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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Multiple-output multivariate optical computing for spectrum recognition.
Opt Express
PUBLISHED: 11-18-2014
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We describe a multivariate optical computer that can implement multiple spectral filters simultaneously. By parallel detection of multiple outputs, our proposed approach is capable of identifying more than two spectra simultaneously, and therefore could significantly speed up spectrum recognition based on optical computing. We demonstrate our approach by recognizing two rare-earth-doped glass samples and a third white light sample spectrum with a fidelity of at least 0.83.
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Nephrotic syndrome related to chronic neutrophilic leukemia.
Intern. Med.
PUBLISHED: 11-01-2014
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Chronic neutrophilic leukemia (CNL) is a rare myeloproliferative neoplasm. We herein describe the case of a 41-year-old woman who was admitted with nephrotic syndrome (NS) and severe neutrophilia and underwent a splenectomy due to splenomegaly. Peripheral blood tests revealed a Janus kinase 2 (JAK2) V617F mutation without the Philadelphia chromosome, BCR-ABL fusion transcripts, or FIP1 L1-platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)a. A kidney biopsy showed focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) with interstitial neutrophil infiltration and with a JAK2 V617F mutation. Hydroxyurea was initiated for first three months, followed by hydroxyurea plus interferon, and a subsequent improvement in leukocytosis and completely remission of FSGS-NS was immediately noted. This is the first case reported in which NS was related to CNL.
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Genistein alleviates pressure overload-induced cardiac dysfunction and interstitial fibrosis in mice.
Br. J. Pharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 10-23-2014
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Pressure overload-induced cardiac interstitial fibrosis is viewed as a major cause of heart failure in patients with hypertension or aorta atherosclerosis. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects and the underlying mechanisms of genistein (Gen), a natural phytoestrogen found in soy bean extract, on pressure overload-induced cardiac fibrosis.
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CO2 as a smart gelator for Pluronic aqueous solutions.
Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
PUBLISHED: 10-07-2014
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It was found that CO2 could induce the gelation of Pluronic aqueous solutions, during which the microstructure of the solution transforms from randomly dispersed spherical micelles to cubic close packed micelles. The gelation switched by compressed CO2 has many advantages and can be applied in the synthesis of porous materials.
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Intense exercise can cause excessive apoptosis and synapse plasticity damage in rat hippocampus through Ca²? overload and endoplasmic reticulum stress-induced apoptosis pathway.
Chin. Med. J.
PUBLISHED: 10-01-2014
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Intense exercise can cause injury and apoptosis, but few studies have reported its effect on the central nervous system (CNS). The initial reason for hippocampus injury is the excitotoxicity of glutamate and calcium overload. Intracellular free Ca(2+) ([Ca(2+)]i) overload may trigger the apoptosis pathway and neuron damage. The aim of this study was to investigate whether intense exercise could cause hippocampus apoptosis and neuron damage and then to determine which pathway was activated by this apoptosis.
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BTG2: A rising star of tumor suppressors (Review).
Int. J. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 09-22-2014
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B-cell translocation gene 2 (BTG2), the first gene identified in the BTG/TOB gene family, is involved in many biological activities in cancer cells acting as a tumor suppressor. The BTG2 expression is downregulated in many human cancers. It is an instantaneous early response gene and plays important roles in cell differentiation, proliferation, DNA damage repair, and apoptosis in cancer cells. Moreover, BTG2 is regulated by many factors involving different signal pathways. However, the regulatory mechanism of BTG2 is largely unknown. Recently, the relationship between microRNAs and BTG2 has attracted much attention. MicroRNA-21 (miR-21) has been found to regulate BTG2 gene during carcinogenesis. In this review, we summarize the latest findings in the investigations of biological functions of BTG2 and regulation of its expression, with an emphasis on miR-21 in regulation of BTG2 gene in various cancers. B-cell translocation gene 2 (BTG2), also known as PC3 or TIS21, belongs to the antiproliferative (APRO) gene family. Several studies have demonstrated that BTG2 is involved in a large number of physiological and pathological processes, such as cell differentiation, proliferation, apoptosis, and other cellular functions, acting as a tumor suppressor. In this review, we summarize the latest findings in BTG2 studies, highlighting the mechanisms for the regulatory effects of microRNAs (miRNAs) on BTG2 gene expression in the most common human cancers.
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Downregulation of miR-133 via MAPK/ERK signaling pathway involved in nicotine-induced cardiomyocyte apoptosis.
Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch. Pharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 09-05-2014
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Tobacco smoking is a risk factor for many diseases, and nicotine is a major component of tobacco. Our previous work revealed that nicotine can induce myocardial fibrosis. This study aimed to investigate whether nicotine can induce cardiomyocyte apoptosis and to explore the mechanisms involved. Cardiomyocytes were exposed to different nicotine concentrations for 48 h. MTT assay showed that the viability of cardiomyocytes was significantly inhibited by nicotine in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, nuclear and DNA defragmentation determined by TUNEL and ELISA assays, and morphological alterations all revealed the pro-apoptotic property of nicotine. Meanwhile, miR-133, a muscle-specific microRNA, was markedly downregulated by nicotine. Consistently, caspase-9, a target gene for miR-133, was significantly upregulated, leading to an increase in caspase-3, in nicotine-treated cardiomyocytes compared to non-treated cells. Furthermore, ERK1/2 protein levels were considerably downregulated, along with reduction of serum response factor (SRF), which is a downstream target protein of ERK1/2 and an upstream transactivator of miR-133 as well. Our findings therefore revealed that inhibition of the ERK1/2-SRF-miR-133 signaling pathway to increase caspases-9 and -3 is a novel mechanism for nicotine to induce cardiomyocyte apoptosis and these tobacco smokers.
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Similar prognoses for invasive micropapillary breast carcinoma and pure invasive ductal carcinoma: a retrospectively matched cohort study in China.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 09-04-2014
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Invasive micropapillary breast carcinoma (IMPC) is a rare pathological finding. Few studies have compared IMPC with invasive ductal breast carcinoma (IDC) according to matched nodal status and age. To better illustrate the difference between IMPC and IDC prognoses, we conducted this cohort study.
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N-Doped carbon spheres with hierarchical micropore-nanosheet networks for high performance supercapacitors.
Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
PUBLISHED: 08-30-2014
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N-doped carbon spheres with hierarchical micropore-nanosheet networks (HPSCSs) were facilely fabricated by a one-step carbonization and activation process of N containing polymer spheres by KOH. With the synergy effect of the multiple structures, HPSCSs exhibit a very high specific capacitance of 407.9 F g(-1) at 1 mV s(-1) (1.2 times higher than that of porous carbon spheres) and a robust cycling stability for supercapacitors.
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Current status of anticoagulant treatments and improvements for hemodialysis patients in northern Chinese cities: a five-year comparative study.
Chin. Med. J.
PUBLISHED: 08-19-2014
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Anticoagulation treatments are an important aspect of hemodialysis; however, few reports have addressed these treatments. This investigation intends to increase the understanding of the current status and improvements of hemodialysis-related anticoagulation treatments in China.
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Genetic variation in the tissue factor gene is associated with clinical outcome in severe sepsis patients.
Crit Care
PUBLISHED: 08-03-2014
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IntroductionActivation of inflammation and coagulation was closely related and mutually interdependent in sepsis. Tissue factor (TF) and its endogenous inhibitor, tissue factor pathway inhibitor (TFPI) was the main regulators of the initiation of coagulation process. Altered plasma levels of TF and TFPI have been related to worse outcome in sepsis. The objective of this study was to investigate whether single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the TF and TFPI genes were associated with risk and outcome for patients with severe sepsis.MethodsSeventeen SNPs in TF and TFPI were genotyped in samples of sepsis (n =577) and severe sepsis patients (n =476), and tested for association in this case¿control collection. We then investigated correlation between the associated SNPs and the mRNA expression, and protein level of the corresponding gene. The mRNA levels of TF were determined using real-time quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and the soluble plasma levels of TF were measured using enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method.ResultsAssociation analysis revealed that three TF SNPs in perfect linkage disequilibrium, rs1361600, rs3917615 and rs958587, were significantly associated with outcome of severe sepsis. G allele frequency of rs1361600 in survivor patients was significantly higher than that in nonsurvivor severe sepsis patients (P =4.91¿×¿10¿5, odds ratio (OR) =0.48, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.33 to 0.69). The association remained significant after adjustment for covariates in multiple logistic regression analysis and for multiple comparisons. Lipopolysaccharide-induced TF-mRNA expression levels in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from subjects carrying rs1361600 AG and GG genotypes, were significantly lower than those subjects carrying AA genotype (P =0.0012). Moreover, severe sepsis patients of GG and GA genotypes showed lower serum levels of TF than patients with AA genotype (P adj =0.02). The plasma levels of TF were also associated with outcome of severe sepsis patients (P adj =0.01). However, genotype and allele analyses did not show any significant difference between sepsis and severe sepsis patients.ConclusionsOur findings indicate that common genetic variation in TF was significantly associated with outcome of severe sepsis in Chinese Han population.
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What can the medical education do for eliminating stigma and discrimination associated with mental illness among future doctors? effect of clerkship training on chinese students' attitudes.
Int J Psychiatry Med
PUBLISHED: 08-03-2014
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The study was to examine the changes in attitudes towards psychiatry and mental illness among Chinese medical students during their psychiatry clerkship training.
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Multiple microRNAs regulate human FOXP2 gene expression by targeting sequences in its 3' untranslated region.
Mol Brain
PUBLISHED: 07-08-2014
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Mutations in the human FOXP2 gene cause speech and language impairments. The FOXP2 protein is a transcription factor that regulates the expression of many downstream genes, which may have important roles in nervous system development and function. An adequate amount of functional FOXP2 protein is thought to be critical for the proper development of the neural circuitry underlying speech and language. However, how FOXP2 gene expression is regulated is not clearly understood. The FOXP2 mRNA has an approximately 4-kb-long 3' untranslated region (3' UTR), twice as long as its protein coding region, indicating that FOXP2 can be regulated by microRNAs (miRNAs).
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The ?-amyloid precursor protein analog P165 improves impaired insulin signal transduction in type 2 diabetic rats.
Neurol. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 07-03-2014
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This study was performed to understand whether P165 improves learning and memory by restoring insulin action using a diabetes mellitus (DM) rat model. A total of 34 male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into four groups: control group (n = 8), DM group (n = 8), DM group treated with a low dose of P165 (n = 9), and DM group treated with a high dose of P165 (n = 9). After 8 weeks of treatment, the animals were killed and the expression of insulin signaling-related proteins was examined in the hippocampus by Western blot and immunohistochemical staining. Administration of P165 in diabetic rats did not induce a significant effect on the fasting blood glucose level. The expression of IR, IRS-1, AKT, p-CREB, and Bcl-2 proteins was significantly enhanced in the hippocampus in diabetic rats. Treatment of diabetic rats with P165 at both low and high doses significantly attenuated the expression levels of these proteins. Moreover, immunohistochemistry staining showed that IR, IRS-1, AKT, p-CREB, and Bcl-2 were abundantly expressed in the CA1 region of the hippocampus. The number of cells positively stained for the above proteins was significantly higher in diabetic tissues compared to control tissues, whereas P165 treatments induced a significant reduction in the expression of these proteins. The expression of IR, IRS-1, AKT, p-CREB, and Bcl-2 was enhanced in DM rats, and administration of P165 normalized the expression of these molecules, suggesting that P165 can improve impaired insulin signal transduction.
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Measurement of the complex nonlinear optical response of a surface plasmon-polariton.
Opt Lett
PUBLISHED: 07-01-2014
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We observe experimentally the self-phase modulation of a surface plasmon-polariton (SPP) propagating along a gold film bounded by air in a Kretschmann-Raether configuration. Through analyzing the power dependence of the reflectance curve as a function of the incidence angle, we characterize the complex-valued nonlinear propagation coefficient of the SPP. Moreover, we present a procedure that can further extract the complex value of the third-order nonlinear susceptibility of gold from our experimental data. Our work provides direct insights into nonlinear control of SPPs utilizing the nonlinearity of metals, and serves as a practical method to measure the complex-valued third-order nonlinear susceptibility of metallic materials.
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The role of an integrated care model for kidney disease in the development of peritoneal dialysis: a single-center experience in China.
Perit Dial Int
PUBLISHED: 06-26-2014
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Peritoneal dialysis plays a crucial role in the integrated care of patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). In this paper, we retrospectively analyzed the quality indicators of peritoneal dialysis (PD) in 712 patients from our center who underwent PD between 2004 and 2011. In 43% of patients, follow-up was undertaken every 3 months at our outpatient department, and 54% patients were followed up by both our hospital and other local hospitals. The patient survival rate at 1, 3 and 5 years was 96.3%, 85.4% and 76.2%, respectively. The technique survival (excludes death/transplantation) at 1, 3 and 5 years was 95.1%, 87.7% and 79.6%, respectively. Fluid overload occurred in 29.2% of patients and was one of the major reasons for discontinuing PD. The peritonitis rate in our center decreased to 0.16 episodes/year in 2011. In addition, since our center is one of the largest integrated-treatment centers for ESRD in China, we have developed a multilevel care program in Zhejiang Province, which resulted in rapid growth of PD in our province in recent years.
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Effects of bronchoalveolar lavage on refractory Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia.
Respir Care
PUBLISHED: 06-24-2014
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This study prospectively evaluated the effect of early bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) on refractory Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia with radiologically proven large pulmonary lesions in children.
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Template-free synthesis of mesoporous polymers.
Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
PUBLISHED: 06-17-2014
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Mesoporous polyacrylamides (PAMs) with tunable porosities were synthesized in 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborates ([Cnmim][BF4], n = 4, 6, 8, 10). The as-synthesized PAM was used as a support for Pd nanoparticles and the Pd/PAM composite showed high catalytic activity and selectivity for the hydrogenation of p-chloronitrobenzene reaction to yield p-chloroaniline.
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Targeting RPL39 and MLF2 reduces tumor initiation and metastasis in breast cancer by inhibiting nitric oxide synthase signaling.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
PUBLISHED: 05-29-2014
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We previously described a gene signature for breast cancer stem cells (BCSCs) derived from patient biopsies. Selective shRNA knockdown identified ribosomal protein L39 (RPL39) and myeloid leukemia factor 2 (MLF2) as the top candidates that affect BCSC self-renewal. Knockdown of RPL39 and MLF2 by specific siRNA nanoparticles in patient-derived and human cancer xenografts reduced tumor volume and lung metastases with a concomitant decrease in BCSCs. RNA deep sequencing identified damaging mutations in both genes. These mutations were confirmed in patient lung metastases (n = 53) and were statistically associated with shorter median time to pulmonary metastasis. Both genes affect the nitric oxide synthase pathway and are altered by hypoxia. These findings support that extensive tumor heterogeneity exists within primary cancers; distinct subpopulations associated with stem-like properties have increased metastatic potential.
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The brown fat-enriched secreted factor Nrg4 preserves metabolic homeostasis through attenuation of hepatic lipogenesis.
Nat. Med.
PUBLISHED: 04-10-2014
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Brown fat activates uncoupled respiration in response to cold temperature and contributes to systemic metabolic homeostasis. To date, the metabolic action of brown fat has been primarily attributed to its role in fuel oxidation and uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1)-mediated thermogenesis. Whether brown fat engages other tissues through secreted factors remains largely unexplored. Here we show that neuregulin 4 (Nrg4), a member of the epidermal growth factor (EGF) family of extracellular ligands, is highly expressed in adipose tissues, enriched in brown fat and markedly increased during brown adipocyte differentiation. Adipose tissue Nrg4 expression was reduced in rodent and human obesity. Gain- and loss-of-function studies in mice demonstrated that Nrg4 protects against diet-induced insulin resistance and hepatic steatosis through attenuating hepatic lipogenic signaling. Mechanistically, Nrg4 activates ErbB3 and ErbB4 signaling in hepatocytes and negatively regulates de novo lipogenesis mediated by LXR and SREBP1c in a cell-autonomous manner. These results establish Nrg4 as a brown fat-enriched endocrine factor with therapeutic potential for the treatment of obesity-associated disorders, including type 2 diabetes and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD).
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Relationships of serum lipid profiles and bone mineral density in postmenopausal Chinese women.
Clin. Endocrinol. (Oxf)
PUBLISHED: 04-02-2014
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Recent studies suggest that serum lipid profiles are related to bone mineral density (BMD). But data about this relationship on Chinese population are scarce. We investigated the relationships between serum lipid and BMD in postmenopausal Chinese women.
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Effective connectivity of the posterior cingulate and medial prefrontal cortices relates to working memory impairment in schizophrenic and bipolar patients.
Schizophr. Res.
PUBLISHED: 04-02-2014
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Schizophrenia (SZ) and bipolar I disorder (BD) share many overlapping clinical features, confounding the current diagnostic systems. Recent studies suggest the posterior cingulate (PCC) and medial prefrontal (MPFC) cortices that are involved in SZ and BD pathophysiology. However, the roles of PCC and MPFC in providing specific distinctive and shared neural substrates between these two disorders remain largely unknown. Examining the neurophysiologic mechanism of these diseases may help explain the clinical observations and differentiate the two disorders.
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Highly mesoporous metal-organic framework assembled in a switchable solvent.
Nat Commun
PUBLISHED: 03-18-2014
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The mesoporous metal-organic frameworks are a family of materials that have pore sizes ranging from 2 to 50 nm, which have shown promising applications in catalysis, adsorption, chemical sensing and so on. The preparation of mesoporous metal-organic frameworks usually needs the supramolecular or cooperative template strategy. Here we report the template-free assembly of mesoporous metal-organic frameworks by using CO2-expanded liquids as switchable solvents. The mesocellular metal-organic frameworks with large mesopores (13-23 nm) are formed, and their porosity properties can be easily adjusted by controlling CO2 pressure. Moreover, the use of CO2 can accelerate the reaction for metal-organic framework formation from metal salt and organic linker due to the viscosity-lowering effect of CO2, and the product can be recovered through CO2 extraction. The as-synthesized mesocellular metal-organic frameworks are highly active in catalysing the aerobic oxidation of benzylic alcohols under mild temperature at atmospheric pressure.
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Vitamin D status and its relationship with body composition, bone mineral density and fracture risk in urban central south Chinese postmenopausal women.
Ann. Nutr. Metab.
PUBLISHED: 03-13-2014
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This study was designed to assess vitamin D (25(OH)D) status and its relationship with bone mineral density (BMD) and fracture risk, which was determined using the FRAX algorithm, among postmenopausal central south Chinese women, and to identify the risk factors for vitamin D deficiency and osteoporosis.
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The dual carrier ABSK system based on a FIR bandpass filter.
Sensors (Basel)
PUBLISHED: 03-06-2014
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The special impacting filter (SIF) with IIR structure has been used to demodulate ABSK signals. The key points of SIF, including the resonance circuit's high Q value and the "slope-phase discrimination" character of the filter sideband, are demonstrated in the paper. The FIR narrow-band bandpass filtering system, which can also provide the impact-filtering effect, is proposed. A dual carrier system of ABSK signals is designed with the proposed FIR filter as its receiver. The simulation results show that the FIR filter can work well. Moreover, compared to the traditional SIF, the proposed FIR filter can not only achieve higher spectral efficiency, but also give better demodulation performance.
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Genetic polymorphism of APE1 rs1130409 can contribute to the risk of lung cancer.
Tumour Biol.
PUBLISHED: 03-05-2014
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Accumulative evidence suggests that polymorphism in the APE1 gene may have association with the etiology of lung cancer by modulating DNA repair capacity. Many studies have evaluated the association with great discrepancies in the results. The present meta-analysis was undertaken to clarify the effects of this polymorphism on lung cancer. A meta-analysis of 15 studies with 4,932 lung cancer patients and 6,555 cancer-free controls was conducted to evaluate the strength of the association using odds ratios (ORs) with 95 % confidence intervals (CIs). Overall, no significant association was found between APE1 polymorphism and lung cancer risk. We also did not observe any statistical evidence of modified lung cancer risk either in smokes or in nonsmokers. In the stratified analysis by ethnicity, however, it was found that the Glu/Clu genotype carriers had 1.16-fold higher risk of suffering lung cancer compared with the carriers of Arg/Glu + Arg/Arg genotypes in Asian population (OR = 1.16, 95 % CI = 1.01-1.32, P = 0.242). This meta-analysis provides statistical evidence for a potential association between APE1 polymorphism and an increased risk of lung cancer in Asian population.
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The antifibrotic effects and mechanisms of microRNA-26a action in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis.
Mol. Ther.
PUBLISHED: 02-26-2014
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Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a chronic, progressive, and high-lethality fibrotic lung disease characterized by excessive fibroblast proliferation, extracellular matrix accumulation, and, ultimately, loss of lung function. Although dysregulation of some microRNAs (miRs) has been shown to play important roles in the pathophysiological processes of IPF, the role of miRs in fibrotic lung diseases is not well understood. In this study, we found downregulation of miR-26a in the lungs of mice with experimental pulmonary fibrosis and in IPF, which resulted in posttranscriptional derepression of connective tissue growth factor (CTGF), and induced collagen production. More importantly, inhibition of miR-26a in the lungs caused pulmonary fibrosis in vivo, whereas overexpression of miR-26a repressed transforming growth factor (TGF)-?1-induced fibrogenesis in MRC-5 cells and attenuated experimental pulmonary fibrosis in mice. Our study showed that miR-26a was downregulated by TGF-?1-mediated phosphorylation of Smad3. Moreover, miR-26a inhibited the nuclear translocation of p-Smad3 through directly targeting Smad4, which determines the nuclear translocation of p-Smad2/Smad3. Taken together, our experiments demonstrated the antifibrotic effects of miR-26a in fibrotic lung diseases and suggested a new strategy for the prevention and treatment of IPF using miR-26a. The current study also uncovered a novel positive feedback loop between miR-26a and p-Smad3, which is involved in pulmonary fibrosis.
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Aberrant functional connectivity for diagnosis of major depressive disorder: a discriminant analysis.
Psychiatry Clin. Neurosci.
PUBLISHED: 02-21-2014
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Aberrant brain functional connectivity patterns have been reported in major depressive disorder (MDD). It is unknown whether they can be used in discriminant analysis for diagnosis of MDD. In the present study we examined the efficiency of discriminant analysis of MDD by individualized computer-assisted diagnosis.
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Highly potent HCV NS4B inhibitors with activity against multiple genotypes.
J. Med. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 02-18-2014
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The exploration of novel inhibitors of the HCV NS4B protein that are based on a 2-oxadiazoloquinoline scaffold is described. Optimization to incorporate activity across genotypes led to a potent new series with broad activity, of which inhibitor 1 displayed the following EC50 values: 1a, 0.08 nM; 1b, 0.10 nM; 2a, 3 nM; 2b, 0.6 nM, 3a, 3.7 nM; 4a, 0.9 nM; 6a, 3.1 nM.
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Docosahexanoic acid modifies low-density lipoprotein receptor abundance in HepG2 cells via suppression of the LXR??Idol pathway.
Mol Med Rep
PUBLISHED: 02-16-2014
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As a daily supplement, omega?3 fatty acid is confirmed to be of benefit in hypertriglyceridemia. However, the effect of omega?3 fatty acids on the low?density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL?C) metabolism remains a controversial issue. In this study, we focused on the regulatory effect of docosahexanoic acid (DHA), one type of omega?3 fatty acid, exerted on the LDL receptor (LDLR), a determinant regulator of the LDL?C metabolism, and explored the potential mechanism. We observed that DHA increased hepatic LDLR protein in the presence of 25?hydroxycholesterol in HepG2 cells but did not alter the mRNA level. Previous studies have identified inducible degrader of the LDLR (Idol) as a novel negative post?translational modulator of LDLR and a direct transcriptional target of liver X receptor ? (LXR?). Since DHA had no effect on the transcriptional level of LDLR, we speculated that the post?transcriptional pathway LXR??Idol participated in this regulation. The results reveal that DHA downregulated the expression of LXR? and Idol in coordination with the upregulation of LDLR expression. Multiple mechanisms are involved in the regulation of LDLR by DHA, and the suppression of the LXR??Idol pathway is one of these mechanisms.
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Global secretome characterization of A549 human alveolar epithelial carcinoma cells during Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection.
BMC Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 02-03-2014
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Mycoplasma pneumoniae (M. pneumoniae) is one of the major etiological agents for community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) in all age groups. The early host response to M. pneumoniae infection relies on the concerted release of proteins with various biological activities. However, no comprehensive analysis of the secretory proteins has been conducted to date regarding the host response upon M. pneumoniae infection.
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Islet-1 overexpression in human mesenchymal stem cells promotes vascularization through monocyte chemoattractant protein-3.
Stem Cells
PUBLISHED: 01-27-2014
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The LIM-homeobox transcription factor islet-1 (ISL1) has been proposed to mark a cardiovascular progenitor cell lineage that gives rise to cardiomyocytes, endothelial cells, and smooth muscle cells. The aim of this study was to investigate whether forced expression of ISL1 in human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) influenced the differentiation capacity and angiogenic properties of hMSCs. The lentiviral vector, EF1?-ISL1, was constructed using the Multisite Gateway System and used to transduce hMSCs. We found that ISL1 overexpression did not alter the proliferation, migration, or survival of hMSCs or affect their ability to differentiate into osteoblasts, adipocytes, cardiomyocytes, or endotheliocytes. However, ISL1-hMSCs differentiated into smooth muscle cells more efficiently than control hMSCs. Furthermore, conditioned medium from ISL1-hMSCs greatly enhanced the survival, migration, and tube-formation ability of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) in vitro. In vivo angiogenesis assays also showed much more vascular-like structures in the group cotransplanted with ISL1-hMSCs and HUVECs than in the group cotransplanted with control hMSCs and HUVECs. Quantitative RT-PCR and antibody arrays detected monocyte chemoattractant protein-3 (MCP3) at a higher level in conditioned medium from ISL1-hMSCs cultures than in conditioned medium from control hMSCs. Neutralization assays showed that addition of an anti-MCP3 antibody to ISL1-hMSCs-conditioned medium efficiently abolished the angiogenesis-promoting effect of ISL1-hMSCs. Our data suggest that overexpression of ISL1 in hMSCs promotes angiogenesis in vitro and in vivo through increasing secretion of paracrine factors, smooth muscle differentiation ability, and enhancing the survival of HUVECs.
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One-step carbonization synthesis of hollow carbon nanococoons with multimodal pores and their enhanced electrochemical performance for supercapacitors.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces
PUBLISHED: 01-23-2014
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Hollow carbon capsules with multimodal pores are highly promising for developing novel electrode materials for high-performance electrochemical devices due to their more active sites for ion and electron transfer. However, at present, most of the previous efforts are focused on the multistep process for the synthesis of hollow carbon nanostructures with individual pores. Herein, hollow carbon nanococoons (HCNCs) with non-spherical cavity and multimodal hierarchical pores have been facilely synthesized via a one-step carbonization of a Fe2O3/carbon precursor core/shell nanospindle at 850 °C. We interestingly found that during the carbonization, Fe2O3 was automatically "escaped" from the inside nanospindle, leading to the formation of new HCNCs. Most importantly, the spindle-shaped cavity of the obtained HCNCs with high conductivity can offer a multimodal ion diffusion pathway, which can facilitate the reaction kinetics in a supercapacitor. As a result, the HCNCs-based supacapacitor exhibits the capacitance of 220.0 F g(-1) at a given scan rate of 5 mV s(-1), 3.5 times higher than that of hollow carbon spheres, high stability with 98% of the initial capacity maintained even after 1000 cycles, and high rate capability. This work provides a new and facile avenue for enhancing performance of a HCNCs-based supercapacitor by using the non-spherical hollow structures with multimodal pores.
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Selective iteratively reweighted quantile regression for baseline correction.
Anal Bioanal Chem
PUBLISHED: 01-16-2014
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Extraction of qualitative and quantitative information from large numbers of analytical signals is difficult with drifted baselines, particularly in multivariate analysis. Baseline drift obscures and "fuzzies" signals, and even deteriorates analytical results. In order to obtain accurate and clear results, some effective methods should be proposed and implemented to perform baseline correction before conducting further data analysis. However, most of the classic methods require user intervention or are prone to variability, especially with low signal-to-noise signals. In this study, a novel baseline correction algorithm based on quantile regression and iteratively reweighting strategy is proposed. This does not require user intervention and prior information, such as peak detection. The iteratively reweighting strategy iteratively changes weights of residuals between fitted baseline and original signals. After a series of tests and comparisons with several other popular methods, using various kinds of analytical signals, the proposed method is found to be fast, flexible, robust, and easy to use both in simulated and real datasets.
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Joint MS-based platforms for comprehensive comparison of rat plasma and serum metabolic profiling.
Biomed. Chromatogr.
PUBLISHED: 01-09-2014
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Metabolomics is a rapidly growing field in the comprehensive understanding of cellular and organism-specific responses associated with perturbations induced by medicines, chemicals and environment. Blood matrices are frequently used in clinical and biological studies. In this study, we compared metabolic profiling between rat plasma and serum using complementary platforms of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and liquid chromatography-quadruple time-of-flight-mass spectrometry (LC-QTOF-MS). The sample types that were tested included plasma prepared with K2 EDTA and serum collected using venous blood collection protocols. The results of peak area variation for each detected metabolite/feature in the quality control samples showed a good reproducibility in LC-QTOF-MS and better reproducibility in GC-MS. In GC-MS analysis: (a) 25.8% of the defined metabolites differed serum from plasma profiling (t-test, p?
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Lithium chloride attenuates root resorption during orthodontic tooth movement in rats.
Exp Ther Med
PUBLISHED: 01-08-2014
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Root resorption is a common side effect of orthodontic treatment. In the current study, lithium chloride (LiCl), a Wnt signaling activator, was examined to determine its effect on root resorption. In total, 10 Sprague Dawley rats were randomly allocated into the experimental group (EG) and control group (CG). Each group consisted of five subjects. By using closed nickel-titanium coil springs, a 50-g force was applied between the upper incisors and the maxillary right first molars in order to mimic orthodontic biomechanics in the EG and CG for 14 days. During the 14 days, the EG rats were gavage-fed 200 mg/kg LiCl every 48 h. Next, digital radiographs were captured using a micro-computational tomography scanner. The movement of the maxillary first molars and the root resorption area ratio were measured electronically on the digital radiographs. The outcomes were analyzed using ANOVA. Following 14 days of experimental force application, all rats had spaces of varying sizes between the first and second right maxillary molars. The average distance measured in the CG was slightly higher than in the EG, however, the difference was not found to be statistically significant (P=0.224). Root resorption craters were observed in the groups following the experiment. Rough cementum areas were observed on the mesial surface of the distobuccal and distopalatal roots. The mean root resorption area ratio of CG was significantly greater than EG (P<0.05). Results of the present study indicate that LiCl can attenuate orthodontically induce root resorption during orthodontic tooth movement. The effect of LiCl on tooth movement is insignificant.
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Thermodilution-derived coronary microvascular resistance and flow reserve in patients with cardiac syndrome X.
Circ Cardiovasc Interv
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2014
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Although increased coronary microvascular resistance (CMR), resulting in coronary microvascular dysfunction, is speculated to be responsible for myocardial ischemia in patients with cardiac syndrome X (CSX), it has never been directly demonstrated, and the correlation between CMR and severity of myocardial ischemia has not been elucidated in this setting. This study aimed to ascertain the increased CMR directly and to explore the relationship between CMR and severity of ischemia in patients with CSX.
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High-incidence of PTEN mutations in Chinese patients with primary small cell carcinoma of the esophagus.
BMC Cancer
PUBLISHED: 01-06-2014
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Primary small cell carcinoma of the esophagus (PSCCE) is a rare and aggressive tumor with poor prognosis. The aim of this study was to investigate the existence of EGFR, KRAS, PIK3CA and PTEN mutations in PSCCE.
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Altered functional connectivity links in neuroleptic-naïve and neuroleptic-treated patients with schizophrenia, and their relation to symptoms including volition.
Neuroimage Clin
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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In order to analyze functional connectivity in untreated and treated patients with schizophrenia, resting-state fMRI data were obtained for whole-brain functional connectivity analysis from 22 first-episode neuroleptic-naïve schizophrenia (NNS), 61 first-episode neuroleptic-treated schizophrenia (NTS) patients, and 60 healthy controls (HC). Reductions were found in untreated and treated patients in the functional connectivity between the posterior cingulate gyrus and precuneus, and this was correlated with the reduction in volition from the Positive and Negative Symptoms Scale (PANSS), that is in the willful initiation, sustenance, and control of thoughts, behavior, movements, and speech, and with the general and negative symptoms. In addition in both patient groups interhemispheric functional connectivity was weaker between the orbitofrontal cortex, amygdala and temporal pole. These functional connectivity changes and the related symptoms were not treated by the neuroleptics. Differences between the patient groups were that there were more strong functional connectivity links in the NNS patients (including in hippocampal, frontal, and striatal circuits) than in the NTS patients. These findings with a whole brain analysis in untreated and treated patients with schizophrenia provide evidence on some of the brain regions implicated in the volitional, other general, and negative symptoms, of schizophrenia that are not treated by neuroleptics so have implications for the development of other treatments; and provide evidence on some brain systems in which neuroleptics do alter the functional connectivity.
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Typical nodal calcifications in the maxillofacial region: a case report.
Int J Clin Exp Med
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Multiple nodal calcifications in the maxillofacial region are very rare. This case report described a 49-year-old female patient diagnosed with calcified lymph nodes due to chronic inflammation of the lymphatic nodes, including the parotid lymphatic nodes, the posterior auricular lymphatic nodes and submandibular lymphatic nodes in the right maxillofacial region. In clinical practice, we conducted ultrasonography, three-dimensional reconstruction of CT and sialography make a preliminary diagnosis. Then we took surgery, while removing the calcified blocks within the lymphatic node and cleaning the wound cavity. After surgery, we used anti-inflammatory therapy for one week. Six months follow-up indicated no evidence of other calcified lymph nodes infection.
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Effects of fertilization and clipping on carbon, nitrogen storage, and soil microbial activity in a natural grassland in southern China.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Grassland managements can affect carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) storage in grassland ecosystems with consequent feedbacks to climate change. We investigated the impacts of compound fertilization and clipping on grass biomass, plant and soil (0-20 cm depth) C, N storage, plant and soil C: N ratios, soil microbial activity and diversity, and C, N sequestration rates in grassland in situ in the National Dalaoling Forest Park of China beginning July, 2011. In July, 2012, the fertilization increased total biomass by 30.1%, plant C by 34.5%, plant N by 79.8%, soil C by 18.8% and soil N by 23.8% compared with the control, respectively. Whereas the clipping decreased total biomass, plant C and N, soil C and N by 24.9%, 30.3%, 39.3%, 18.5%, and 19.4%, respectively, when compared to the control. The plant C: N ratio was lower for the fertilization than for the control and the clipping treatments. The soil microbial activity and diversity indices were higher for the fertilization than for the control. The clipping generally exhibited a lower level of soil microbial activity and diversity compared to the control. The principal component analysis indicated that the soil microbial communities of the control, fertilization and clipping treatments formed three distinct groups. The plant C and N sequestration rates of the fertilization were significantly higher than the clipping treatment. Our results suggest that fertilization is an efficient management practice in improving the C and N storage of the grassland ecosystem via increasing the grass biomass and soil microbial activity and diversity.
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Exercise Training Reverses Unparallel Downregulation of MaxiK Channel ?- and ?1-Subunit to Enhance Vascular Function in Aging Mesenteric Arteries.
J. Gerontol. A Biol. Sci. Med. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 12-17-2013
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This study was designed to determine the effects of aerobic exercise training on aging-associated selective changes of the function and expression of the large-conductance Ca(2+)-activated K(+) (MaxiK) channels in mesenteric arteries. Male Wistar rats aged 19-21 months were randomly assigned to sedentary (O-SED) and exercise-trained groups (O-EX). Two-month-old rats were used as Young control. Addition of iberiotoxin (10(-8) M) increased the norepinephrine-induced arterial contraction in all three groups, with the greatest enhancement being in Young and the least in O-SED. Patch clamp study revealed the characteristics of aging on MaxiK channel function in mesenteric arteries, mainly including (a) decrease of iberiotoxin-sensitive whole-cell K(+) current, (b) decrease of open probability and Ca(2+)/voltage sensitivity of single MaxiK channel, and (c) reduction of tamoxifen-induced MaxiK activation. After exercise training, all of these changes were markedly inhibited. Western blotting revealed that the protein expression of MaxiK was significantly reduced with aging and the suppression of ?1-subunit was larger than that of ?-subunit, although exercise training diminished this alteration. Taken together, aerobic exercise training reverses the aging-related unparallel downregulation of MaxiK ?- and ?1-subunit expression on mesenteric arteries, which partly underlies the beneficial effect of exercise on restoring aging-associated reduction in mesenteric artery vasodilatory properties.
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Fabrication of Free-Standing Hierarchical Carbon Nanofiber/Graphene Oxide/Polyaniline Films for Supercapacitors.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces
PUBLISHED: 12-16-2013
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A hierarchical high-performance electrode with nanoacanthine-style polyaniline (PANI) deposited onto a carbon nanofiber/graphene oxide (CNF/GO) template was successfully prepared via an in situ polymerization process. The morphology analysis shows that introducing one-dimensional (1D) CNF could significantly decrease/inhibit the staking of laminated GO to form an open-porous CNF/GO architecture. Followed with in situ facial deposition of PANI, the as-synthesized PANI modified CNF/GO exhibits three-dimensional (3D) hierarchical layered nanoarchitecture, which favors the diffusion of the electrolyte ions into the inner region of active materials. The hierarchical free-standing electrodes were directly fabricated into sandwich structured supercapacitors using 1 M H2SO4 as the electrolyte showing a significant specific capacitance of 450.2 F/g at the voltage scan rate of 10 mV/s. The electrochemical properties of the hierarchical structure can be further improved by a reduction procedure of GO before the deposition of PANI.
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Anatomical Distance Affects Functional Connectivity in Patients With Schizophrenia and Their Siblings.
Schizophr Bull
PUBLISHED: 11-26-2013
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Background: The efficiency of human brain depends on the integrity of both long- and short-range connections, but the long-range connections need to be "penalized" to reduce overall wiring costs. This principle, termed as the anatomical distance function (ADF), refers to the presence of an inverse relationship between anatomical distance and connectivity. A crucial developmental feature that occurs in normal adolescence is the weakening of ADF, which is characterized by a selective strengthening of long-distance connections. Schizophrenia is associated with widespread dysconnectivity that is linked to aberrant cortical development. Methods: We studied the ADF in adults with schizophrenia (n = 28), their age-matched siblings (n = 28), and healthy controls (n = 60). We investigated the proportional abnormalities in the long-range connections involving interhemispheric, subcortical, frontal, and salience network regions and localized the connections showing most significant changes in schizophrenia. The groups were discriminated on the basis of short- and long-range connectivity using a machine-learning algorithm. Results: Both patients and their siblings showed abnormally pronounced ADF. This was associated with a disproportionate reduction in the number of long-range connections, affecting the subcortical, interhemispheric, and the salience network connections. The abnormalities in long-range connections had superior ability to accurately identify group membership. Conclusions: A crucial organizing principle of the brain architecture that becomes apparent during normal adolescence is disturbed in schizophrenia. While siblings show some evidence of compensating for this deficit, patients lack putative compensatory changes. Age-related shift in ADF provides an explanatory framework for the developmental emergence of widespread dysconnectivity that is influenced by genetic risk in schizophrenia.
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More complications occurred in macrolide-resistant Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia.
Antimicrob. Agents Chemother.
PUBLISHED: 11-25-2013
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Objectives:To understand the situation of macrolide-resistant genotypes of Mycoplasma pneumoniae (MP), and analyze the relationship between macrolide-resistant genotypes and clinical manifestations of Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia (MPP).Methods:Full-length sequencing of the 23S rRNA gene of MP was performed in 235 nasopharyngeal aspirates (NPAs) from children with MPP. We also retrospectively compared the clinical characteristics of macrolide-resistant (MR) MP infections and macrolide-sensitive (MS) MP infections.Results:A total of 206 patients had point mutations in the 23S rRNA gene of MP, and they were defined as MR patients. The remaining 29 patients without point mutations were defined as MS patients. Among 206 MR patients, 199 (96.6%) had A2063G mutations, 6 with A2063T mutations, and the remaining one with an A2064G mutation. Concerning clinical manifestations, we found the median fever duration was 8 (range 0?42) days and 6 (0?14) days (P<0.01), the median hospitalization duration was 8 (2?45) days and 6 (3?16) days (P<0.01), and the median fever duration after macrolide therapy was 5 (0?42) days and 3 (0?10) days (P<0.01), respectively in the MR and MS group. We also found the incidence of extra-pulmonary complications in the MR group was significantly higher than that in the MS group (P<0.05). And radiological findings were more serious in the MR group than those in the MS group (P<0.05).Conclusions:The increasing prevalence of MR MP has become a significant clinical issue in the pediatric patients, which may lead to more extra-pulmonary complications, and severe clinical features and radiological manifestations.
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Large-pore mesoporous Mn3O4 crystals derived from metal-organic frameworks.
Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
PUBLISHED: 11-07-2013
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The large-pore mesoporous Mn3O4 crystals with tunable morphologies, size and porosities were synthesized via the conversion of metal-organic frameworks, which were fabricated by utilizing the nanostructural organizations of ionic liquid-water mixtures as templates. Mn3O4 showed high catalytic activity for the degradation of methyl blue in the wastewater treatment.
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miR-9 and miR-140-5p target FoxP2 and are regulated as a function of the social context of singing behavior in zebra finches.
J. Neurosci.
PUBLISHED: 10-18-2013
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Mutations in the FOXP2 gene cause speech and language impairments, accompanied by structural and functional abnormalities in brain regions underlying speech-related sensory-motor processing, including the striatum and cerebellum. The sequence and expression patterns of FOXP2 are highly conserved among higher vertebrates. In the zebra finch brain, FoxP2 is expressed in Area X, a striatal nucleus required for vocal learning, and reduced FoxP2 expression impairs dendritic development and vocal learning. The FoxP2 gene encodes a transcription factor that controls the expression of many downstream genes. However, how FOXP2 gene expression is regulated is not clearly understood. miRNAs regulate gene expression post-transcriptionally by targeting the 3-untranslated regions (UTRs) of mRNAs, leading to translational suppression or mRNA degradation. In this study, we identified miR-9 and miR-140-5p as potential regulators of the FoxP2 gene. We show that both miR-9 and miR-140-5p target specific sequences in the FoxP2 3-UTR and downregulate FoxP2 protein and mRNA expression in vitro. We also show that the expression of miR-9 and miR-140-5p in Area X of the zebra finch brain is regulated during song development in juvenile zebra finches. We further show that in adult zebra finches the expression of miR-9 and miR-140-5p in Area X is regulated as a function of the social context of song behavior in males singing undirected songs. Our findings reveal a post-transcriptional mechanism that regulates FoxP2 expression and suggest that social vocal behavior can influence the basal ganglia circuit controlling vocal learning via a miRNA-FoxP2 gene regulatory network.
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Phosphorylated VEGFR2 and hypertension: potential biomarkers to indicate VEGF-dependency of advanced breast cancer in anti-angiogenic therapy.
Breast Cancer Res. Treat.
PUBLISHED: 10-12-2013
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The efficacy of anti-VEGF agents probably lies on VEGF-dependency. Apatinib, a specific tyrosine kinase inhibitor that targets VEGF receptor 2, was assessed in patients with advanced breast cancer (ABC) (ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01176669 and NCT01653561). This substudy was to explore the potential biomarkers for VEGF-dependency in apatinib-treated breast cancer. Eighty pretreated patients received apatinib 750 or 500 mg/day orally in 4-week cycles. Circulating biomarkers were measured using a multiplex assay, and tissue biomarkers were identified with immunostaining. Baseline characteristics and adverse events (AEs) were included in the analysis. Statistical confirmation of independent predictive factors for anti-tumor efficacy was performed using Cox and Logistic regression models. Median progression-free survival (PFS) was 3.8 months, and overall survival (OS) was 10.6 months, with 17.5 % of objective response rate. Prominent AEs (?60 %) were hypertension, hand-foot skin reaction (HFSR), and proteinuria. Higher tumor phosphorylated VEGFR2 (p-VEGFR2) expressions (P = 0.001), higher baseline serum soluble VEGFR2 (P = 0.031), hypertension (P = 0.011), and HFSR (P = 0.018) were significantly related to longer PFS, whereas hypertension (P = 0.002) and HFSR (P = 0.001) were also related to OS. Based on multivariate analysis, only p-VEGFR2 (adjusted HR, 0.40; P = 0.013) and hypertension (adjusted HR, 0.58; P = 0.038) were independent predictive factors for both PFS and clinical benefit rate. Apatinib had substantial antitumor activity in ABC and manageable toxicity. p-VEGFR2 and hypertension may be surrogate predictors of VEGF-dependency of breast cancer, which may identify an anti-angiogenesis sensitive population.
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Peripheral T lymphocyte subset imbalances in children with enterovirus 71-induced hand, foot and mouth disease.
Virus Res.
PUBLISHED: 10-09-2013
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Inflammatory mediators (i.e. cytokines) play a pivotal role in the regulation of pathophysiological processes during EV71-induced hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD). Different T cell subsets have distinct cytokine secretion profiles, and alteration in the T cell subsets frequency (imbalance) during infection leads to changed cytokine patterns. However, the effects of EV71 infection on T cell subsets were not clear. The objective of this study was to determine whether EV71-induced HFMD can be explained by the emergence of particular T-cell subsets (Th1, Th2, Tc1, Tc2, Th17, Tc17 and Treg cells) and the cytokine they produced (IFN-?, IL-4, IL-17A and TGF-?1), as well as distinct responses to EV71 infection. We found that when compared to the control group, the percentage of Th1 and Tc1 cells was significantly higher in mild and severe HFMD group. Similar results were found in the Th1/Th2 ratio and IFN-? levels. On the other hand, the percentage of Th17 cells and IL-17A levels were the highest in severe HFMD cases, and lowest in controls. Similar trend was also found for the Th17/Treg cell ratio. An optimal cutoff value of 2.15% for Th17 cell and 6.72pg/ml for IL-17A provided a discriminatory value for differentiating the severity of HFMD cases by receiver operating characteristic curve analyses. These findings reveal that the Th1/Th2 and Th17/Treg imbalance exist in HFMD patients, suggesting their involvement in the pathogenesis of EV71 infection, which may have potential value as biomarkers.
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Hollow metal-organic framework polyhedra synthesized by a CO2-ionic liquid interfacial templating route.
J Colloid Interface Sci
PUBLISHED: 09-24-2013
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We proposed for the first time a CO2-ionic liquid (IL) interfacial templating route for the production of hollow MOF microparticles. By adding the gaseous CO2 into IL phase under stirring, a large number of CO2 bubbles are generated, which provide numerous CO2-IL interfaces, serving as the nucleation or agglomeration centers for the MOF nanocrystals. By this strategy, the hollow and mesoporous Zn-BTC (BTC: 1,3,5-benzenetricarboxylic) tetrahedroids were fabricated. The morphologies of the Zn-BTC polyhedra can be easily controlled by CO2 pressure. The as-synthesized Zn-BTC hollow microparticles have shown potential applications in gas separation and catalysis. Furthermore, the CO2-IL interface templating approach has been successfully applied to the fabrication of microsized Zn-BDC (BDC: 1,4-benzenedicarboxylic) hollow prisms.
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Heterogeneity of lung mononuclear phagocytes during pneumonia: contribution of chemokine receptors.
Am. J. Physiol. Lung Cell Mol. Physiol.
PUBLISHED: 09-20-2013
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Bacterial pneumonia is a common and dangerous illness. Mononuclear phagocytes, which comprise monocyte, resident and recruited macrophage, and dendritic cell subsets, are critical to antimicrobial defenses, but the dynamics of their recruitment to the lungs in pneumonia is not established. We hypothesized that chemokine-mediated traffic of mononuclear phagocytes is important in defense against bacterial pneumonia. In a mouse model of Klebsiella pneumonia, circulating Ly6C(hi) and, to a lesser extent, Ly6C(lo) monocytes expanded in parallel with accumulation of inflammatory macrophages and CD11b(hi) dendritic cells and plasmacytoid dendritic cells in the lungs, whereas numbers of alveolar macrophages remained constant. CCR2 was expressed by Ly6C(hi) monocytes, recruited macrophages, and airway dendritic cells; CCR6 was prominently expressed by airway dendritic cells; and CX3CR1 was ubiquitously expressed by blood monocytes and lung CD11b(hi) dendritic cells during infection. CCR2-deficient, but not CCL2-, CX3CR1-, or CCR6-deficient animals exhibited worse outcomes of infection. The absence of CCR2 had no detectable effect on neutrophils but resulted in reduction of all subsets of lung mononuclear phagocytes in the lungs, including alveolar macrophages and airway and plasmacytoid dendritic cells. In addition, absence of CCR2 skewed the phenotype of lung mononuclear phagocytes, abrogating the appearance of M1 macrophages and TNF-producing dendritic cells in the lungs. Taken together, these data define the dynamics of mononuclear phagocytes during pneumonia.
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A novel method to fabricate discrete porous carbon hemispheres and their electrochemical properties as supercapacitors.
Phys Chem Chem Phys
PUBLISHED: 09-17-2013
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A simple and efficient method to produce discrete, hierarchical porous carbon hemispheres (CHs) with high uniformity has been successfully developed by constructing nanoreactors and using low crosslinked poly(styrene-co-divinylbenzene) (P(St-co-DVB)) capsules as precursors. The samples are characterized by scanning and transmission electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared and Raman spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and N2 adsorption and desorption. Considering their application, the cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy characterization are tested. The experimental results show that the achievement of discrete and perfect carbon hemispheres is dependent on the proper amount of DVB in the P(St-co-DVB) capsules, which can contribute to the ideal thickness or mechanical strength of the shells. When the amount of DVB is 35 wt% in the precursors, a high Brunauer-Emmett-Teller surface area of 676 m(2) g(-1) can be obtained for the carbon hemispheres, and the extremely large pore volume of 2.63 cm(3) g(-1) can also be achieved at the same time. The electrochemical test shows the carbon hemispheres have a higher specific capacitance of ca. 83 F g(-1) at 10 mV s(-1), compared to other carbon materials. So this method supplies a platform to extend the fabrication field of carbon materials and supplies more chances for the application of carbon materials including carbon hemispheres that are important components and substrates for supercapacitors.
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Poly(ethylene glycol) Stabilized Mesoporous Metal-Organic Framework Nanocrystals: Efficient and Durable Catalysts for the Oxidation of Benzyl Alcohol.
Chemphyschem
PUBLISHED: 09-03-2013
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Active, selective, and stable: The fabrication of uniform mesoporous Cu3 (BTC)2 (BTC: 1,3,5-benzenetricarboxylate) nanocrystals with tunable size and porosity is reported. The as-synthesized Cu3 (BTC)2 structures show high activity, selectivity, and stability for the aerobic oxidation of benzyl alcohol to aldehyde.
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Speciation analysis of lead in marine animals by using capillary electrophoresis couple on-line with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry.
Electrophoresis
PUBLISHED: 08-21-2013
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We herein reported a environment-friendly microwave-assisted extraction used to extract trace lead compounds from marine animals and a ultra-sensitive method for the analysis of Pb(2+) , trimethyllead chloride (TML) and triethyllead chloride (TEL) by using capillary electrophoresis-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (CE-ICP-MS). The extraction method is simple and has a high extracting efficiency. It can be used to completely extract both inorganic lead and organolead in marine animal samples without altering its species. The analytical method has a detection limit as low as 0.012-0.084 ng Pb/mL for Pb(2+) , TML and TEL, and can be used to determined ultra-trace Pb(2+) , TML and TEL in marine animals directly without any pre-concentration. With the help of above methods, we have successfully determined Pb(2+) , TML and TEL in clam and oyster tissue within 20 min with a RSD (relative standard deviation, n = 6) <5% and a recovery of 91-104%. Our results showed that Pb(2+) was the main species of lead in clam and oyster, and organolead (TML) was only found in oyster. The proposed method provides a realistic approach for the accurate evaluation of lead pollution in sea food. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
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Efficient separation of the orbital angular momentum eigenstates of light.
Nat Commun
PUBLISHED: 07-12-2013
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Orbital angular momentum (OAM) of light is an attractive degree of freedom for fundamental studies in quantum mechanics. In addition, the discrete unbounded state-space of OAM has been used to enhance classical and quantum communications. Unambiguous measurement of OAM is a key part of all such experiments. However, state-of-the-art methods for separating single photons carrying a large number of different OAM values are limited to a theoretical separation efficiency of about 77%. Here we demonstrate a method which uses a series of unitary optical transformations to enable the measurement of lights OAM with an experimental separation efficiency of >92%. Furthermore, we demonstrate the separation of modes in the angular position basis, which is mutually unbiased with respect to the OAM basis. The high degree of certainty achieved by our method makes it particularly attractive for enhancing the information capacity of multi-level quantum cryptography systems.
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High-efficiency encapsulation of Pt nanoparticles into the channel of carbon nanotubes as an enhanced electrocatalyst for methanol oxidation.
Chemistry
PUBLISHED: 06-24-2013
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Pt-based nanostructures serving as anode catalysts for the methanol oxidation reaction (MOR) have been widely studied for many years. Nevertheless, challenging issues such as poor reaction kinetics and the short-term stability of the MOR are the main drawbacks of such catalysts and limit their applications. Herein, we have developed a facile approach to encapsulate Pt nanoparticles (NPs) inside the nanochannels of porous carbon nanotubes (CNTs; Pt-in-CNTs) as a new enhanced electrocatalytic material. The as-prepared CNTs offer simultaneously ordered diffusion channels for ions and a confinement effect for the NPs, which both facilitate the promotion of catalytic kinetics and avoid the Ostwald ripening of Pt NPs, thus leading to high activity and durable cycle life as an anode catalyst for MOR. This work provides a new approach for enhancing the stability and activity by optimizing the structure of the catalyst, and the Pt-in-CNTs represent the most durable catalysts ever reported for MOR.
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Controlled fabrication of PANI/CNF hybrid films: molecular interaction induced various micromorphologies and electrochemical properties.
J Colloid Interface Sci
PUBLISHED: 06-17-2013
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In this paper, a facile and efficient method is reported to prepare polyaniline/carbon nanofiber (PANI/CNF) hybrid films by in situ chemical polymerization of aniline. The various morphologies and microstructures of PANI/CNF hybrid films can be controlled by adjusting the concentration of aniline and different acids as the protonation reagent, and the formation mechanism is illustrated in this study. The surface morphologies and chemical structure of the PANI/CNF hybrid films are characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM), transmission electron microscope (TEM), water contact angle (CA), FT-IR, Raman, and UV-vis spectrophotometers. The different morphology of uniformly coated, twist-tangled, and needle-like PANI built on CNF films are obtained by using HCl, H2SO4, and HClO4 as protonation reagent and the obtained hybrid films are labeled as PANI/CNF-f1, PANI/CNF-f2, and PANI/CNF-f3, respectively. We demonstrated that the different protonation reagent has the determined effect on the surface properties of the obtained hybrid films that can transfer from hydrophilic to hydrophobic. Besides, the various morphologies of PANI play an important role in their electrochemical properties. PANI/CNF-f3 exhibits higher specific capacitance and better stability than that of the PANI/CNF-f1 and PANI/CNF-f2. Considering its unique needle-like structure, this work is a proof of concept that micro-structure and morphology can determine the macro-properties. And this study supplies a facile method to fabricate PANI/CNF hybrid films that can be used as electrode materials in supercapacitors.
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Phase locking of multiple optical fiber channels for a slow-light-enabled laser radar system.
Opt Express
PUBLISHED: 06-06-2013
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Phase control is crucial to the operation of coherent beam combining systems, whether for laser radar or high-power beam combining. We have recently demonstrated a design for a multi-aperture, coherently combined, synchronized- and phased-array slow light laser radar (SLIDAR) that is capable of scanning in two dimensions with dynamic group delay compensation. Here we describe in detail the optical phase locking system used in the design. The phase locking system achieves an estimated Strehl ratio of 0.8, and signals from multiple emitting apertures are phase locked simultaneously to within ?/5 radians (1/10 wave) after propagation through 2.2 km of single-mode fiber per channel. Phase locking performance is maintained even as two independent slow light mechanisms are utilized simultaneously.
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Comparative efficacy of glimepiride and metformin in monotherapy of type 2 diabetes mellitus: meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.
Diabetol Metab Syndr
PUBLISHED: 05-13-2013
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Metformin treatment has been the most recommended monotherapy of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) for decades but is challenged by new antidiabetic drugs. This study conducted a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCT) comparing the efficacy of metformin and glimepiride in monotherapy of T2DM.
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Upregulation of M? muscarinic receptor inhibits cardiac hypertrophy induced by angiotensin II.
J Transl Med
PUBLISHED: 04-30-2013
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M? muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (M?-mAChR) is stably expressed in the myocardium, but its pathophysiological role remains largely undefined. This study aimed to investigate the role of M?-mAChR in cardiac hypertrophy induced by angiotensin II (Ang II) and elucidate the underlying mechanisms.
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How to decide intervention thresholds based on FRAX in central south Chinese postmenopausal women.
Endocrine
PUBLISHED: 04-25-2013
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The FRAX tool has been used to determine possible thresholds for therapeutic intervention; however, there are no FRAX-based intervention thresholds available for China, we proposed that the 10-year probability of major osteoporotic fracture and hip fracture of about 4.0 and 1.3 %, respectively, may be acceptable intervention thresholds for central south Chinese postmenopausal women.
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Optimizing photonic crystal waveguides for on-chip spectroscopic applications.
Opt Express
PUBLISHED: 04-24-2013
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We investigate the applicability of photonic crystal waveguides to high-resolution on-chip spectrometers. We argue that the figure of merit by which their performance should be gauged is not the group index bandwidth product, which photonic crystal waveguides are usually optimized for, but the working finesse, which relates to the maximum number of spectral lines resolvable by a slow-light spectrometer. Through numerical simulation, we show that a properly-optimized photonic crystal waveguide could form the basis of a spectrometer with a spectral resolution of 0.04 nm over a 12.5 nm bandwidth near 1550 nm and with a footprint six times smaller than a conventional spectrometer.
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Major depressive disorder in hemodialysis patients in China.
Asia Pac Psychiatry
PUBLISHED: 04-16-2013
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Major depressive disorder (MDD) has been regarded as the most common psychiatric disorder among hemodialysis (HD) patients. However, few studies have investigated MDD in HD patients in Mainland China. This study sought to investigate the prevalence and treatment of MDD, as well as the sociodemographic and clinical characteristics in this population.
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Testicular phosphoproteome in perfluorododecanoic acid-exposed rats.
Toxicol. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 04-14-2013
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Perfluorododecanoic acid (PFDoA) is a common environmental pollutant, which has been detected in human sera and has adverse effects on testicular function in animal models. Exploring phosphorylation events in testes helps elucidate the specific phosphorylation signals involved in testicular toxicity of PFDoA. Combining efficient prefractionation of tryptic peptide mixtures using self-packed reversed phase C18 columns with TiO2 and IMAC phosphopeptide enrichment techniques followed by 2D-LC-MS/MS, we identified 4077 unique phosphopeptides from 1777 proteins with a false discovery rate below 1.0% in the testes of rats exposed to PFDoA for 110 days. In addition, 937 novel phosphorylation sites were discovered in testicular proteins. Hundreds of phosphorylated proteins identified might be involved in spermatogenesis and sperm function. With increasing PFDoA dosage, the number of casein kinase 2 kinase-modified peptides significantly increased. Pathway analysis suggested that the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway and cell division cycle protein 2 (CDC2) may have contributed to sperm activity and testicular function. By in vitro experiments, CDC2 phosphorylation activity was found to be likely involved in PFDoA-induced toxicity in Leydig cells. This study provides the first examination of the whole proteins phosphorylation profile in rat testis and suggests that the MAPK pathway and CDC2 protein phosphorylation are critical for PFDoA testicular toxicity.
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Wedelolactone, a naturally occurring coumestan, enhances interferon-? signaling through inhibiting STAT1 protein dephosphorylation.
J. Biol. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 04-11-2013
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Signal transducers and activators of transcription 1 (STAT1) transduces signals from cytokines and growth factors, particularly IFN-?, and regulates expression of genes involved in cell survival/death, proliferation, and migration. STAT1 is activated through phosphorylation on its tyrosine 701 by JAKs and is inactivated through dephosphorylation by tyrosine phosphatases. We discovered a natural compound, wedelolactone, that increased IFN-? signaling by inhibiting STAT1 dephosphorylation and prolonging STAT1 activation through specific inhibition of T-cell protein tyrosine phosphatase (TCPTP), an important tyrosine phosphatase for STAT1 dephosphorylation. More interestingly, wedelolactone inhibited TCPTP through interaction with the C-terminal autoinhibition domain of TCPTP. We also found that wedelolactone synergized with IFN-? to induce apoptosis of tumor cells. Our data suggest a new target for anticancer or antiproliferation drugs, a new mechanism to regulate PTPs specifically, and a new drug candidate for treating cancer or other proliferation disorders.
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Fundamental limits to slow-light arrayed-waveguide-grating spectrometers.
Opt Express
PUBLISHED: 04-03-2013
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We present an analytical model that describes the limiting spectral performance of arrayed-waveguide-grating (AWG) spectrometers that incorporate slow-light methods. We show that the loss-limited spectral resolution of a slow-light grating-based spectrometer scales as the loss-group-index ratio of the waveguide array. We further show that one can achieve a spectral resolution of a few GHz using currently available slow-light photonic crystal waveguides while greatly shrinking the on-chip footprint of the spectrometer.
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Genetic basis of soybean adaptation to North American vs. Asian mega-environments in two independent populations from Canadian × Chinese crosses.
Theor. Appl. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 03-26-2013
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One of the goals of plant breeding is to increase yield with improved quality characters. Plant introductions (PI) are a rich source of favorable alleles that could improve different characters in modern soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merril] including yield. The objectives of this study were to identify yield QTL underlying the genetic basis for differential adaptation of soybeans to the Canadian, United States or Chinese mega-environments (ME) and to evaluate the relationship and colocalization between yield and agronomic traits QTL. Two crosses between high-yielding Canadian cultivars and elite Chinese cultivars, OAC Millennium × Heinong 38 and Pioneer 9071 × #8902, were used to develop two recombinant inbred line (RIL) populations. Both populations were evaluated at different locations in Ontario, Canada; Minnesota, United States (US), Heilongjiang and Jilin, China, in 2009 and 2010. Significant variation for yield was observed among the RILs of both populations across the three hypothetical ME. Two yield QTL (linked to the interval Satt364-Satt591 and Satt277) and one yield QTL (linked to marker Sat_341) were identified by single-factor ANOVA and interval mapping across all ME in populations 1 and 2, respectively. The most frequent top ten high-yielding lines across all ME carried most of the high-yielding alleles of the QTL that were identified in two and three ME. Both parents contributed favorable alleles, which suggests that not only the adapted parent but also the PI parents are potential sources of beneficial alleles in reciprocal environments. Other QTL were detected also at two and one ME. Most of the yield QTL were co-localized with a QTL associated with an agronomic trait in one, two, or three ME in just one or in both populations. Results suggested that most of the variation observed in seed yield can be explained by the variation of different agronomic traits such a maturity, lodging and height. Novel alleles coming from PI can favorably contribute, directly or indirectly, to seed yield and the utilization of QTL detected across one, two or three ME would facilitate the new allele introgression into breeding populations in both North America and China.
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New quantitative trait loci for carotid atherosclerosis identified in an intercross derived from apolipoprotein E-deficient mouse strains.
Physiol. Genomics
PUBLISHED: 03-05-2013
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Carotid atherosclerosis is the primary cause of ischemic stroke. To identify genetic factors contributing to carotid atherosclerosis, we performed quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis using female mice derived from an intercross between C57BL/6J (B6) and BALB/cJ (BALB) apolipoprotein E (Apoe(-/-)) mice. We started 266 F(2) mice on a Western diet at 6 wk of age and fed them the diet for 12 wk. Atherosclerotic lesions in the left carotid bifurcation and plasma lipid levels were measured. We genotyped 130 microsatellite markers across the entire genome. Three significant QTLs, Cath1 on chromosome (Chr) 12, Cath2 on Chr5, and Cath3 on Chr13, and four suggestive QTLs on Chr6, Chr9, Chr17, and Chr18 were identified for carotid lesions. The Chr6 locus replicated a suggestive QTL and was named Cath4. Six QTLs for HDL, three QTLs for non-HDL cholesterol, and three QTLs for triglyceride were found. Of these, a significant QTL for non-HDL on Chr1 at 60.3 cM, named Nhdl13, and a suggestive QTL for HDL on ChrX were new. A significant locus for HDL (Hdlq5) was overlapping with a suggestive locus for carotid lesions on Chr9. A significant correlation between carotid lesion sizes and HDL cholesterol levels was observed in the F(2) population (R = -0.153, P = 0.0133). Thus, we have identified several new QTLs for carotid atherosclerosis and the locus on Chr9 may exert effect through interactions with HDL.
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Regression of calcinosis following treatment with radiofrequency thermoablation for severe secondary hyperparathyroidism in a hemodialysis patient.
Intern. Med.
PUBLISHED: 03-01-2013
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We herein present the case of a 41-year-old man who was misdiagnosed with a recurrent right shoulder tumor and underwent surgery twice. The pathological diagnosis was calcinosis. Secondary hyperparathyroidism was confirmed on further examination and the patient was therefore treated with two sessions of percutaneous ultrasonographically-guided radiofrequency tissue ablation. During the 20-month follow-up, the patient underwent four-hour hemodialysis three times a week. The calcinosis nearly completely resolved, and the PTH level was mildly elevated without the administration of any further medical therapy. Percutaneous ultrasonographically-guided radiofrequency tissue ablation is a feasible, safe and effective nonsurgical alternative treatment for secondary hyperparathyroidism.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.