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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Gold crescent nanodisk array for nanoantenna-enhanced sensing in subwavelength areas.
Appl Opt
PUBLISHED: 11-18-2014
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Benefitting from the antenna effect and localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR), a metal nanoparticle with a designed morphology has the amazing ability to confine light energy into the required extremely small volume, whose refractive index largely affects the optical properties of the whole metal nanoparticle. In this work, the optical spectra and near-field distribution of a gold nanocrescent array were investigated both experimentally and theoretically. To find out the LSPR wavelength and the enhancement using different morphologies of sharp tips, the spectra of gold nanocrescent arrays with different waist widths (d) were first measured, which were then confirmed and analyzed using the finite difference time-domain method and the hybridization theory. At last, the LSPR of this array with 100 nm diameter dielectric nanodisks was studied for sensing in subwavelength areas. Our results showed that because of its giant nanoantenna-enhanced electromagnetic field at the two tips, this gold nanocrescent array could be a suitable local senor to sense the variation of a local medium in a subwavelength area.
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2-Deoxy-D-Glucose Enhances Anesthetic Effects in Mice.
Anesth. Analg.
PUBLISHED: 11-13-2014
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The mechanisms of general anesthesia by volatile drugs remain largely unknown. Mitochondrial dysfunction and reduction in energy levels have been suggested to be associated with general anesthesia status. 2-Deoxy-D-glucose (2-DG), an analog of glucose, inhibits hexokinase and reduces cellular levels of adenosine triphosphate (ATP). 3-Nitropropionic acid is another compound which can deplete ATP levels. In contrast, idebenone and L-carnitine could rescue deficits of energy. We therefore sought to determine whether 2-DG and/or 3-nitropropionic acid can enhance the anesthetic effects of isoflurane, and whether idebenone and L-carnitine can reverse the actions of 2-DG.
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Rational design of tetraphenylethylene-based luminescent down-shifting molecules: photophysical studies and photovoltaic applications in a CdTe solar cell from small to large units.
Phys Chem Chem Phys
PUBLISHED: 11-03-2014
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A rational design strategy of novel fluorophores for luminescent down-shifting (LDS) application was proposed and tested in this paper. Three new fluorophores (1a-c) with specific intramolecular charge transfer (ICT) and aggregation-induced emission (AIE) characteristics were synthesized as LDS molecules for increasing the output short circuit current density (Jsc) of a CdTe solar cell. Photophysical studies of their solution and solid states, and photovoltaic measurements of their PMMA solid films applied on a CdTe solar cell suggested that the specific spectroscopic properties and Jsc enhancement effects of these molecules were highly related to their chemical structures. The Jsc enhancement effects of these fluorophores were measured on both a CdTe small cell and a large panel. An increase in the output Jsc by as high as 5.69% for a small cell and 8.88% for a large panel was observed. Compared to a traditional LDS molecule, Y083, these fluorophores exhibited more superior capabilities of LDS.
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Simplified optical image encryption approach using single diffraction pattern in diffractive-imaging-based scheme.
Opt Express
PUBLISHED: 10-17-2014
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In previous diffractive-imaging-based optical encryption schemes, it is impossible to totally retrieve the plaintext from a single diffraction pattern. In this paper, we proposed a new method to achieve this goal. The encryption procedure can be completed by proceeding only one exposure, and the single diffraction pattern is recorded as ciphertext. For recovering the plaintext, a novel median-filtering-based phase retrieval algorithm, including two iterative cycles, has been developed. This proposal not only extremely simplifies the encryption and decryption processes, but also facilitates the storage and transmission of the ciphertext, and its effectiveness and feasibility have been demonstrated by numerical simulations.
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pH responsive polymersome Pickering emulsion for simple and efficient Janus polymersome fabrication.
Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
PUBLISHED: 10-14-2014
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Crosslinked poly(acrylic acid)-b-polystyrene polymersomes were successfully employed to form a water-in-oil Pickering emulsion and enabled an easy and reversible disassembly due to the pH sensitivity. The side of the polymersomes exposed to the water phase was selectively modified with metal nanoparticles, allowing facile formation of anisotropically modified Janus polymersomes.
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The Macrophage Migration Inhibitory Factor -173G/C gene polymorphism increase the risk of renal disease: A meta-analysis.
Nephrology (Carlton)
PUBLISHED: 10-12-2014
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Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) -173G/C (rs755622) gene polymorphism has been implicated the association with renal disease risk. However, lots of studies have reported inconclusive results. Therefore we performed a meta-analysis to investigate the relationship between the MIF -173G/C gene polymorphism and renal disease susceptibility.
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Liposome encapsulated Disulfiram inhibits NF?B pathway and targets breast cancer stem cells in vitro and in vivo.
Oncotarget
PUBLISHED: 10-04-2014
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Breast cancer stem cells (BCSCs) are pan-resistant to different anticancer agents and responsible for cancer relapse. Disulfiram (DS), an antialcoholism drug, targets CSCs and reverses pan-chemoresistance. The anticancer application of DS is limited by its very short half-life in the bloodstream. This prompted us to develop a liposome-encapsulated DS (Lipo-DS) and examine its anticancer effect and mechanisms in vitro and in vivo. The relationship between hypoxia and CSCs was examined by in vitro comparison of BC cells cultured in spheroid and hypoxic conditions. To determine the importance of NF?B activation in bridging hypoxia and CSC-related pan-resistance, the CSC characters and drug sensitivity in BC cell lines were observed in NF?B p65 transfected cell lines. The effect of Lipo-DS on the NF?B pathway, CSCs and chemosensitivity was investigated in vitro and in vivo. The spheroid cultured BC cells manifested CSC characteristics and pan-resistance to anticancer drugs. This was related to the hypoxic condition in the spheres. Hypoxia induced activation of NF?B and chemoresistance. Transfection of BC cells with NF?B p65 also induced CSC characters and pan-resistance. Lipo-DS blocked NF?B activation and specifically targeted CSCs in vitro. Lipo-DS also targeted the CSC population in vivo and showed very strong anticancer efficacy. Mice tolerated the treatment very well and no significant in vivo nonspecific toxicity was observed. Hypoxia induced NF?B activation is responsible for stemness and chemoresistance in BCSCs. Lipo-DS targets NF?B pathway and CSCs. Further study may translate DS into cancer therapeutics.
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Copy number variation in the horse genome.
PLoS Genet.
PUBLISHED: 10-01-2014
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We constructed a 400K WG tiling oligoarray for the horse and applied it for the discovery of copy number variations (CNVs) in 38 normal horses of 16 diverse breeds, and the Przewalski horse. Probes on the array represented 18,763 autosomal and X-linked genes, and intergenic, sub-telomeric and chrY sequences. We identified 258 CNV regions (CNVRs) across all autosomes, chrX and chrUn, but not in chrY. CNVs comprised 1.3% of the horse genome with chr12 being most enriched. American Miniature horses had the highest and American Quarter Horses the lowest number of CNVs in relation to Thoroughbred reference. The Przewalski horse was similar to native ponies and draft breeds. The majority of CNVRs involved genes, while 20% were located in intergenic regions. Similar to previous studies in horses and other mammals, molecular functions of CNV-associated genes were predominantly in sensory perception, immunity and reproduction. The findings were integrated with previous studies to generate a composite genome-wide dataset of 1476 CNVRs. Of these, 301 CNVRs were shared between studies, while 1174 were novel and require further validation. Integrated data revealed that to date, 41 out of over 400 breeds of the domestic horse have been analyzed for CNVs, of which 11 new breeds were added in this study. Finally, the composite CNV dataset was applied in a pilot study for the discovery of CNVs in 6 horses with XY disorders of sexual development. A homozygous deletion involving AKR1C gene cluster in chr29 in two affected horses was considered possibly causative because of the known role of AKR1C genes in testicular androgen synthesis and sexual development. While the findings improve and integrate the knowledge of CNVs in horses, they also show that for effective discovery of variants of biomedical importance, more breeds and individuals need to be analyzed using comparable methodological approaches.
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Design, Synthesis and Biological Evaluation of Quinoxalin-2(1H)-One Derivatives as EGFR Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors.
Anticancer Agents Med Chem
PUBLISHED: 08-25-2014
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With the successful use of ge?tinib and erlotinib in clinic, some potent EGFR tyrosine kinase receptor inhibitors have gained widespread concern in the treatment of ovarian or non-small-cell lung cancer. However, the emergence of EGFR-activating mutations resist to the drugs, there is an impending need to design new inhibitor targeted EGFR. Furthermore, the understanding of mutual effect between EGFR and drug has been available, it has become a hot spot for the research of anticancer drugs. We have designed and synthesized a series of 6-methoxy-7-(3-morpholinopropoxy)-1-(2-phenoxyethyl)-quinoxalin-2(1H)-one derivatives as novel EGFR inhibitors. Most of the compounds have showed inhibitory activity toward EGFR kinase. This work has demonstrated it is possible to construct a new type of EGFR protein kinase inhibitor using a design-in strategy.
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Testing Chemotherapeutic Agents in the Feather Follicle Identifies a Selective Blockade of Cell Proliferation and a Key Role for Sonic Hedgehog Signaling in Chemotherapy-Induced Tissue Damage.
J. Invest. Dermatol.
PUBLISHED: 08-22-2014
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Chemotherapeutic agents induce complex tissue responses in vivo and damage normal organ functions. Here we use the feather follicle to investigate details of this damage response. We show that cyclophosphamide treatment, which causes chemotherapy-induced alopecia in mice and man, induces distinct defects in feather formation: feather branching is transiently and reversibly disrupted, thus leaving a morphological record of the impact of chemotherapeutic agents, whereas the rachis (feather axis) remains unperturbed. Similar defects are observed in feathers treated with 5-fluorouracil or taxol but not with doxorubicin or arabinofuranosyl cytidine (Ara-C). Selective blockade of cell proliferation was seen in the feather branching area, along with a downregulation of sonic hedgehog (Shh) transcription, but not in the equally proliferative rachis. Local delivery of the Shh inhibitor, cyclopamine, or Shh silencing both recapitulated this effect. In mouse hair follicles, those chemotherapeutic agents that disrupted feather formation also downregulated Shh gene expression and induced hair loss, whereas doxorubicin or Ara-C did not. Our results reveal a mechanism through which chemotherapeutic agents damage rapidly proliferating epithelial tissue, namely via the cell population-specific, Shh-dependent inhibition of proliferation. This mechanism may be targeted by future strategies to manage chemotherapy-induced tissue damage.Journal of Investigative Dermatology advance online publication, 23 October 2014; doi:10.1038/jid.2014.409.
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Identification of a telomeric DNA-binding protein in Eimeria tenella.
Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.
PUBLISHED: 08-13-2014
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Coccidiosis is considered to be a major problem for the poultry industry, and coccidiosis control is yet urgent. Due to the roles in telomere length regulation and end protection, telomere-binding proteins have been considered as a good target for drug design. In this work, a putative Gbp1p that is similar to telomeric DNA-binding protein Gbp (G-strand binding protein) of Cryptosporidium parvum, was searched in the database of Eimeria tenella. Sequence analysis indicated E.tenella Gbp1p (EtGbp1p) has significant sequence similarity to other eukaryotic Gbps in their RNA recognition motif (RRM) domains. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays (EMSAs) demonstrated recombinant EtGbp1p bound G-rich telomeric DNA, but not C-rich or double-stranded telomeric DNA sequences. Competition and antibody supershift assays confirmed the interaction of DNA-protein complex. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays confirmed that EtGbp1p interacted with telomeric DNA in vivo. Collectively, these evidences suggest that EtGbp1p represents a G-rich single-stranded telomeric DNA-binding protein in E.tenella.
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An intensity ratio of interlocking loops determines circadian period length.
Nucleic Acids Res.
PUBLISHED: 08-13-2014
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Circadian clocks allow organisms to orchestrate the daily rhythms in physiology and behaviors, and disruption of circadian rhythmicity can profoundly affect fitness. The mammalian circadian oscillator consists of a negative primary feedback loop and is associated with some 'auxiliary' loops. This raises the questions of how these interlocking loops coordinate to regulate the period and maintain its robustness. Here, we focused on the REV-ERB?/Cry1 auxiliary loop, consisting of Rev-Erb?/ROR-binding elements (RORE) mediated Cry1 transcription, coordinates with the negative primary feedback loop to modulate the mammalian circadian period. The silicon simulation revealed an unexpected rule: the intensity ratio of the primary loop to the auxiliary loop is inversely related to the period length, even when post-translational feedback is fixed. Then we measured the mRNA levels from two loops in 10-mutant mice and observed the similar monotonic relationship. Additionally, our simulation and the experimental results in human osteosarcoma cells suggest that a coupling effect between the numerator and denominator of this intensity ratio ensures the robustness of circadian period and, therefore, provides an efficient means of correcting circadian disorders. This ratio rule highlights the contribution of the transcriptional architecture to the period dynamics and might be helpful in the construction of synthetic oscillators.
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The sympathetic skin response located in the penis as a predictor of the response to sertraline treatment in patients with primary premature ejaculation.
J Sex Med
PUBLISHED: 08-08-2014
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The pathologic mechanisms of primary premature ejaculation (PPE) are complex and multifactorial, and hyperactivity of the sympathetic nervous system is one of the mechanisms.
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Inhibition of Rac1 activity induces G1/S phase arrest through the GSK3/cyclin D1 pathway in human cancer cells.
Oncol. Rep.
PUBLISHED: 08-07-2014
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Rac1 has been shown to regulate the cell cycle in cancer cells. Yet, the related mechanism remains unclear. Thus, the present study aimed to investigate the mechanism involved in the regulation of G1/S phase transition by Rac1 in cancer cells. Inhibition of Rac1 by inhibitor NSC23766 induced G1/S phase arrest and inhibited the proliferation of A431, SW480 and U2-OS cells. Suppression of GSK3 by shRNA partially rescued G1/S phase arrest and inhibition of proliferation. Incubation of cells with NSC23766 reduced p-AKT and inactivated p-GSK3? and p-GSK3?, increased p-cyclin D1 expression and decreased the level of cyclin D1 protein. Consequently, cyclin D1 targeting transcriptional factor E2F1 expression, which promotes G1 to S phase transition, was also reduced. In contrast, constitutive active Rac1 resulted in increased p-AKT and inactivated p-GSK3? and p-GSK3?, decreased p-cyclin D1 expression and enhanced levels of cyclin D1 and E2F1 expression. Moreover, suppression of GSK3 did not alter p-AKT or Rac1 activity, but decreased p-cyclin D1 and increased total cyclin D1 protein. However, neither Rac1 nor GSK3 inhibition altered cyclin D1 at the RNA level. Moreover, after inhibition of Rac1 or GSK3 following proteasome inhibitor MG132 treatment, cyclin D1 expression at the protein level remained constant, indicating that Rac1 and GSK3 may regulate cyclin D1 turnover through phosphorylation and degradation. Therefore, our findings suggest that inhibition of Rac1 induces cell cycle G1/S arrest in cancer cells by regulation of the GSK3/cyclin D1 pathway.
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Diffractive-imaging-based optical image encryption with simplified decryption from single diffraction pattern.
Appl Opt
PUBLISHED: 08-05-2014
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In this paper, we propose a novel method for image encryption by employing the diffraction imaging technique. This method is in principle suitable for most diffractive-imaging-based optical encryption schemes, and a typical diffractive imaging architecture using three random phase masks in the Fresnel domain is taken for an example to illustrate it. The encryption process is rather simple because only a single diffraction intensity pattern is needed to be recorded, and the decryption procedure is also correspondingly simplified. To achieve this goal, redundant data are digitally appended to the primary image before a standard encrypting procedure. The redundant data serve as a partial input plane support constraint in a phase retrieval algorithm, which is employed for completely retrieving the plaintext. Simulation results are presented to verify the validity of the proposed approach.
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Breakdown assisted by a novel electron drift injection in the J-TEXT tokamak.
Rev Sci Instrum
PUBLISHED: 08-03-2014
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A novel electron drift injection (EDI) system aiming to improve breakdown behavior has been designed and constructed on the Joint Texas EXperiment Tokamak Tokamak. Electrons emitted by the system undergo the E×B drift, ?B drift and curvature drift in sequence in order to traverse the confining magnetic field. A local electrostatic well, generated by a concave-shaped plate biased more negative than the cathode, is introduced to interrupt the emitted electrons moving along the magnetic field line (in the parallel direction) in an attempt to bring an enhancement of the injection efficiency and depth. A series of experiments have demonstrated the feasibility of this method, and a penetration distance deeper than 9.5 cm is achieved. Notable breakdown improvements, including the reduction of breakdown delay and average loop voltage, are observed for discharges assisted by EDI. The lower limit of successfully ionized pressure is expanded.
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Echinomycin, a potential binder of FKBP12, shows minor effect on calcineurin activity.
J Biomol Screen
PUBLISHED: 08-01-2014
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Echinomycin, a member of the quinoxaline family of antibiotics, is known to be a small-molecule inhibitor of hypoxia inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) DNA binding activity. Recently, it has been shown to suppress mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling and growth in leukemia cell lines. In this study, we investigated whether echinomycin interacts with the FKBP12 protein. Molecular docking was used, and the predicted binding energy was -10.61 kcal/mol. Moreover, surface plasmon resonance imaging and fluorescence quenching techniques were used to validate this interaction. Echinomycin binds to FKBP12 with a strong binding affinity comparable with rapamycin. Furthermore, the echinomycin-FKBP12 complex has been shown to affect calcineurin activity when tested in a calcineurin phosphatase inhibition assay. All of these studies have shown that echinomycin may have a double impact on HIF signaling by direct inhibition and through mTOR.
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Macrolide antibiotics for treatment of asthma in adults: A meta-analysis of 18 randomized controlled clinical studies.
Pulm Pharmacol Ther
PUBLISHED: 07-28-2014
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Mounting studies have been showed that long-term macrolides used in patients with asthma could improve the lung function and symptoms. However, a large number of studies have reported inconclusive results. The aim of this meta-analysis was to investigate the effect of macrolide antibiotics in patients with asthma. We have performed a search in PubMed, Embase, China National Knowledge Internet (CNKI), and Wanfang databases. The weighed mean difference (WMD) or standardized mean difference (SMD) was used to evaluate the pooled effect. Statistical analysis was performed by STATA 11.0 software. Totally 1306 patients were included in the meta-analysis. The overall results indicated that statistically significance of long-term macrolides therapy in patients with asthma on forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) (WMD: 0.11, P < 0.01), peak expiratory flow (PEF) (SMD: 0.25, P = 0.001), airway hyper-responsiveness (AHR) (SMD: 0.90, P = 0.04), forced vital capacity (FVC) (WMD: 0.18, P = 0.05) and FEV1/FVC (WMD: 1.93, P < 0.001), but no statistically significance on FEV1/predict, FVC/predict, symptom scores, quality of life scores (QOL), reliever inhaler puffs per 24 h, and cell counts in sputum and blood. The subgroup analysis indicated macrolides could increase FEV1 and PEF in Caucasian and Asian, decrease AHR in Caucasian, while cells counts of sputum improvement among Asian. Therefore, the study suggested that long-term marolides therapy in asthma may improved the FEV1, PEF, AHR, FVC, FEV1/FVC and cells counts in sputum, but it can't improve other lung function (FEV1/predict and FVC/predict) and clinical outcomes (such as symptom, quality of life etc.).
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Tough Nanocomposite Ionogel-based Actuator Exhibits Robust Performance.
Sci Rep
PUBLISHED: 07-09-2014
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Ionogel electrolytes can be fabricated for electrochemical actuators with many desirable advantages, including direct low-voltage control in air, high electrochemical and thermal stability, and complete silence during actuation. However, the demands for active actuators with above features and load-driving ability remain a challenge; much work is necessary to enhance the mechanical strength of electrolyte materials. Herein, we describe a cross-linked supramolecular approach to prepare tough nanocomposite gel electrolytes from HEMA, BMIMBF4, and TiO2 via self-initiated UV polymerization. The tough and stable ionogels are emerging to fabricate electric double-layer capacitor-like soft actuators, which can be driven by electrically induced ion migration. The ionogel-based actuator shows a displacement response of 5.6?mm to the driving voltage of 3.5?V. After adding the additional mass weight of the same as the actuator, it still shows a large displacement response of 3.9?mm. Furthermore, the actuator can not only work in harsh temperature environments (100°C and -10°C) but also realize the goal of grabbing an object by adjusting the applied voltage.
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HIV integrase inhibitors block replication of alpha-, beta-, and gammaherpesviruses.
MBio
PUBLISHED: 07-03-2014
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The catalytic site of the HIV integrase is contained within an RNase H-like fold, and numerous drugs have been developed that bind to this site and inhibit its activity. Herpes simplex virus (HSV) encodes two proteins with potential RNase H-like folds, the infected cell protein 8 (ICP8) DNA-binding protein, which is necessary for viral DNA replication and exhibits recombinase activity in vitro, and the viral terminase, which is essential for viral DNA cleavage and packaging. Therefore, we hypothesized that HIV integrase inhibitors might also inhibit HSV replication by targeting ICP8 and/or the terminase. To test this, we evaluated the effect of 118-D-24, a potent HIV integrase inhibitor, on HSV replication. We found that 118-D-24 inhibited HSV-1 replication in cell culture at submillimolar concentrations. To identify more potent inhibitors of HSV replication, we screened a panel of integrase inhibitors, and one compound with greater anti-HSV-1 activity, XZ45, was chosen for further analysis. XZ45 significantly inhibited HSV-1 and HSV-2 replication in different cell types, with 50% inhibitory concentrations that were approximately 1 µM, but exhibited low cytotoxicity, with a 50% cytotoxic concentration greater than 500 µM. XZ45 blocked HSV viral DNA replication and late gene expression. XZ45 also inhibited viral recombination in infected cells and ICP8 recombinase activity in vitro. Furthermore, XZ45 inhibited human cytomegalovirus replication and induction of Kaposi's sarcoma herpesvirus from latent infection. Our results argue that inhibitors of enzymes with RNase H-like folds may represent a general antiviral strategy, which is useful not only against HIV but also against herpesviruses. Importance: The herpesviruses cause considerable morbidity and mortality. Nucleoside analogs have served as effective antiviral agents against the herpesviruses, but resistance can arise through viral mutation. Second-line anti-herpes drugs have limitations in terms of pharmacokinetic properties and/or toxicity, so there is a great need for additional drugs for treatment of herpesviral infections. This study showed that the HIV integrase inhibitors also block herpesviral infection, raising the important potential of a new class of anti-herpes drugs and the prospect of drugs that combat both HIV and the herpesviruses.
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Bacterial Community Composition and Fermentation Patterns in the Rumen of Sika Deer (Cervus nippon) Fed Three Different Diets.
Microb. Ecol.
PUBLISHED: 06-18-2014
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Sika deer (Cervus nippon) rely on microorganisms living in the rumen to convert plant materials into chemical compounds, such as volatile fatty acids (VFAs), but how the rumen bacterial community is affected by different forages and adapt to altered diets remains poorly understood. The present study used 454-pyrosequencing of bacterial 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes to examine the relationship between rumen bacterial diversity and metabolic phenotypes using three sika deer in a 3?×?3 latin square design. Three sika deer were fed oak leaves (OL), corn stover (CS), or corn silage (CI), respectively. After a 7-day feeding period, when compared to the CS and CI groups, the OL group had a lower proportion of Prevotella spp. and a higher proportion of unclassified bacteria belonging to the families Succinivibrionaceae and Paraprevotellaceae (P?
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An epitaxial ferroelectric tunnel junction on silicon.
Adv. Mater. Weinheim
PUBLISHED: 06-06-2014
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Epitaxially grown functional perovskites on silicon (001) and the ferroelectricity of a 3.2 nm thick BaTiO3 barrier layer are demonstrated. The polarization-switching-induced change in tunneling resistance is measured to be two orders of magnitude. The obtained results suggest the possibility of integrating ferroelectric tunnel junctions as binary data storage media in non-volatile memory cells on a silicon platform.
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Cell membrane tracker based on restriction of intramolecular rotation.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces
PUBLISHED: 06-05-2014
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The fluorescence of tetraphenylethylene (TPE), an archetypal luminogen, is induced by restriction of intramolecular rotation (RIR). TPE was grafted with palmitic acid (PA) onto a hydrophilic peptide to yield a cell membrane tracker named TR4. TR4 was incorporated into liposomes, where it showed significant RIR characteristics. When cells were incubated with TR4, cytoplasmic membranes were specifically labeled. TR4 shows excellent photostability and low cytotoxicity.
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Transcription of nuclear organellar DNA in a model plant system.
Genome Biol Evol
PUBLISHED: 05-29-2014
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Endosymbiotic gene transfer from cytoplasmic organelles (chloroplasts and mitochondria) to the nucleus is an ongoing process in land plants. Although the frequency of organelle DNA migration is high, functional gene transfer is rare because a nuclear promoter is thought necessary for activity in the nucleus. Here we show that a chloroplast promoter, 16S rrn, drives nuclear transcription, suggesting that a transferred organellar gene may become active without obtaining a nuclear promoter. Examining the chromatin status of a known de novo chloroplast integrant indicates that plastid DNA inserts into open chromatin and that this relaxed condition is maintained after integration. Transcription of nuclear organelle DNA integrants was explored at the whole genome level by analyzing RNA-seq data of Oryza sativa subsp. japonica, and utilizing sequence polymorphisms to unequivocally discriminate nuclear organelle DNA transcripts from those of bona fide cytoplasmic organelle DNA. Nuclear copies of organelle DNA that are transcribed show a spectrum of transcriptional activity but at comparatively low levels compared with the majority of other nuclear genes.
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Puerarin protects pancreatic ?-cell survival via PI3K/Akt signaling pathway.
J. Mol. Endocrinol.
PUBLISHED: 05-14-2014
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Pancreatic ?-cell loss because of apoptosis is the major cause of type 1 diabetes (T1D) and late stage T2D. Puerarin possesses anti-diabetic properties; whether it acts directly on pancreatic ?-cell is not clear. This study was designed to investigate the effects of puerarin on pancreatic ?-cell survival and function. Diabetes was induced in male C57BL/6 mice by a single peritoneal injection of streptozotocin (STZ). Pancreatic ?-cell survival and function were assessed in diabetic mice by measuring ?-cell apoptosis, ?-cell mass, pancreatic insulin content, and glucose tolerance, and in cultured islets and clonial MIN6 ?-cells by measuring ?-cell viability and apoptosis and glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. We found that pre-treatment with puerarin decreased the incidence of STZ-induced diabetes. Puerarin increased pancreatic ?-cell mass via ?-cell apoptosis inhibition in diabetic mice, and increased serum insulin, whereas it decreased blood glucose levels and improved glucose tolerance. In cultured islets and MIN6 cells, puerarin protected ?-cell from cobalt chloride (CoCl2)-induced apoptosis and restored the impaired capacity of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. Puerarin protection of ?-cell survival involved the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt signaling pathway. In conclusion, puerarin protects pancreatic ?-cell function and survival via direct effects on ?-cells, and its protection of ?-cell survival is mediated by the PI3K/Akt pathway. As a safe natural plant extraction, puerarin might serve as a preventive and/or therapeutic approach for diabetes.
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MicroRNA-100 regulates pancreatic cancer cells growth and sensitivity to chemotherapy through targeting FGFR3.
Tumour Biol.
PUBLISHED: 05-08-2014
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We intended to investigate the role of microRNA 100 (miR-100) in regulating pancreatic cancer cells' growth in vitro and tumor development in vivo. QTR-PCR was used to examine the expression of miR-100 in pancreatic cancer cell lines and tumor cells from human patients. Lentivirual vector containing miR-100 mimics (lv-miR-100) was used to overexpress miR-100 in MIA PaCa-2 and FCPAC-1 cells. The effects of overexpressing miR-100 on pancreatic cancer cell proliferation and chemosensitivity to cisplatin were examined by cell proliferation essay in vitro. MIA PaCa-2 cells with endogenously overexpressed miR-100 were transplanted into null mice to examine tumor growth in vivo. The predicted target of miR-100, fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 (FGFR3), was downregulated by siRNA to examine its effect on pancreatic cancer cells. We found miR-100 was markedly underexpressed in both pancreatic cancer cell lines and tumor cells from patients. In cancer cells, transfection of lv-miR-100 was able to upregulate endogenous expression of miR-100, inhibited cancer cell proliferation, and increased sensitivities to cisplatin. Overexpressing miR-100 led to significant inhibition on tumor formation in vivo. Luciferase essay showed FGFR3 was direct target of miR-100. FGFR3 was significantly downregulated by overexpressing miR-100 in pancreatic cancer cells and knocking down FGFR3 by siRNA exerted similar effect as miR-100. Our study demonstrated that miR-100 played an important role in pancreatic cancer development, possibly through targeting FGFR3. It may become a new therapeutic target for gene therapy in patients suffered from pancreatic cancer.
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Correlation between the Effects of Acupuncture at Taichong (LR3) and Functional Brain Areas: A Resting-State Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study Using True versus Sham Acupuncture.
Evid Based Complement Alternat Med
PUBLISHED: 05-08-2014
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Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) has been shown to detect the specificity of acupuncture points, as proved by numerous studies. In this study, resting-state fMRI was used to observe brain areas activated by acupuncture at the Taichong (LR3) acupoint. A total of 15 healthy subjects received brain resting-state fMRI before acupuncture and after sham and true acupuncture, respectively, at LR3. Image data processing was performed using Data Processing Assistant for Resting-State fMRI and REST software. The combination of amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF) and regional homogeneity (ReHo) was used to analyze the changes in brain function during sham and true acupuncture. Acupuncture at LR3 can specifically activate or deactivate brain areas related to vision, movement, sensation, emotion, and analgesia. The specific alterations in the anterior cingulate gyrus, thalamus, and cerebellar posterior lobe have a crucial effect and provide a valuable reference. Sham acupuncture has a certain effect on psychological processes and does not affect brain areas related to function.
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Neonatal outcome of early rescue ICSI and ICSI with ejaculated sperm.
J. Assist. Reprod. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 05-05-2014
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To evaluate the impact of early rescue ICSI on neonatal outcome.
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Follicular helper T cells promote liver pathology in mice during Schistosoma japonicum infection.
PLoS Pathog.
PUBLISHED: 05-01-2014
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Following Schistosoma japonicum (S. japonicum) infection, granulomatous responses are induced by parasite eggs trapped in host organs, particular in the liver, during the acute stage of disease. While excessive liver granulomatous responses can lead to more severe fibrosis and circulatory impairment in chronically infected host. However, the exact mechanism of hepatic granuloma formation has remained obscure. In this study, we for the first time showed that follicular helper T (Tfh) cells are recruited to the liver to upregulate hepatic granuloma formation and liver injury in S. japonicum-infected mice, and identified a novel function of macrophages in Tfh cell induction. In addition, our results showed that the generation of Tfh cells driven by macrophages is dependent on cell-cell contact and the level of inducible costimulator ligand (ICOSL) on macrophages which is regulated by CD40-CD40L signaling. Our findings uncovered a previously unappreciated role for Tfh cells in liver pathology caused by S. japonicum infection in mice.
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Association study between XPG Asp1104His polymorphism and colorectal cancer risk in a Chinese population.
Sci Rep
PUBLISHED: 04-22-2014
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Previous studies have reported that the Asp1104His polymorphism in Xeroderma Pigmentosum complementation group G (XPG) was associated with the susceptibility to colorectal cancer (CRC), although the results were inconsistent. This study was aim to investigate whether there existed an association between XPG Asp1104His polymorphism and CRC risk in the Chinese population, and a further meta-analysis was performed to consolidate the results. We found that XPG Asp1104His polymorphism was associated with a significantly increased CRC risk (dominant model: His/His + Asp/His vs. Asp/Asp, adjusted OR = 1.39, 95% CI = 1.14-1.69). Stratification analysis by clinical characteristics indicated that the His/His + Asp/His genotypes were associated with increased CRC susceptibility in patients with moderately differentiated grade, but not in poorly and well differentiated grade. Furthermore, a total of 5 eligible studies, including 2,649 CRC cases and 2,848 controls, were recruited for the meta-analysis. We identified that the meta-analysis reported a similar result in dominant model (OR = 1.35; 95% CI = 1.20-1.51). Especially, when stratified by ethnicity, an evidently increased risk was identified in the Asian population. In conclusion, our findings suggest that XPG Asp1104His polymorphism may increase the susceptibility of CRC, especially in Asian populations.
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Characterization of organic membrane foulants in a forward osmosis membrane bioreactor treating anaerobic membrane bioreactor effluent.
Bioresour. Technol.
PUBLISHED: 04-11-2014
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In this study, two aerobic forward osmosis (FO) membrane bioreactors (MBR) were utilized to treat the effluent of mesophilic (35°C) and atmospheric (25°C) anaerobic MBRs, respectively. The results showed that the FO membrane process could significantly improve the removal efficiencies of N and P. Meanwhile, the flux decline of the FOMBR treating effluent of mesophilic AnMBR (M-FOMBR) was higher than that treating effluent of atmospheric AnMBR (P-FOMBR). The organic membrane foulants in the two FOMBRs were analyzed to understand the membrane fouling behavior in FO processes. It was found that the slightly increased accumulation of protein-like substances into external foulants did not cause faster flux decline in P-FOMBR than that in M-FOMBR. However, the quantity of organic matter tended to deposit or adsorb into FO membrane pores in P-FOMBR was less than that in M-FOMBR, which was accordance with the tendency of membrane fouling indicated by flux decline.
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Construction of a cDNA library for miniature pig mandibular deciduous molars.
BMC Dev. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 04-09-2014
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The miniature pig provides an excellent experimental model for tooth morphogenesis because its diphyodont and heterodont dentition resembles that of humans. However, little information is available on the process of tooth development or the exact molecular mechanisms controlling tooth development in miniature pigs or humans. Thus, the analysis of gene expression related to each stage of tooth development is very important.
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Controlled release of free doxorubicin from peptide-drug conjugates by drug loading.
J Control Release
PUBLISHED: 04-02-2014
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Covalent modification of a drug with a peptide moiety has been extensively used as an effective strategy to improve the drug's therapeutic outcome. One important consideration in the design of such a prodrug is the release of the free drug from the covalently bound form in a desired fashion. In most cases, the free drug release rate is controlled by the use of various chemical linkers that bridge the drug to the auxiliary segment. We report here that the degree of drug conjugation per peptide could also regulate the drug release in addition to its apparent effect on drug loading of the resulting conjugates. In this work, we synthesized three peptide-drug conjugates (NTD, d-NTD and q-NTD) in which the cell penetrating peptide Tat is covalently connected to one, two, or four doxorubicin, respectively, through a cathepsin B degradable tetrapeptide linker (-Gly-Phe-Leu-Gly-). We found that the number of doxorubicin within the conjugate impacts the release of doxorubicin in a significant way, with q-NTD showing the slowest release rate while NTD showing the fastest release rate. Our cellular uptake experiments reveal that q-NTD accumulated most effectively within cancer cells while NTD shows the lowest intracellular accumulation concentration. Interestingly, our cell viability assessment using a SRB assay reveals that d-NTD is the most potent conjugate against HepG2 human liver cancer cells. These results suggest that intracellular accumulation efficiency and the free drug release rate are two important factors that determine the in vitro efficacy of drug conjugates. To further validate this conclusion, we conjugated a short hydrocarbon onto the NTD to improve its cellular uptake, and found that the resulting conjugate, C16NTD, exhibited comparable intracellular accumulation as the q-NTD conjugate but superior anticancer activity due to its more effective release of free doxorubicin.
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Pharmacological evaluation of total alkaloids from nux vomica: effect of reducing strychnine contents.
Molecules
PUBLISHED: 03-31-2014
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The aim of the study was to investigate the possibility of improving the therapeutic efficacy of the total alkaloid fraction (TAF) extracted from processed nux vomica by reducing the strychnine contents. Most strychnine was removed from TAF to obtain the modified total alkaloid fraction (MTAF). The toxicity and pharmacokinetics of TAF and MTAF were further investigated and compared besides their antitumor, analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities. The results showed that the ratios of brucine to strychnine were 1:2.05 and 2.2:1 for TAF and MTAF, respectively, and the toxicity of TAF was about 3.17-fold higher than that of MTAF. Compared to brucine alone, the elimination of brucine was found to be inhibited by other alkaloids in TAF or MTAF except strychnine. Significantly increased pharmacological activities when administered by the oral route were obtained with MTAF in comparison to TAF and nux vomica powder (NVP). In summary, MTAF might replace NVP and TAF in the clinical application of Chinese medicine to obtain much higher efficacy.
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PER1 phosphorylation specifies feeding rhythm in mice.
Cell Rep
PUBLISHED: 03-25-2014
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Organization of circadian behavior, physiology, and metabolism is important for human health. An S662G mutation in hPER2 has been linked to familial advanced sleep-phase syndrome (FASPS). Although the paralogous phosphorylation site S714 in PER1 is conserved in mice, its specific function in circadian organization remains unknown. Here, we find that the PER1S714G mutation accelerates the molecular feedback loop. Furthermore, hPER1S714G mice, but not hPER2S662G mice, exhibit peak time of food intake that is several hours before daily energy expenditure peaks. Both the advanced feeding behavior and the accelerated clock disrupt the phase of expression of several key metabolic regulators in the liver and adipose tissue. Consequently, hPER1S714G mice rapidly develop obesity on a high-fat diet. Our studies demonstrate that PER1 and PER2 are linked to different downstream pathways and that PER1 maintains coherence between the circadian clock and energy metabolism.
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Comparative analysis of proliferation and differentiation potentials of stem cells from inflamed pulp of deciduous teeth and stem cells from exfoliated deciduous teeth.
Biomed Res Int
PUBLISHED: 03-02-2014
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Stem cells isolated from exfoliated deciduous teeth (SHEDs) are highly capable of proliferation and differentiation, and they represent good cell sources for mesenchymal stem cell- (MSC-) mediated dental tissue regeneration, but the supply of SHEDs is limited. A previous study found that stem cells could be isolated from inflamed tissues, but it is unknown whether primary dental pulp diagnosed with irreversible pulpitis might contain stem cells with appropriate tissue regeneration capacity. In this study, we aimed to isolate stem cells from both inflamed pulps of deciduous teeth (SCIDs) and SHEDs from Chinese children and to compare their proliferation and differentiation potentials. Our results showed that SCIDs were positive for cell surface markers, including CD105, CD90, and CD146, and they had high proliferation ability and osteogenic, adipogenic, and chondrogenic differentiation potentials. There was no significant difference in proliferation and differentiation potentials between SCIDs and SHEDs. The mRNA of inflammatory factors, including IL-1?, IL-6, and TNF-?, was expressed at similar levels in SCIDs and SHEDs, but SCIDs secreted more TNF-? protein. In conclusion, our in vitro results showed that SCIDs have proliferation and differentiation potentials similar to those of SHEDs. Thus, SCIDs represent a new potentially applicable source for MSC mediated tissue regeneration.
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hZIP1 that is down-regulated in clear cell renal cell carcinoma is negatively associated with the malignant potential of the tumor.
Urol. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 02-24-2014
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The human ZRT, IRT-like protein 1 (hZIP1) has been associated with tumorigenesis. However, its role in clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) has not been yet reported. The objective was to investigate hZIP1 expression in ccRCC and its association with clinicopathological features.
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Effects of D-amino acids on the EPS production and cell aggregation of Alteromonas macleodii strain JL2069.
Curr. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 02-14-2014
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Exopolysaccharide (EPS) is produced by many marine bacteria and is important for cell aggregation in the ocean. D-amino acids are important components in bacteria and are recently recognized as signal molecules for regulation of bacterial growth. In this study, the effects of D-amino acids on EPS production, cell aggregation, and metabolic activity were investigated using an EPS-producing bacterium Alteromonas macleodii strain JL2069. EPS produced by JL2069 was inhibited by 1 mM of D-Ala and D-Ser, but not by D-Glu. The formation of particulate organic matter (POM) was promoted by the three amino acids. A new technique of microcalorimetry analysis indicated that the metabolic activity of the JL2069 cells was inhibited by these D-amino acids. Our results suggested that D-amino acids may reduce the bacterial metabolism by changing bacterial lifestyle from planktonic to cell aggregation growth which occurs independent of the production of EPS.
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Spatial and temporal expression of c-Kit in the development of the murine submandibular gland.
J. Mol. Histol.
PUBLISHED: 02-11-2014
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The c-Kit pathway is important in the development of many mammalian cells and organs and is indispensable for the development of hematopoiesis, melanocytes, and primordial germ cells. Loss-of-function mutations in c-Kit lead to perinatal death in mouse embryos. Previously, c-Kit has been used as one of salivary epithelial stem or progenitor cell markers in mouse, its specific temporo-spatial expression pattern and function in developing murine submandibular gland (SMG) is still unclear. Here we used quantitative real-time PCR, in situ hybridization, and immunohistochemistry analysis to detect c-Kit expression during the development of the murine SMG. We found that c-Kit was expressed in the epithelia of developing SMGs from embryonic day 11.5 (E11.5; initial bud stage) to postnatal day 90 (P90; when the SMG is completely mature). c-Kit expression in the end bud epithelium increased during prenatal development and then gradually decreased after birth until its expression was undetectable in mature acini at P30. Moreover, c-Kit was expressed in the SMG primordial cord at the initial bud, pseudoglandular, canacular, and terminal end bud stages. c-Kit was also expressed in the presumptive ductal cells adjacent to the developing acini. By the late terminal end bud stage on P14, c-Kit expression could not be detected in ductal cells. However, c-Kit expression was detected in ductal cells at P30, and its expression had increased dramatically at P90. Taken together, these findings describe the spatial and temporal expression pattern of c-Kit in the developing murine SMG and suggest that c-Kit may play roles in epithelial histo-morphogenesis and in ductal progenitor cell homeostasis in the SMG.
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Stage-specific differential gene expression profiling and functional network analysis during morphogenesis of diphyodont dentition in miniature pigs, Sus Scrofa.
BMC Genomics
PUBLISHED: 01-28-2014
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Our current knowledge of tooth development derives mainly from studies in mice, which have only one set of non-replaced teeth, compared with the diphyodont dentition in humans. The miniature pig is also diphyodont, making it a valuable alternative model for understanding human tooth development and replacement. However, little is known about gene expression and function during swine odontogenesis. The goal of this study is to undertake the survey of differential gene expression profiling and functional network analysis during morphogenesis of diphyodont dentition in miniature pigs. The identification of genes related to diphyodont development should lead to a better understanding of morphogenetic patterns and the mechanisms of diphyodont replacement in large animal models and humans.
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Effects of canonical NF-?B signaling pathway on the proliferation and odonto/osteogenic differentiation of human stem cells from apical papilla.
Biomed Res Int
PUBLISHED: 01-26-2014
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NF-?B signaling pathway plays a complicated role in the biological functions of mesenchymal stem cells. However, the effects of NF-?B pathway on the odonto/osteogenic differentiation of stem cells from apical papilla (SCAPs) remain unclear. The present study was designed to evaluate the effects of canonical NF-?B pathway on the osteo/odontogenic capacity of SCAPs in vitro.
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Age-dependent postoperative cognitive impairment and Alzheimer-related neuropathology in mice.
Sci Rep
PUBLISHED: 01-21-2014
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Post-operative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) is associated with increased cost of care, morbidity, and mortality. However, its pathogenesis remains largely to be determined. Specifically, it is unknown why elderly patients are more likely to develop POCD and whether POCD is dependent on general anesthesia. We therefore set out to investigate the effects of peripheral surgery on the cognition and Alzheimer-related neuropathology in mice with different ages. Abdominal surgery under local anesthesia was established in the mice. The surgery induced post-operative elevation in brain ?-amyloid (A?) levels and cognitive impairment in the 18 month-old wild-type and 9 month-old Alzheimer's disease transgenic mice, but not the 9 month-old wild-type mice. The A? accumulation likely resulted from elevation of beta-site amyloid precursor protein cleaving enzyme and phosphorylated eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2?. ?-Secretase inhibitor compound E ameliorated the surgery-induced brain A? accumulation and cognitive impairment in the 18 month-old mice. These data suggested that the peripheral surgery was able to induce cognitive impairment independent of general anesthesia, and that the combination of peripheral surgery with aging- or Alzheimer gene mutation-associated A? accumulation was needed for the POCD to occur. These findings would likely promote more research to investigate the pathogenesis of POCD.
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Parasitic antigens alter macrophage polarization during Schistosoma japonicum infection in mice.
Parasit Vectors
PUBLISHED: 01-20-2014
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Schistosome eggs are trapped in host liver and elicit severe hepatic granulomatous inflammation, which can lead to periportal fibrosis, portal hypertension, hemorrhage, or even death in the host. It was reported that the macrophage plays an important role in host immune responses to schistosome infection. Nitric oxide (NO) produced by classically activated macrophages (M1 macrophages) is cytotoxic to schistosomula and can prevent hepatic schistosomal fibrosis, while arginase-1 (Arg-1) expressed by alternatively activated macrophages (M2 macrophages) promotes hepatic schistosomal fibrosis. However, the dynamics of macrophage polarization, as well as the possible factors that regulate macrophage polarization, during schistosome infection remain unclear.
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Thermal degradation kinetics study of curcumin with nonlinear methods.
Food Chem
PUBLISHED: 01-15-2014
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The results of TG/DTG when curcumin was used as the food colouring agent indicated that the processing temperature of the food should not exceed 190°C. The decomposition process of curcumin involved two stages. The results of E? values, determined by an advanced isoconversional method, showed that the two stages were both single-step processes. The most probable mechanisms of the two stages were estimated by using comparative and nonlinear model-fitting methods. The mechanisms obtained from the two methods are the same, which are the assumed random nucleation and its subsequent growth for stage I and one-dimensional diffusion for stage II, respectively. The values of pre-exponential factor A for both stages were obtained on the basis of Ea and g(?). Besides, some thermodynamic functions (?S(?), ?H(?) and ?G(?)) of the transition state complexes for the two stages were also calculated.
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Dkk2/Frzb in the dermal papillae regulates feather regeneration.
Dev. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 01-13-2014
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Avian feathers have robust growth and regeneration capability. To evaluate the contribution of signaling molecules and pathways in these processes, we profiled gene expression in the feather follicle using an absolute quantification approach. We identified hundreds of genes that mark specific components of the feather follicle: the dermal papillae (DP) which controls feather regeneration and axis formation, the pulp mesenchyme (Pp) which is derived from DP cells and nourishes the feather follicle, and the ramogenic zone epithelium (Erz) where a feather starts to branch. The feather DP is enriched in BMP/TGF-? signaling molecules and inhibitors for Wnt signaling including Dkk2/Frzb. Wnt ligands are mainly expressed in the feather epithelium and pulp. We find that while Wnt signaling is required for the maintenance of DP marker gene expression and feather regeneration, excessive Wnt signaling delays regeneration and reduces pulp formation. Manipulating Dkk2/Frzb expression by lentiviral-mediated overexpression, shRNA-knockdown, or by antibody neutralization resulted in dual feather axes formation. Our results suggest that the Wnt signaling in the proximal feather follicle is fine-tuned to accommodate feather regeneration and axis formation.
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Comparison of long noncoding RNA and mRNA expression profiles in mesenchymal stem cells derived from human periodontal ligament and bone marrow.
Biomed Res Int
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2014
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Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in different anatomic locations possess diverse biological activities. Maintaining the pluripotent state and differentiation depend on the expression and regulation of thousands of genes, but it remains unclear which molecular mechanisms underlie MSC diversity. Thus, potential MSC applications are restricted. Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are implicated in the complex molecular circuitry of cellular processes. We investigated differences in lncRNA and mRNA expression profiles between bone marrow stem cells (BMSCs) and periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs) with lncRNA microarray assays and bioinformatics analysis. In PDLSCs, numerous lncRNAs were significantly upregulated (n = 457) or downregulated (n = 513) compared to BMSCs. Furthermore, 1,578 mRNAs were differentially expressed. These genes implicated cellular pathways that may be associated with MSC characteristics, including apoptosis, MAPK, cell cycle, and Wnt signaling pathway. Signal-net analysis indicated that phospholipase C beta 4, filamin B beta, calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II gamma, and the ionotropic glutamate receptor, AMPA 1, had the highest betweenness centrality among significant genes in the differential gene profile network. A comparison between the coding-noncoding gene coexpression networks of PDLSCs and BMSCs identified chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 12 as a core regulatory factor in MSC biology. These results provided insight into the mechanisms underlying MSC biology.
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Determination of xanthatin by ultra high performance liquid chromatography coupled with triple quadrupole mass spectrometry: application to pharmacokinetic study of xanthatin in rat plasma.
J. Chromatogr. B Analyt. Technol. Biomed. Life Sci.
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2014
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A sensitive, specific and rapid ultra high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) method has been established to study pharmacokinetic properties of xanthatin. Xanthatin, a compound which belongs to sesquiterpene lactone group, was determined in rat plasma with psoralen as internal standard. Chromatographic separation was performed on an Agilent Zorbax Eclipse plus C18 column (50 mm × 2.1 mm, 3.5 ?m) with gradient elution system at a flow rate of 0.3 mL/min. The mobile phase was composed of methanol and 0.1% formic acid water solution. Analysis was performed under a triple-quadruple tandem mass-spectrometer with an electrospray ionization (ESI) source via the multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode to determine xanthatin at [M+H](+)m/z 247.3?m/z 205.2 and that of IS at [M+H](+)m/z 187.1?m/z 143.0 within 5 min. The assay method exhibited good separation of xanthatin from the interference of endogenous substances. The lower limit of quantification (LLOQ) was 1 ng/mL, with a good linearity within the concentration range of 1-5000 ng/mL (r=0.9990). Intra-day and inter-day precision RSD was less than 9.27%; intra-day and inter-day accuracy was 88.48% and 102.25% respectively. The extraction recoveries of xanthatin range from 82.12% to 89.55%, and the extraction RSD was less than 9.01%. The established LC-ESI-MS/MS method is rapid and sensitive, which has been successfully applied to quantify xanthatin in rat plasma for the first time.
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Meiotic chromosome behavior in a human male t(8;15) carrier.
J Genet Genomics
PUBLISHED: 01-06-2014
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Reciprocal translocation is one of the most common structural chromosomal rearrangements in human beings; it is widely recognized to be associated with male infertility. This association is mainly based on the abnormal chromosome behavior of the translocated chromosomes and sex chromosomes during meiosis prophase I in reciprocal translocation carriers. However, the underlying mechanisms are not completely known. Here we report a reciprocal translocation carrier of t(8;15), who is oligozoospermic due to apoptosis of primary spermatocytes and to premature germ cell desquamation from seminiferous tubules. Further analysis showed abnormal synapsis and recombination frequency in this patient, indicating a connection between chromosome behavior and apoptosis of primary spermatocytes. We also compared these observations with recently reported findings on spermatogenesis defects in reciprocal translocation carriers, and discuss the possible mechanisms underlying both common and unique phenotypes of reciprocal translocations involving different chromosomes with the aim of further understanding the regulation of human spermatogenesis.
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Osthole attenuates the development of carrageenan-induced lung inflammation in rats.
Int. Immunopharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 01-02-2014
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Osthole has been reported to possess a variety of pharmacological activities, such as antiinflammatory effect. In the present study, we have investigated the effect of osthole on lung inflammation associated with carrageenan-induced pleurisy in rats. The result showed that osthole could inhibit significantly pleural exudates formation and PMNs infiltration. Histological examination revealed osthole could reduce lung inflammation in rats treated with carrageenan. The myeloperoxidase (MPO) level was examined in pleural exudates. The result showed that osthole could attenuate MPO level in pleural exudates. Further studies showed osthole could decrease tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-?) and interleukin 1beta (IL-1?) levels in the lungs. Taken together, the present results suggested that osthole could inhibit lung inflammation on carrageenan-induced pleurisy in rats and that could be related to a reduction of PMNs infiltration and release of inflammatory factors.
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Iodine deficiency and excess coexist in china and induce thyroid dysfunction and disease: a cross-sectional study.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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In spite of the salt iodization, iodine deficiency disorders (IDD) have not been sustainably eliminated in China. There are coastal areas with low iodized salt coverage rates (iodine nutrition is inadequate) and other areas with excessive amounts of iodine in the drinking water.
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Genome-wide association study for wool production traits in a Chinese Merino sheep population.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) provide a powerful approach for identifying quantitative trait loci without prior knowledge of location or function. To identify loci associated with wool production traits, we performed a genome-wide association study on a total of 765 Chinese Merino sheep (JunKen type) genotyped with 50 K single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). In the present study, five wool production traits were examined: fiber diameter, fiber diameter coefficient of variation, fineness dispersion, staple length and crimp. We detected 28 genome-wide significant SNPs for fiber diameter, fiber diameter coefficient of variation, fineness dispersion, and crimp trait in the Chinese Merino sheep. About 43% of the significant SNP markers were located within known or predicted genes, including YWHAZ, KRTCAP3, TSPEAR, PIK3R4, KIF16B, PTPN3, GPRC5A, DDX47, TCF9, TPTE2, EPHA5 and NBEA genes. Our results not only confirm the results of previous reports, but also provide a suite of novel SNP markers and candidate genes associated with wool traits. Our findings will be useful for exploring the genetic control of wool traits in sheep.
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MicroRNA-492 expression promotes the progression of hepatic cancer by targeting PTEN.
Cancer Cell Int.
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Aberrant microRNA (miRNA) expression plays an essential role in the pathogenesis of Hepatocellular Carcinoma (HCC). However, specific involvement of miRNAs in HCC remains incompletely understood. The aim of this study was to explore the relevant microRNAs involved in the development of HCC.
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Transcription factor Ets1 regulates expression of thioredoxin-interacting protein and inhibits insulin secretion in pancreatic ?-cells.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Long-term activation of extracellular-regulated kinase (ERK1/2) pathway has been shown to cause glucotoxicity and inhibit insulin gene expression in ?-cells. Transcription factor Ets1 is activated by ERK1/2-mediated phosphorylation at the Thr38 residue. We hypothesize that Ets1 plays an important role in mediating ERK1/2 induced glucotoxicity in ?-cells. We determined the role of Ets1 in Min6 cells and isolated mouse islets using overexpression and siRNA mediated knockdown of Ets1. The results show that Ets1 was localized in insulin-staining positive cells but not in glucagon-staining positive cells. Overexpression of Ets1 reduced glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in primary mouse islets. Overexpression of Ets1 in Min6 ?-cells and mouse islets increased expression of thioredoxin-interacting protein (TXNIP). Conversely, knockdown of Ets1 by siRNA reduced expression of TXNIP in Min6 cells. Ets1 was associated with the txnip promoter in min6 cells and transfection of 293 cells with Ets1 and p300 synergistically increased txnip promoter reporter activity. Moreover, overexpression of Ets1 inhibited Min6 cell proliferation. Our results suggest that Ets1, by promoting TXNIP expression, negatively regulates ?-cell function. Thus, over-activation of Ets1 may contribute to diet-induced ?-cell dysfunction.
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Peripheral surgical wounding and age-dependent neuroinflammation in mice.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Post-operative cognitive dysfunction is associated with morbidity and mortality. However, its neuropathogenesis remains largely to be determined. Neuroinflammation and accumulation of ?-amyloid (A?) have been reported to contribute to cognitive dysfunction in humans and cognitive impairment in animals. Our recent studies have established a pre-clinical model in mice, and have found that the peripheral surgical wounding without the influence of general anesthesia induces an age-dependent A? accumulation and cognitive impairment in mice. We therefore set out to assess the effects of peripheral surgical wounding, in the absence of general anesthesia, on neuroinflammation in mice with different ages. Abdominal surgery under local anesthesia was established in 9 and 18 month-old mice. The levels of tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?), interleukin-6 (IL-6), Iba1 positive cells (the marker of microglia activation), CD33, and cognitive function in mice were determined. The peripheral surgical wounding increased the levels of TNF-?, IL-6, and Iba1 positive cells in the hippocampus of both 9 and 18 month-old mice, and age potentiated these effects. The peripheral surgical wounding increased the levels of CD33 in the hippocampus of 18, but not 9, month-old mice. Finally, anti-inflammatory drug ibuprofen ameliorated the peripheral surgical wounding-induced cognitive impairment in 18 month-old mice. These data suggested that the peripheral surgical wounding could induce an age-dependent neuroinflammation and elevation of CD33 levels in the hippocampus of mice, which could lead to cognitive impairment in aged mice. Pending further studies, anti-inflammatory therapies may reduce the risk of postoperative cognitive dysfunction in elderly patients.
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The effect of XPD polymorphisms on digestive tract cancers risk: a meta-analysis.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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The Xeroderma pigmento-sum group D gene (XPD) plays a key role in nucleotide excision repair. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) located in its functional region may alter DNA repair capacity phenotype and cancer risk. Many studies have demonstrated that XPD polymorphisms are significantly associated with digestive tract cancers risk, but the results are inconsistent. We conducted a comprehensive meta-analysis to assess the association between XPD Lys751Gln polymorphism and digestive tract cancers risk. The digestive tract cancers that our study referred to, includes oral cancer, esophageal cancer, gastric cancer and colorectal cancer.
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Metformin plays a dual role in MIN6 pancreatic ? cell function through AMPK-dependent autophagy.
Int. J. Biol. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Metformin improves insulin sensitivity in insulin sensitive tissues such as liver, muscle and fat. However, the functional roles and the underlying mechanism of metformin action in pancreatic ? cells remain elusive. Here we show that, under normal growth condition, metformin suppresses MIN6 ? cell proliferation and promotes apoptosis via an AMPK-dependent and autophagy-mediated mechanism. On the other hand, metformin protects MIN6 cells against palmitic acid (PA)-induced apoptosis. Our findings indicate that metformin plays a dual role in ? cell survival and overdose of this anti-diabetic drug itself may lead to potential ? cell toxicity.
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Design multilayer antireflection coatings for terrestrial solar cells.
ScientificWorldJournal
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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In order to analyze the influence of methods to design antireflection coatings (ARCs) on reflectivity of broadband solar cells, we provide detailed analyses about the ARC coupled with a window layer and the refractive index dispersion effect of each layer. By multidimensional matrix data simulation, two methods were employed to measure the composite reflection of a SiO2/ZnS double-layer ARC within the spectral ranges of 300-870?nm (dual junction) and 300-1850?nm (triple junction) under AM1.5 solar radiation. A comparison study, between the results obtained from the commonly used weighted average reflectance method (WAR) and that from the introduced effective average reflectance method (EAR), shows that the optimization of ARC by EAR method is convenient and feasible.
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Ultrasensitive Size-Selection of Plasmonic Nanoparticles by Fano Interference Optical Force.
ACS Nano
PUBLISHED: 12-18-2013
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In this paper, we propose a solution for the ultrasensitive optical selection of plasmonic nanoparticles using Fano interference-induced scattering forces. Under a Gaussian beam excitation, the scattering of a plasmonic nanoparticle at its Fano resonance becomes strongly asymmetric in the lateral direction and consequently results in a net transverse scattering force, that is, Fano interference-induced force. The magnitude of this transverse scattering force is comparable with the gradient force in conventional optical manipulation experiments. More interestingly, the Fano scattering force is ultrasensitive to the particle size and excitation frequency due to the phase sensitivity of the interference between adjacent plasmon modes in the particle. Utilizing this distinct feature, we show the possibility of size-selective sorting of silver and gold nanoparticles with an accuracy of about ±10 nm and silica-gold core-shell nanoparticles with shell thickness down to several nanometers. These results would add to the toolbox of optical manipulation and fabrication.
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Systematic Analyses of the Transcriptome, Translatome, and Proteome Provide a Global View and Potential Strategy for the C-HPP.
J. Proteome Res.
PUBLISHED: 12-16-2013
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To estimate the potential of the state-of-the-art proteomics technologies on full coverage of the encoding gene products, the Chinese Human Chromosome Proteome Consortium (CCPC) applied a multiomics strategy to systematically analyze the transciptome, translatome, and proteome of the same cultured hepatoma cells with varied metastatic potential qualitatively and quantitatively. The results provide a global view of gene expression profiles. The 9064 identified high confident proteins covered 50.2% of all gene products in the translatome. Those proteins with function of adhesion, development, reproduction, and so on are low abundant in transcriptome and translatome but absent in proteome. Taking the translatome as the background of protein expression, we found that the protein abundance plays a decisive role and hydrophobicity has a greater influence than molecular weight and isoelectric point on protein detectability. Thus, the enrichment strategy used for low-abundant transcription factors helped to identify missing proteins. In addition, those peptides with single amino acid polymorphisms played a significant role for the disease research, although they might negligibly contribute to new protein identification. The proteome raw and metadata of proteome were collected using the iProX submission system and submitted to ProteomeXchange (PXD000529, PXD000533, and PXD000535). All detailed information in this study can be accessed from the Chinese Chromosome-Centric Human Proteome Database.
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Resolving Chromosome-Centric Human Proteome with Translating mRNA Analysis: A Strategic Demonstration.
J. Proteome Res.
PUBLISHED: 11-15-2013
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Chromosome-centric human proteome project (C-HPP) aims at differentiating chromosome-based and tissue-specific protein compositions in terms of protein expression, quantification, and modification. We previously found that the analysis of translating mRNA (mRNA attached to ribosome-nascent chain complex, RNC-mRNA) can explain over 94% of mRNA-protein abundance. Therefore, we propose here to use full-length RNC-mRNA information to illustrate protein expression both qualitatively and quantitatively. We performed RNA-seq on RNC-mRNA (RNC-seq) and detected 12?758 and 14?113 translating genes in human normal bronchial epithelial (HBE) cells and human colorectal adenocarcinoma Caco-2 cells, respectively. We found that most of these genes were mapped with >80% of coding sequence coverage. In Caco-2 cells, we provided translating evidence on 4180 significant single-nucleotide variations. While using RNC-mRNA data as a standard for proteomic data integration, both translating and protein evidence of 7876 genes can be acquired from four interlaboratory data sets with different MS platforms. In addition, we detected 1397 noncoding mRNAs that were attached to ribosomes, suggesting a potential source of new protein explorations. By comparing the two cell lines, a total of 677 differentially translated genes were found to be nonevenly distributed across chromosomes. In addition, 2105 genes in Caco-2 and 750 genes in HBE cells are expressed in a cell-specific manner. These genes are significantly and specifically clustered on multiple chromosomes, such as chromosome 19. We conclude that HPP/C-HPP investigations can be considerably improved by integrating RNC-mRNA analysis with MS, bioinformatics, and antibody-based verifications.
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Development of nanoparticles-in-microparticles system for improved local retention after intra-articular injection.
Drug Deliv
PUBLISHED: 11-12-2013
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Abstract To increase the intra-articular (IA) retention time of osteoarthritis drugs in the synovial cavity and slow down the burst release of microspheres (MPs), we prepared a novel drug delivery system named nanoparticles-in-microspheres (NiMs). The system was constructed by dispersing the brucine-loaded nanoparticle, which was prepared by an emulsification method in the MPs. The NiMs were characterized by scanning electron microscope, Fourier transform infrared spectra and differential scanning calorimetry. After investigating the biocompatibility with synovium of NiMs in rats, the pharmacokinetics was studied and FX-imaging was used to visualize the transmission of nanoparticles after IA administration in rats. From the results, we know that the NiMs were spherical, there was no chemical bond between the drug and the polymer, and the drug was dispersed in the polymer in an amorphous form. Compared with MPs (41%), the burst release of NiMs could be slowed down to 9%. After that, the drug was released from NiMs by diffusion. The results of FX imaging in rats showed that the NiMs could stay in the articular cavity for over 11?d. The studies of pharmacokinetics revealed that the NiMs could slow down the burst release and improve retention in vivo. This study demonstrates the feasibility of using NiMs to slow down the burst release and increase the retention of therapeutic agents in articular joints.
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Reduction of CuO butterfly wing scales generates Cu SERS substrates for DNA base detection.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces
PUBLISHED: 10-03-2013
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We prepare three-dimensional Cu plasmonic structures via a reduction of CuO photonic crystals replicated from butterfly wing scales. These Cu superstructures with high purity provide surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) substrates for the label-free detection of DNA bases down to a micromolar level, which is achieved for the first time on Cu and even comparable to the detection-sensitivity for DNA bases on some Ag substrates. The generation of such superstructures has provided a substantial step for the biotemplated SERS substrates with high sensitivity, high reproducibility, and ultra-low cost to detect biomolecules, and presented affordable high-quality routine SERS consumables for corresponding biolaboratories.
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GDFs promote tenogenic characteristics on human periodontal ligament-derived cells in culture at late passages.
Growth Factors
PUBLISHED: 10-02-2013
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Tendon/ligament injures are leading disabilities worldwide. The periodontal ligament (PDL) connects teeth to bone, and is comparable to a tendon/ligament-to-bone insertion. PDL-derived cells (PDLCs) express both osteo/cementogenesis and teno/ligamentogenesis genes. However, an efficient method to induce a tenogenic differentiation of PDLCs has not been thoroughly examined. Therefore, this study tested if growth/differentiation factors (GDFs) enhanced tenogenic characteristics of human PDLCs, as a potential cell source for tendon/ligament engineering. Results demonstrated recombinant GDF-5/GDF-7 inhibited alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity of PDLCs from passage 3 to 6, while GDF-5 enhanced ALP in dental pulp-derived cells and mesenchymal stem cells. GDF-5 (particularly at 10 ng/ml concentration) induced high expression of both early (scleraxis) and mature (tenomodulin, aggrecan, collagen3) tenogenic genes in P4-6 PDLCs, while inhibiting expression of specific transcription-factors for osteogenic, chondrogenic and adipogenic differentiation. Exogenous GDFs might lead PDLCs being expanded in culture during several passages to highly useful cell source for tendon/ligament engineering.
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Allogeneic Stem Cells From Deciduous Teeth Mediated Treatment for Periodontitis in Miniature Swine.
J. Periodontol.
PUBLISHED: 09-03-2013
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Background: Regeneration of lost periodontium in periodontitis is a challenge in that alveolar bone, cementum and periodontal ligament need to be restored to their original architecture. Stem cells from exfoliated deciduous teeth (SHEDs) may appear to be an attractive candidate for periodontium tissue regeneration. Previously, we have already successfully regenerated periodontal defect using autologous and allogeneic periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs). The purpose of the present study is to investigate the ability of allogeneic SHEDs to regenerate lost periodontium in swine periodontitis models. Methods: Animal models of periodontitis were established in the miniature pigs, and allogeneic stem cells were isolated from miniature pig deciduous teeth (SPDs). Then we treated the animal models with SPDs plus hydroxyapatite/tricalcium phosphate (HA/TCP)(*). Allogeneic PDLSCs plus HA/TCP or HA/TCP alone was set as positive control or control, respectively. Clinical assessments, computed tomography scanning and histological examination were utilized to evaluate the outcome of tissue regeneration. Results: Clinical index including probing depth (PD), gingival recession (GR), and attachment loss (AL) showed significant restoration in SPDs and PDLSCs treatment groups, compared with HA/TCP group 12 weeks post-transplantation. Meanwhile, CT scan showed that there were 75% of the samples that possessed successful hard tissue regeneration in both PDLSC group and SPD group, in comparison with the HA/TCP group, where the successful rate was only 25%. In addition, histological examination demonstrated that SPD and PDLSC treatment brought about remarkable periodontal ligament connective tissues regeneration, where the periodontal ligament regeneration was rare in HA/TCP group. Conclusion: Allogeneic SPDs can effectively repair hard and soft tissues lost brought about by periodontitis in swine model. Allogeneic SHEDs, which are easily accessible, may be applied to treat periodontitis in clinic in the future.
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High throughput detection of human neutrophil peptides from serum, saliva, and tear by anthrax lethal factor-modified nanoparticles.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces
PUBLISHED: 08-28-2013
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Human ? defensins human neutrophil peptide 1-3 (HNP 1-3) are potential prognostic cancer biomarkers. Metalloprotein anthrax lethal factor (ALF) binds to HNP 1-3 in a Zn2+-dependent manner. We conjugated ALF to the surface of magnetic nanoparticles (MNP) to magnetically isolate the HNPs, and used Zn2+ to control the capture and release HNPs.
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[Virtual screening of small molecular HIV-1 entry inhibitor NC-2 targeting gp120 and its action mechanism].
Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 06-28-2013
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To screen the HIV-1 entry inhibitors targeting HIV-1 gp120 from the IBS natural product database by virtual screening based on the binding mode of the neutralizing antibody VRC01 with HIV-1 gp120 and investigate the anti-viral activities of the inhibitors and their action mechanisms.
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Demethylation of epiregulin gene by histone demethylase FBXL11 and BCL6 corepressor inhibits osteo/dentinogenic differentiation.
Stem Cells
PUBLISHED: 06-26-2013
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Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are a reliable resource for tissue regeneration, but the molecular mechanism underlying directed differentiation remains unclear; this has restricted potential MSC applications. Histone methylation, controlled by histone methyltransferases and demethylases, may play a key role in MSC differentiation. Here, we investigated FBXL11, a histone demethylase, lysine (K)-specific demethylase 2A, which is evolutionarily conserved, ubiquitously expressed, and a member of the JmjC-domain-containing histone demethylase family. We tested whether FBXL11 could inhibit the osteo/dentinogenic differentiation potential in MSC cells with gain- and loss-of-function assays. We found that FBXL11 regulated osteo/dentinogenic differentiation in MSC cells. Furthermore, we found that the gene encoding the epidermal growth factor, Epiregulin (EREG), was a downstream target of FBXL11, and that EREG mediated FBXL11 regulation of MSC differentiation. Moreover, we found that the FBXL11 histone demethylase function was activated by associating with BCL6 corepressor, and this complex could repress EREG transcription by increasing histone K4/36 methylation in the EREG promoter. In conclusion, our results elucidated a new function for FBXL11 and EREG, explored the molecular mechanism underlying directed differentiation in MSC cells, and identified potential target genes for improving tissue regeneration techniques.
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Ability of lactic acid bacteria isolated from mink to remove cholesterol: in vitro and in vivo studies.
Can. J. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 06-20-2013
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This study evaluated the cholesterol-lowering property of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) isolated from mink. Two strains, Enterococcus faecium MDF1104 and Lactobacillus plantarum MDL1118, were shown to remove cholesterol from broths of natural hen egg yolk and skimmed milk. The cholesterol in hen egg yolk was reduced by 58.15% and 38% by L. plantarum and E. faecium, respectively. When the bacteria were used in combination, 48.95% (p < 0.01) of cholesterol was removed from skimmed milk. Experimental mice remained healthy when fed different doses of the LAB, and the total serum cholesterol concentration was the lowest (0.90 mmol/L) (p < 0.01) when a combination of L. plantarum and E. faecium was used. Based on our results, we suggest that L. plantarum MDL1118, E. faecium MDF1104, or a combination of the 2 strains could be considered as promising cholesterol-lowering probiotics.
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Depletion of histone demethylase KDM2A enhanced the adipogenic and chondrogenic differentiation potentials of stem cells from apical papilla.
Exp. Cell Res.
PUBLISHED: 06-07-2013
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Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are a reliable resource for tissue regeneration, but the molecular mechanism underlying directed differentiation remains unclear; this has restricted potential MSC applications. The histone demethylase, lysine (K)-specific demethylase 2A (KDM2A), is evolutionarily conserved and ubiquitously expressed members of the JmjC-domain-containing histone demethylase family. A previous study determined that KDM2A can regulate the cell proliferation and osteo/dentinogenic differentiation of MSCs. It is not known whether KDM2A is involved in the other cell lineages differentiation of MSCs. Here, we show that depletion of KDM2A by short hairpin RNAs can enhance adipogenic and chondrogenic differentiation potentials in human stem cells from apical papilla (SCAPs). We found that the stemness-related genes, SOX2, and the embryonic stem cell master transcription factor, NANOG were significantly increased after silence of KDM2A in SCAPs. Moreover, we found that knock-down of the KDM2A co-factor, BCOR also up-regulated the mRNA levels of SOX2 and NANOG. Furthermore, Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays demonstrate that silence of KDM2A increased the histone H3 Lysine 4 (H3K4) trimethylation in the SOX2 and NANOG locus and regulates its expression. In conclusion, our results suggested that depletion of KDM2A enhanced the adipogenic and chondrogenic differentiation potentials of SCAPs by up-regulated SOX2 and NANOG, BCOR also involved in this regulation as co-factor, and provided useful information to understand the molecular mechanism underlying directed differentiation in MSCs.
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.