Abscisic acid (ABA) signaling plays important roles in plant growth, development and adaptation to various stresses. RCAR1/PYL9 has been known as a cytoplasm and nuclear ABA receptor in Arabidopsis. To obtain further insight into the regulatory mechanism of RCAR1/PYL9, a yeast two-hybrid approach was performed to screen for RCAR1/PYL9-interacting proteins and an R2R3-type MYB transcription factor, AtMYB44, was identified. The interaction between RCAR1/PYL9 and AtMYB44 was further confirmed by glutathione S-transferase (GST) pull-down and bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC) assays. Gene expression analysis showed that AtMYB44 negatively regulated the expression of ABA-responsive gene RAB18, in contrast to the opposite role reported for RCAR1/PYL9. Competitive GST pull-down assay and analysis of phosphatase activity demonstrated that AtMYB44 and ABI1 competed for binding to RCAR1/PYL9 and thereby reduced the inhibitory effect of RCAR1/PYL9 on ABI1 phosphatase activity in the presence of ABA in vitro. Furthermore, transient activation assay in protoplasts revealed AtMYB44 probably also decreased RCAR1/PYL9-mediated inhibition of ABI1 activity in vivo. Taken together, our work provides a reasonable molecular mechanism of AtMYB44 in ABA signaling.
Iodinated contrast media (CM) can induce apoptosis and necrosis of renal tubular cells. The injuries of endothelial cells induced by CM on the systemic condition have not been fully understood. To assess the toxic effects of non-ionic CM on the glomerular and aortic endothelial cells, iopromide and iodixanol, two kinds of representative non-ionic CM, were used for the in vivo study. Sixty aged rats were respectively received the agents or normal sodium intravascularly. No obvious apoptosis and morphological change was detected in the glomerular and aortic endothelial cells apart from renal tubules after CM administration. However, expressions of the nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) in glomerular endothelium were decreased at 12h after CM injection. Furthermore, plasma creatinine and endothelin-1 were increased and plasma nitric oxide (NO) was decreased significantly after CM administration. However, we failed to observe the significant increase of plasma von Willebrand Factor. These results suggest that non-ionic iodinated CM do not induce apoptosis and necrosis of glomerular and aortic endothelial cells in vivo. Decreased eNOS expression and increased plasma endothelin-1 may be involved in non-ionic iodinated CM-induced endothelial dysfunction and kidney injury.
Neovascularization and the formation of collateral vessels are often impaired in diabetes mellitus (DM) population compared with non-diabetics. Alterations in vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) signaling and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) dysfunction have been confirmed to play a crucial role in impaired neovascularization in diabetic mice. Accumulating data have suggested that Rg1, a main component of Panax ginseng, has the ability to promote tubulogenesis of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) in vitro, and that the mechanism involves increased expression level of VEGF as well as increased eNOS activation. Thus, we speculated that Rg1 might also have therapeutic effects on the impairment of neovascularization in diabetic individuals. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether Rg1 could improve angiogenesis in ischemic hindlimb of diabetic mice in vivo. Our data demonstrated that Rg1 treatment resulted in improved angiogenesis in the diabetic ischemic hindlimb, and the potential mechanism might involve increased eNOS activation, upregulated VEGF expression, and inhibited apoptosis. Our results suggest that Rg1 may be used as a novel and useful adjunctive drug for the therapy of peripheral arterial disease in DM.
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