J Trop Med
PUBLISHED: 01-15-2014
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To simulate the expression of TNF-? and PGE2 of periodontal tissues in rat periodontitis model.
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Cellular DDX3 regulates Japanese encephalitis virus replication by interacting with viral un-translated regions.
Virology
PUBLISHED: 01-15-2014
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Japanese encephalitis virus is one of the most common causes for epidemic viral encephalitis in humans and animals. Herein we demonstrated that cellular helicase DDX3 is involved in JEV replication. DDX3 knockdown inhibits JEV replication. The helicase activity of DDX3 is crucial for JEV replication. GST-pulldown and co-immunoprecipitation experiments demonstrated that DDX3 could interact with JEV non-structural proteins 3 and 5. Co-immunoprecipitation and confocal microscopy analysis confirmed that DDX3 interacts and colocalizes with these viral proteins and viral RNA during the infection. We determined that DDX3 binds to JEV 5' and 3' un-translated regions. We used a JEV-replicon system to demonstrate that DDX3 positively regulates viral RNA translation, which might affect viral RNA replication at the late stage of virus infection. Collectively, we identified that DDX3 is necessary for JEV infection, suggesting that DDX3 might be a novel target to design new antiviral agents against JEV or other flavivirus infections.
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Mitoflash frequency in early adulthood predicts lifespan in Caenorhabditis elegans.
Nature
PUBLISHED: 01-09-2014
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It has been theorized for decades that mitochondria act as the biological clock of ageing, but the evidence is incomplete. Here we show a strong coupling between mitochondrial function and ageing by in vivo visualization of the mitochondrial flash (mitoflash), a frequency-coded optical readout reflecting free-radical production and energy metabolism at the single-mitochondrion level. Mitoflash activity in Caenorhabditis elegans pharyngeal muscles peaked on adult day 3 during active reproduction and on day 9 when animals started to die off. A plethora of genetic mutations and environmental factors inversely modified the lifespan and the day-3 mitoflash frequency. Even within an isogenic population, the day-3 mitoflash frequency was negatively correlated with the lifespan of individual animals. Furthermore, enhanced activity of the glyoxylate cycle contributed to the decreased day-3 mitoflash frequency and the longevity of daf-2 mutant animals. These results demonstrate that the day-3 mitoflash frequency is a powerful predictor of C.?elegans lifespan across genetic, environmental and stochastic factors. They also support the notion that the rate of ageing, although adjustable in later life, has been set to a considerable degree before reproduction ceases.
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Comparative proteomic analysis of differential responses of Pinus massoniana and Taxus wallichiana var. mairei to simulated acid rain.
Int J Mol Sci
PUBLISHED: 01-04-2014
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Acid rain (AR), a serious environmental issue, severely affects plant growth and development. As the gymnosperms of conifer woody plants, Pinus massoniana (AR-sensitive) and Taxus wallichiana var. mairei (AR-resistant) are widely distributed in southern China. Under AR stress, significant necrosis and collapsed lesions were found in P. massoniana needles with remarkable yellowing and wilting tips, whereas T. wallichiana var. mairei did not exhibit chlorosis and visible damage. Due to the activation of a large number of stress-related genes and the synthesis of various functional proteins to counteract AR stress, it is important to study the differences in AR-tolerance mechanisms by comparative proteomic analysis of tolerant and sensitive species. This study revealed a total of 65 and 26 differentially expressed proteins that were identified in P. massoniana and T. wallichiana var. mairei, respectively. Among them, proteins involved in metabolism, photosynthesis, signal transduction and transcription were drastically down-regulated in P. massoniana, whereas most of the proteins participating in metabolism, cell structure, photosynthesis and transcription were increased in T. wallichiana var. mairei. These results suggest the distinct patterns of protein expression in the two woody species in response to AR, allowing a deeper understanding of diversity on AR tolerance in forest tree species.
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Heparanase promotes human gastric cancer cells migration and invasion by increasing Src and p38 phosphorylation expression.
Int J Clin Exp Pathol
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Gastric cancer is one of the most common cancers and it remains difficult to cure, primarily because most cancer stem like cells possess higher capability of invasion and metastasis. Heparanase acts as a master regulator of the aggressive tumor phenotype in part by enhancing expression of proteins and activating signaling molecules. There were less associated with heparanase of molecular biology mechanism in human gastric cancer. We first evaluated the endogenous expression of heparanase in human gastric cancer cell lines and found Heparanase expression higher in SGC-7901 than MGC-803. Using the technology of RNAi in SGC-7901 cells down regulated heparanase gene, and reduced SGC-7901 cells migration and invasion. On the other hand, recombinant heparanase protein added in MGC-803 cells enhanced MGC-803 cell migration and invasion. The elevated cell migration and invasion were impaired by treatment of Src inhibitor pp2 or p38 inhibitor SB 203580. We further found that Stable knockdown of heparanase in SGC-7901 cells decreased phosphorylation of Src and p38. The phosphorylation of p38 was inhibited in response to pp2 treatment while the addition of SB 203580 to SGC-7901 cells did not change phosphorylation of Src. These data suggest that heparanase facilitates invasion and migration of human gastric cancer cells probably through elevating phosphorylation of Src and p38.
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Proteomic analysis reveals differences in tolerance to acid rain in two broad-leaf tree species, Liquidambar formosana and Schima superba.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Acid rain (AR) is a serious environmental issue inducing harmful impacts on plant growth and development. It has been reported that Liquidambar formosana, considered as an AR-sensitive tree species, was largely injured by AR, compared with Schima superba, an AR-tolerant tree species. To clarify the different responses of these two species to AR, a comparative proteomic analysis was conducted in this study. More than 1000 protein spots were reproducibly detected on two-dimensional electrophoresis gels. Among them, 74 protein spots from L. formosana gels and 34 protein spots from S. superba gels showed significant changes in their abundances under AR stress. In both L. formosana and S. superba, the majority proteins with more than 2 fold changes were involved in photosynthesis and energy production, followed by material metabolism, stress and defense, transcription, post-translational and modification, and signal transduction. In contrast with L. formosana, no hormone response-related protein was found in S. superba. Moreover, the changes of proteins involved in photosynthesis, starch synthesis, and translation were distinctly different between L. formosana and S. superba. Protein expression analysis of three proteins (ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase large subunit, ascorbate peroxidase and glutathione-S-transferase) by Western blot was well correlated with the results of proteomics. In conclusion, our study provides new insights into AR stress responses in woody plants and clarifies the differences in strategies to cope with AR between L. formosana and S. superba.
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[Genomics research on roles of yishen kangxian compound in the TEMT process of HK-2 cells].
Zhongguo Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 12-12-2013
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To study effects of Yishen Kangxian Compound (YKC) and benazepril containing serums on HK-2 cells (human renal proximal tubule epithelial cells) in the process of renal tubular epithelial cells to mesenchymal myofibroblasts transdifferentiation (TEMT) by gene chip.
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Common variation rs6983267 at 8q24.1 and risk of colorectal adenoma and cancer: evidence based on 31 studies.
Tumour Biol.
PUBLISHED: 10-23-2013
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Genome-wide association studies have identified 8q24.21-rs6983267 as a new colorectal cancer (CRC) and colorectal adenoma (CRA) susceptibility locus in populations of European descent. Since then, the relationship between 8q24.21-rs6983267 and CRC/CRA has been reported in various ethnic groups; however, these studies have yielded inconsistent results. To investigate this inconsistency and derive a more precise estimation of the relationship, we conducted a meta-analysis of 31 studies, including 51,293 cases and 58,962 controls for CRC, and 8,148 cases and 17,065 controls for CRA. Potential sources of heterogeneity and publication bias were also systematically explored. Overall, the summary odds ratio of G variant for CRC was 1.18 (95 % CI, 1.16-1.21; P?
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Expression and purification of recombinant human serum albumin from selectively terminable transgenic rice.
J Zhejiang Univ Sci B
PUBLISHED: 10-09-2013
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Human serum albumin (HSA) is widely utilized for medical purposes and biochemical research. Transgenic rice has proved to be an attractive bioreactor for mass production of recombinant HSA (rHSA). However, transgene spread is a major environmental and food safety concern for transgenic rice expressing proteins of medical value. This study aimed to develop a selectively terminable transgenic rice line expressing HSA in rice seeds, and a simple process for recovery and purification of rHSA for economical manufacture. An HSA expression cassette was inserted into a T-DNA vector encoding an RNA interference (RNAi) cassette suppressing the CYP81A6 gene. This gene detoxifies the herbicide bentazon and is linked to the 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS) cassette which confers glyphosate tolerance. ANX Sepharose Fast Flow (ANX FF) anion exchange chromatography coupled with Butyl Sepharose High Performance (Butyl HP) hydrophobic interaction chromatography was used to purify rHSA. A transgenic rice line, HSA-84, was obtained with stable expression of rHSA of up to 0.72% of the total dry weight of the dehusked rice seeds. This line also demonstrated high sensitivity to bentazon, and thus could be killed selectively by a spray of bentazon. A two-step chromatography purification scheme was established to purify the rHSA from rice seeds to a purity of 99% with a recovery of 62.4%. Results from mass spectrometry and N-terminus sequencing suggested that the purified rHSA was identical to natural plasma-derived HSA. This study provides an alternative strategy for large-scale production of HSA with a built-in transgene safety control mechanism.
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Effects of non-steroidal aromatase inhibitor letrozole on sex inversion and spermatogenesis in yellow catfish Pelteobagrus fulvidraco.
Biol. Bull.
PUBLISHED: 10-04-2013
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The effects of letrozole (LZ), a potent nonsteroidal aromatase inhibitor (AI), on growth performance, sex inversion, and sex changes were investigated in yellow catfish (Pelteobagrus fulvidraco), which display sexual dimorphic growth. Growth performance was promoted significantly in the low-dose LZ treatment, compared with the control. Four LZ treatments produced dose-dependent male proportions that were significantly higher than that of the control. Histological examination of testes treated by LZ displayed a large amount of spermatozoa and enlarged lobule lumens, indicating that LZ treatments can potentially stimulate spermatogenesis. Changes of sex proportions 45 days after the end of the LZ treatments prove that the female germ cells possess a certain degree of bipotentiality. These results suggest that aromatase activity plays a vital role in sex differentiation, as in other teleosts, with inhibition of aromatase activity by AI bringing about sex inversion.
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[Determination of chlorogenic acid, rutin, scopoletin and total polyphenol in tobacco by Fourier transform near infrared spectroscopy].
Guang Pu Xue Yu Guang Pu Fen Xi
PUBLISHED: 09-25-2013
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The objective of the present study was to investigate the feasibility of predicting chlorogenic acid, rutin, scopoletin and total polyphenol in tobacco by Fourier transform near-infrared (FT-NIR) spectroscopy. The partial least squares(PLS) regression method, second derivative and Norris derivative filter were applied in the NIR spectroscopy prediction of chlorogenic acid, rutin, scopoletin and total polyphenol in the range of 7 500 to 4 000 cm(-1). For chlorogenic acid, rutin, scopoletin and total polyphenol, the determination coefficients were 0.976 6, 0.941 9, 0.957 1 and 0.966 6, respectively. The SEP/SEC values for them were < 1.2, and the SD/SEP values for them were > 2. The root mean square error of cross validation (RMSECV) of the four calibration models were 1.938 9, 1.046 2, 0.047 9 and 2.745 2, respectively. NIR spectroscopy was compared with the conventional methods. The results show that the two methods showed no significant difference at the significant level of 0.05. NIR spectroscopy technology can accurately analyze chlorogenic acid, rutin, scopoletin and total polyphenol in tobacco.
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[Prognostic significance of EBMT score system for hematological malignancies with allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation].
Zhonghua Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 08-28-2013
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To evaluate the impact of EBMT score system in patients with hematological malignancies received allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT).
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[The citation analysis of Chinese Journal of Internal Medicine from 2005 to 2011].
Zhonghua Nei Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 08-24-2013
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To evaluate the academic level of Chinese Journal of Internal Medicine by analyzing its citation status by using bibliometrics method.
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[An analysis of impact factor of Chinese Journal of Internal Medicine from 2008 to 2010].
Zhonghua Nei Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 08-24-2013
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To analyze the articles and citation published in the Chinese Journal of Internal Medicine from 2008 to 2010, in order to investigate the influence factors of impact factor (IF).
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Posaconazole vs. fluconazole as invasive fungal infection prophylaxis in China: a multicenter, randomized, open-label study.
Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther
PUBLISHED: 08-22-2013
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Invasive fungal infection (IFI) is common in neutropenic patients with acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) or myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS). Posaconazole is a broad-spectrum triazole antifungal drug with efficacy in prevention of IFI; however, it has not been previously studied as prophylaxis in a Chinese population.
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Global analysis of fission yeast mating genes reveals new autophagy factors.
PLoS Genet.
PUBLISHED: 08-01-2013
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Macroautophagy (autophagy) is crucial for cell survival during starvation and plays important roles in animal development and human diseases. Molecular understanding of autophagy has mainly come from the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and it remains unclear to what extent the mechanisms are the same in other organisms. Here, through screening the mating phenotype of a genome-wide deletion collection of the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe, we obtained a comprehensive catalog of autophagy genes in this highly tractable organism, including genes encoding three heretofore unidentified core Atg proteins, Atg10, Atg14, and Atg16, and two novel factors, Ctl1 and Fsc1. We systematically examined the subcellular localization of fission yeast autophagy factors for the first time and characterized the phenotypes of their mutants, thereby uncovering both similarities and differences between the two yeasts. Unlike budding yeast, all three Atg18/WIPI proteins in fission yeast are essential for autophagy, and we found that they play different roles, with Atg18a uniquely required for the targeting of the Atg12-Atg5·Atg16 complex. Our investigation of the two novel factors revealed unforeseen autophagy mechanisms. The choline transporter-like protein Ctl1 interacts with Atg9 and is required for autophagosome formation. The fasciclin domain protein Fsc1 localizes to the vacuole membrane and is required for autophagosome-vacuole fusion but not other vacuolar fusion events. Our study sheds new light on the evolutionary diversity of the autophagy machinery and establishes the fission yeast as a useful model for dissecting the mechanisms of autophagy.
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Hsa-miR-181a-5p expression and effects on cell proliferation in gastric cancer.
Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev.
PUBLISHED: 07-27-2013
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MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small endogenous, non-coding, single-stranded RNAs (approximately 22 nt). Accumulating evidence has shown that aberrant miRNA expression is pronounced and correlated with gastric cancer genesis and progression.
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Covalent attachment of diamondoid phosphonic acid dichlorides to tungsten oxide surfaces.
Langmuir
PUBLISHED: 07-25-2013
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Diamondoids (nanometer-sized diamond-like hydrocarbons) are a novel class of carbon nanomaterials that exhibit negative electron affinity (NEA) and strong electron-phonon scattering. Surface-bound diamondoid monolayers exhibit monochromatic photoemission, a unique property that makes them ideal electron sources for electron-beam lithography and high-resolution electron microscopy. However, these applications are limited by the stability of the chemical bonding of diamondoids on surfaces. Here we demonstrate the stable covalent attachment of diamantane phosphonic dichloride on tungsten/tungsten oxide surfaces. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy revealed that diamondoid-functionalized tungsten oxide films were stable up to 300-350 °C, a substantial improvement over conventional diamondoid thiolate monolayers on gold, which dissociate at 100-200 °C. Extreme ultraviolet (EUV) light stimulated photoemission from these diamondoid phosphonate monolayers exhibited a characteristic monochromatic NEA peak with 0.2 eV full width at half-maximum (fwhm) at room temperature, showing that the unique monochromatization property of diamondoids remained intact after attachment. Our results demonstrate that phosphonic dichloride functionality is a promising approach for forming stable diamondoid monolayers for elevated temperature and high-current applications such as electron emission and coatings in micro/nano electromechanical systems (MEMS/NEMS).
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Microbead-separated thermionic energy converter with enhanced emission current.
Phys Chem Chem Phys
PUBLISHED: 07-24-2013
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The efficiency of thermionic energy converters is a strong function of the inter-electrode separation due to space-charge limitations. Here we demonstrate vacuum thermionic energy converters constructed using barium dispenser cathodes and thin film tungsten anodes, separated by size specific alumina microbeads for simple device fabrication and inter-electrode gap control. The current and device efficiency at the maximum power point are strongly dependent on the inter-electrode gap, with a maximum device efficiency of 0.61% observed for a gap on the order of 5 ?m. Paths to further reductions in space charge and improved anode work function are outlined with potential for over an order of magnitude improvement in output power and efficiency.
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[The retrospective study of serum aspergillus galactomannan (GM) antigen assay in invasive asper-gillosis on hematological diseases].
Zhonghua Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 07-06-2013
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To explore the relationship between the optical density index of serum aspergillus galactomannan (GM) assay and invasive aspergillosis (IA).
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Direct observation of the transition from indirect to direct bandgap in atomically thin epitaxial MoSe2.
Nat Nanotechnol
PUBLISHED: 07-03-2013
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Quantum systems in confined geometries are host to novel physical phenomena. Examples include quantum Hall systems in semiconductors and Dirac electrons in graphene. Interest in such systems has also been intensified by the recent discovery of a large enhancement in photoluminescence quantum efficiency and a potential route to valleytronics in atomically thin layers of transition metal dichalcogenides, MX2 (M = Mo, W; X = S, Se, Te), which are closely related to the indirect-to-direct bandgap transition in monolayers. Here, we report the first direct observation of the transition from indirect to direct bandgap in monolayer samples by using angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy on high-quality thin films of MoSe2 with variable thickness, grown by molecular beam epitaxy. The band structure measured experimentally indicates a stronger tendency of monolayer MoSe2 towards a direct bandgap, as well as a larger gap size, than theoretically predicted. Moreover, our finding of a significant spin-splitting of ?180 meV at the valence band maximum of a monolayer MoSe2 film could expand its possible application to spintronic devices.
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A tripeptide (NSK) inhibits Japanese encephalitis virus infection in vitro and in vivo.
Arch. Virol.
PUBLISHED: 06-13-2013
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Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) is a major pathogen that can cause acute viral encephalitis in both humans and animals. Domain III of the viral envelope protein (EDIII) is involved in binding to host cell receptor(s) to facilitate virus entry. Our previous study showed that the loop3 peptide of EDIII possesses antiviral activity against JEV infection. In this paper, we demonstrate that three residues (NSK) in loop3 are responsible for the antiviral activity of loop3 peptide. In vitro experiments showed that the tripeptide NSK could inhibit JEV infection in both BHK-21 and Neuro-2A cells by inhibiting attachment of JEV to the cells, with IC50 values of 8 ?M and 6.5 ?M, respectively. In vivo experiments showed that the tripeptide could increase the survival of mice challenged with JEV to 75 % when administrated intracerebrally. Therefore, this tripeptide may serve as the basis for the development of novel antiviral agents against Japanese encephalitis virus infection.
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Minimally invasive treatment of laparoscopic and endoscopic cooperative surgery for patients with gastric gastrointestinal stromal tumors.
J Dig Dis
PUBLISHED: 05-25-2013
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To evaluate the feasibility and safety of laparoscopic and endoscopic cooperative surgery (LECS) for the treatment of gastric gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs).
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Pregnancies in patients with chronic myeloid leukemia treated with tyrosine kinase inhibitor.
Leuk. Res.
PUBLISHED: 05-20-2013
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We presented our experience in chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) patients who conceived children and/or became pregnant while receiving tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI). Among 7 male patients, 7 pregnancies resulted in the birth of 7 healthy babies. Among 18 female patients, 8 ended in elective abortion; 3 had spontaneous abortion, and 7 carried to term, resulting in the birth of 8 healthy babies. All children have normal growth and development. All patients remain in TKI therapy and in good response. It is suggested that female patients are advised to practice adequate contraception. No special precautions apply for male patients receiving TKI.
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Histone deacetylase inhibitor potentiated the ability of MTOR inhibitor to induce autophagic cell death in Burkitt leukemia/lymphoma.
J Hematol Oncol
PUBLISHED: 05-13-2013
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Burkitt leukemia/lymphoma is a major subtype of aggressive B-cell lymphoma. Biological targeted therapies on this disease need to be further investigated and may help to improve the clinical outcome of the patients.
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Analysis of WT1 mutations, expression levels and single nucleotide polymorphism rs16754 in de novo non-M3 acute myeloid leukemia.
Leuk. Lymphoma
PUBLISHED: 05-09-2013
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The single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs16754 of the WT1 gene has been described as a possible prognostic marker in patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML). However, the results in this field are not reproducible in different cohorts. In this study, we investigated WT1 mutations, expression levels and SNP rs16754 in a cohort of 122 adult patients with AML. As the major allele (65.6%) in a Chinese population, WT1(GG) was associated with younger age (? 60) and lower percentage of blasts than WT1(GA/AA). Meanwhile, improved overall survival (OS, p = 0.035) and disease-free survival (DFS, p = 0.021) were observed in WT1(GG) compared with WT1(GA/AA). We then found that WT1 mutation, occurring in 8% of patients with AML, did not predict clinical outcome. Finally, WT1 levels were higher in patients with WT1(GG) than in those with WT1(GA/AA). However, high levels of WT1 (> median) predicted worse OS (p = 0.015) and DFS (p = 0.034) than low levels of WT1 (? median). However, further studies are required to elucidate the mechanism of why WT1(GG), which was associated with higher median expression of WT1 that predicts worse OS and DFS compared to low expression of WT1, predicted better OS and DFS compared with WT1(GA/AA). In summary, WT1 rs16754 and WT1 expression have a significant impact on clinical outcome in patients with AML.
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[Preliminary comparison of efficacy and safety of dasatinib and imatinib in newly diagnosed chronic myeloid leukemia].
Zhonghua Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 04-25-2013
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To compare the efficacy and safety of dasatinib and imatinib in patients with newly diagnosed chronic phase chronic myeloid leukemia (CML-CP).
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[Prognostic analysis of non-cytogenetic factors in elderly adults with acute myeloid leukemia].
Zhonghua Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 04-20-2013
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To analyze the prognostic factors in elderly patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML).
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Hematologic responses in patients with aplastic anemia treated with deferasirox: a post hoc analysis from the EPIC study.
Haematologica
PUBLISHED: 04-12-2013
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Reports are emerging of hematologic responses associated with iron chelation therapy; however, studies are limited in aplastic anemia patients. Deferasirox reduced iron overload in aplastic anemia patients enrolled in the EPIC (Evaluation of Patients Iron Chelation with Exjade(®)) study (n=116). A post hoc analysis of hematologic responses was conducted on 72 patients with evaluable hematologic parameters (according to UK guideline criteria), 24 of whom received deferasirox without concomitant immunosuppressive treatment. Partial hematologic responses were observed in 11 of 24 (45.8%) patients; all became transfusion-independent. One patient had an additional platelet response and one patient had an additional platelet and hemoglobin response. Mean serum ferritin levels at end of study were significantly reduced in partial hematologic responders (n=11; -3948 ± 4998 ng/mL; baseline 6693 ± 7014 ng/mL; percentage change from baseline -45.7%; P=0.0029). In non-responders, the reduction in serum ferritin was less pronounced (n=13; -2021 ± 3242 ng/mL; baseline 4365 ± 3063 ng/mL; % change from baseline -27.6%; P=0.0171). Alongside reduction in iron overload, deferasirox may, therefore, improve hematologic parameters in a subset of aplastic anemia patients. Further investigation is required to elucidate the mechanisms involved.
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Actin cytoskeleton reorganization correlates with polarization of secretory vesicle and cell morphology in the degranulation of mast cell subtypes in human colon tissues.
Acta Histochem.
PUBLISHED: 04-10-2013
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Mast cells play a central role in the intestinal immune response. To investigate the relationship between degranulation, cell polarization and the reorganization of actin cytoskeleton of mast cells, we used fluorescence or gold labeling methods to identify different mast cell subtypes in human colon. The reorganization of filamentous actin was visualized and then the polarization of secretory vesicles, as well as cell surfaces, was analyzed by fluorescence microscopy and electron microscopy. Our results first showed a diversity of filamentous actin assembly or disassembly within the contacting cell membrane of different mast cell subtypes. The polarization and degranulation of secretory vesicles was not only accompanied with the assembly and disassembly of filamentous actin at the cell periphery, but also with changes of cell surface polarization. Our study provides an insight into the local membranous structures and suggested correlations of cytoskeleton arrangement with the polarization of secretory vesicles and cell surface configuration during mast cell degranulation.
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Peach genetic resources: diversity, population structure and linkage disequilibrium.
BMC Genet.
PUBLISHED: 03-30-2013
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Peach (Prunus persica (L.) Batsch) is one of the most important model fruits in the Rosaceae family. Native to the west of China, where peach has been domesticated for more than 4,000 years, its cultivation spread from China to Persia, Mediterranean countries and to America. Chinese peach has had a major impact on international peach breeding programs due to its high genetic diversity. In this research, we used 48 highly polymorphic SSRs, distributed over the peach genome, to investigate the difference in genetic diversity, and linkage disequilibrium (LD) among Chinese cultivars, and North American and European cultivars, and the evolution of current peach cultivars.
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[Clinicopathological features and management of gastrointestinal stromal tumors complicated with synchronous other alimentary malignant tumor].
Zhonghua Wei Chang Wai Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 03-29-2013
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To explore the clinicopathologic features, treatment and prognosis of gastrointestinal stromal tumor(GIST) complicated with synchronous other alimentary malignant tumors.
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Effects of low-frequency ultrasound and microbubbles on angiogenesis-associated proteins in subcutaneous tumors of nude mice.
Oncol. Rep.
PUBLISHED: 02-26-2013
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It has been shown that 1 and 3 MHz low-intensity ultrasound was able to affect the fragile and leaky angiogenic blood vessels in a tumor. However, the biological effects of 21 kHz low-intensity ultrasound on tumors remain unclear. The aim of the present study was to explore the effects of 21 kHz ultrasound with microbubbles on the regulation of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and apoptosis in subcutaneous prostate tumors in nude mice. The study included three parts, each with 20 tumor-bearing nude mice. Twenty nude mice were divided into four groups: control (sham treatment), microbubble ultrasound contrast agent (UCA), low-frequency ultrasound (US) and US+UCA groups. The UCA used was a microbubble contrast agent (SonoVue). The parameter of ultrasound: 21 kHz, an intensity of 26 mW/cm2, 40% duty cycle (on 2 sec, off 3 sec), 3 min, once every other day for 2 weeks. In the first study, all subcutaneous tumors were examined by contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (CEUS) at the initiation and completion of the experiments. Peak intensity (PI), time to peak intensity (TTP) and area under the curve (AUC) on the time intensity curve (TIC) were analyzed. In the second study, the intensity of VEGF and COX-2 protein expression in the vascular endothelium and cytoplasm was evaluated using immunohistochemistry and laser confocal microscopy. In the third study, terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TdT)-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay was used for the evaluation of cell apoptosis in tumor tissues. The tumor cells and vasculature were examined by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Only in the US+UCA group, PI and AUC decreased. The intensity of COX-2 and VEGF in the US+UCA group in immunohistochemical staining and laser confocal microscopy was lower compared to that of the other three groups. More cell apoptosis was found in the US+UCA group compared to the other 3 groups. In the control, UCA and US groups, the tumors had intact vascular endothelium and vessel lumens in TEM. However, lumen occlusion of vessels was observed in the US+UCA group. Twenty-one kHz low-intensity ultrasound with microbubbles may have anti-angiogenic effects on subcutaneous tumors in nude mice.
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The DEAD-box RNA helicase DDX5 acts as a positive regulator of Japanese encephalitis virus replication by binding to viral 3 UTR.
Antiviral Res.
PUBLISHED: 02-07-2013
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Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), one of the causes for epidemic encephalitis, belongs to the family of Flaviviridae. In this study, we demonstrated that cellular DEAD-box RNA helicase DDX5 plays an important role in JEV replication. The knockdown of DDX5 was able to decrease JEV replication, and overexpression of DDX5 mutants lacking the helicase activity also reduced JEV replication, suggesting the helicase activity is essential for JEV replication. DDX5 knockdown did not affect virus assembly and release. GST-pulldown and co-immunoprecipitation experiments demonstrated that DDX5 could interact with JEV core protein, non-structural protein 3 (NS3) and 5 (NS5-MTase and NS5-RdRp domains). Meanwhile, we also confirmed that DDX5 interacts with these viral proteins during JEV infection. Confocal microscopy analysis showed that endogenous DDX5 is recruited to the cytoplasm and colocalizes with these viral proteins and viral RNA. RNA-pulldown experiment showed that DDX5 only binds to the JEV 3 untranslated region (UTR). Finally, we confirmed the role of DDX5 in JEV RNA replication using JEV-replicon system. In conclusion, we identified DDX5 as a positive regulator for JEV replication.
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Modulation of staurosporine-activated volume-sensitive outwardly rectifying Cl- channel by PI3K/Akt in cardiomyocytes.
Curr. Pharm. Des.
PUBLISHED: 01-10-2013
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Chloride (Cl-) channels participate in the regulation of cardiac function in response to stress although the underlying regulatory mechanism remains poorly understood. This study was designed to examine the impact of the pro-apoptotic stimulus staurosporine (STS) on the volume-sensitive outwardly rectifying Cl- current (ICl,Vol) in cardiomyocytes and possible regulatory mechanism involved with a focus on phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase (PI3K)/Akt. Primary cultured rat neonatal cardiomyocytes were subjected to hypotonic and isotonic environment in the presence or absence of STS prior to whole-cell voltage-clamp evaluation of Cl- current. Whole-cell recordings revealed that STS activated an outwardly rectifying Cl- current with phenotypic properties reminiscent of ICl,Vol. These currents were outwardly rectifying with a time-dependent inactivation at positive potentials and were sensitive to 4,4-diisothiocya-natostilbene- 2,2- disulfonicacid (DIDS), a non-selective Cl- channel blocker, and 4-(2-butyl-6,7-dichlor-2-cyclopentyl-indan-1-on-5-yl)oxybutyric acid (DCPIB), a selective VSOR Cl- channel blocker. DIDS and DCPIB inhibited ICl,Vol by 92.6% ± 7.3% and 78.4% ± 5.5%, respectively. Our data further revealed that the PI3K inhibitor LY294002 facilitated the current with the peak amplitude of 19.54 ± 2.70 pA/pF. To the contrary, insulin partially inhibited the current amplitude with the peak current amplitude of 15.4 ± 2.13 pA/pF. Taken together, our data depicted staurosporine is capable of activating ICl,Vol channel in cardiomyocytes via possibly a PI3K/Akt-dependent mechanism.
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Correlation of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 expression with clinicopathological characteristics and prognosis in gastric cancer.
World J. Gastroenterol.
PUBLISHED: 01-09-2013
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To investigate human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) gene amplification and protein expression in Chinese patients with resectable gastric cancer and the association with clinicopathological characteristics and survival.
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Chemometrics-based approach to feature selection of chromatographic profiles and its application to search active fraction of herbal medicine.
Chem Biol Drug Des
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2013
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In our previous report (J Pharmaceut Biomed 56 (2011) 443-447), a support vector machine (SVM)-based pharmacodynamic model was established for predicting active fractions of herbal medicines (HMs), where information contents embedded in the chromatograms of the fractions were represented with the peak areas. However, in this representation the global characteristics of the chromatograms were completely missed, which is definitely contrary to the global and holistic views in theories of HMs and undoubtedly reduce the success rate of this model. To deal with the challenge, two chemometrics methods, that is, minimum redundancy maximum relevance (mRMR) and particle swarm optimizer (PSO), were applied in this article for feature selection of the whole chromatograms, and the PSO was also used to tune the SVM parameters. As a case, a sample HM, that is, Xiangdan injection, was investigated. The predictive accuracy was fully evaluated and compared with those by other popular and reported methods. Furthermore, the confirmation on the independent predicting set exhibited that the predicted bioactivities were well consistent with the experimental values. The important potential application of the present model is to be extended to help search active fractions of other HMs.
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Plasma copeptin concentration and outcome after pediatric traumatic brain injury.
Peptides
PUBLISHED: 01-06-2013
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Higher plasma copeptin level has been associated with poor outcomes of critical illness. The present study was undertaken to investigate the plasma copeptin concentrations in children with traumatic brain injury (TBI) and to analyze the correlation of copeptin with disease outcome. Plasma copeptin concentrations of 126 healthy children and 126 children with acute severe TBI were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Twenty-one patients (16.7%) died and 38 patients (30.2%) had an unfavorable outcome (Glasgow Outcome Scale score of 1-3) at 6 months. Plasma copeptin level was obviously higher in patients than in healthy children (46.2±20.8 pmol/L vs. 9.6±3.0 pmol/L, P<0.001). Plasma copeptin level was identified as an independent predictor for 6-month mortality [odds ratio (OR) 1.261, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.112-1.538, P=0.005] and unfavorable outcome (OR 1.313, 95% CI 1.146-1.659, P=0.003). The predictive value of copeptin was similar to that of Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score for 6-month mortality [area under curve (AUC) 0.832, 95% CI 0.755-0.892 vs. AUC 0.873, 95% CI 0.802-0.926, P=0.412] and unfavorable outcome (AUC 0.863, 95% CI 0.790-0.918 vs. AUC 0.885, 95% CI 0.816-0.935, P=0.596). Copeptin improved the AUC of GCS score for 6-month unfavorable outcome (AUC 0.929, 95% CI 0.869-0.967, P=0.013), but not for 6-month mortality (AUC 0.887, 95% CI 0.818-0.936, P=0.600). Thus, plasma copeptin level represents a novel biomarker for predicting 6-month clinical outcome in children with TBI.
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Strategy for pH control and pH feedback-controlled substrate feeding for high-level production of L-tryptophan by Escherichia coli.
World J. Microbiol. Biotechnol.
PUBLISHED: 01-03-2013
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Optimum production of L-tryptophan by Escherichia coli depends on pH. Here, we established conditions for optimizing the production of L-tryptophan. The optimum pH range was 6.5-7.2, and pH was controlled using a three-stage strategy [pH 6.5 (0-12 h), pH 6.8 (12-24 h), and pH 7.2 (24-38 h)]. Specifically, ammonium hydroxide was used to adjust pH during the initial 24 h, and potassium hydroxide and ammonium hydroxide (1:2, v/v) were used to adjust pH during 24-38 h. Under these conditions, NH4 (+) and K(+) concentrations were kept below the threshold for inhibiting L-tryptophan production. Optimization was also accomplished using ratios (v/v) of glucose to alkali solutions equal to 4:1 (5-24 h) and 6:1 (24-38 h). The concentration of glucose and the pH were controlled by adjusting the pH automatically. Applying a pH-feedback feeding method, the steady-state concentration of glucose was maintained at approximately 0.2 ± 0.02 g/l, and acetic acid accumulated to a concentration of 1.15 ± 0.03 g/l, and the plasmid stability was 98 ± 0.5 %. The final, optimized concentration of L-tryptophan was 43.65 ± 0.29 g/l from 52.43 ± 0.38 g/l dry cell weight.
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Up-Regulation of pVHL along with Down-Regulation of HIF-1? by NDRG2 Expression Attenuates Proliferation and Invasion in Renal Cancer Cells.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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The majority of renal cell carcinomas (RCCs) are characterized by loss of function of the tumor suppressor gene von Hippel Lindau (VHL), which acts as ubiquitin ligase for hypoxia-inducible factor-1? (HIF-1?). In the absence of VHL, HIF-1? protein becomes stabilized and contributes to tumorigenesis. Recent data demonstrate the antitumor efficacy of VHL promoter in RCC cells. This study demonstrates that N-Myc downstream-regulated gene 2 (NDRG2) is a potential regulator of VHL. NDRG2 is involved in proliferation and invasion of cancer cell, furthermore it is frequently down-regulated in renal cell carcinoma. Herein we evaluated the effect of NDRG2 overexpression on proliferation and invasion in human renal cancer cells. The human renal cancer cell line 786-O and A498 were infected with Ad-NDRG2 or Ad-LacZ. Overexpression of NDRG2 not only inhibited the growth of the cells, but also suppressed the invasion. Further study showed that the tumor suppressor gene VHL were up-regulated, whereas transcription factor HIF-1a and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) were down-regulated in 786-O cells infected by Ad-NDRG2. Finally, in a nude mouse model, intratumoral injections of Ad-NDRG2 every 3 days for a total of seven times significantly inhibited the growth and angiogenesis of xenografted 786-O tumors. In conclusion, these data indicate that NDRG2 may be involved in proliferation and invasion by impacting the expression of VHL and HIF-1?. NDRG2 may be an attractive therapeutic target for renal cell carcinoma.
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[Screening of the aerobic simultaneous denitrobacteria and its denitrification characteristics].
Huan Jing Ke Xue
PUBLISHED: 12-29-2011
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To screen aerobic heterotrophic denitrifying bacteria from various samples and detect metabolites quantitatively during their denitrification process. The bacteria were screened by limit dilution and crossed separation. Nitrate and nitrite were determined using phenol disulfonic acid and N-(1-naphthyl)-ethylene diamine by ultraviolet spectrophotometry. The N2 was detected by gas chromatography. Six aerobic heterotrophic bacteria were isolated and YY-5 was demonstrated to be the greatest denitrifer. The degradation rate of its hydroxylamine oxidoreductase can reached to 70.9%. Above all, there is a good balance between the removal of total nitrogen and production of N2 in process. No N2O was produced and no nitrate or nitrite were accumulated. The high ability of aerobic heterotrophic bacterium YY-5 for denitrification was screened, which showed higher homology with Acinetobacter genus through 16S rRNA blast.
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The herbal composition GGEx18 from Laminaria japonica, Rheum palmatum, and Ephedra sinica reduces obesity via skeletal muscle AMPK and PPAR?.
Pharm Biol
PUBLISHED: 12-01-2011
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Since AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activation in skeletal muscle of obese rodents stimulates fatty acid oxidation, it is reasonable to hypothesize that pharmacological activation of AMPK might be of therapeutic benefit in obesity.
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[Water Raman spectrum suppression with low-pass filter in underwater in-situ Raman spectroscopy].
Guang Pu Xue Yu Guang Pu Fen Xi
PUBLISHED: 11-22-2011
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As a powerful tool for studying chemical structures, Raman spectroscopy has been used in aquatic environments in-situ measurement widely, and has been used in deep sea research recently. For underwater in-situ detection, O-H vibration Raman peak of water is inherent and strong compared with other dissolved matters Raman signals. When the authors want to get a good SNR Raman signal of dissolved matter by increasing detection time, O-H vibration Raman peak of water will get to saturation easily, which influences other Raman signals detection. In the present paper, a specially designed short-pass optical filter was used for suppression of waters O-H vibration Raman peak. The authors calculated the suppression effect of short-pass optical filter with linear and exponential edges. The simulation shows that exponential edge filter has better performance and can suppress waters O-H vibration Raman peak effectively. The experiment also proves the calculation results. With the suppression optical filter, the intensity of waters O-H vibration Raman signal and other dissolved matters become similar. And the influence of suppression optical filter on other dissolved matters Raman signal is little. So the suppression optical filter is feasible for in-situ underwater Raman spectroscopy.
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Efficacy and safety of itraconazole as empirical antifungal therapy in febrile neutropenic patients with hematologic malignancies: an open-lable, multicenter, observational trial in a Chinese cohort.
Chin. Med. J.
PUBLISHED: 11-16-2011
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Invasive fungal infection (IFI) is a common and fatal complication in neutropenic patients with hematological malignancy. Empirical antifungal therapy is widely used in practice due to the difficulty of pathogens determination and illness of the hosts. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of itraconazole as empirical antifungal therapy for persistent fever in neutropenic patients with hematologic malignancies.
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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