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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Targeting the c-Met/FZD8 signaling axis eliminates patient-derived cancer stem-like cells in head and neck squamous carcinomas.
Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 10-17-2014
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Cancer stem-like cells (CSC) thought to contribute to head and neck squamous carcinomas (HNSCC) may offer attractive therapeutic targets if a tractable approach can be developed. In this study, we report that silencing c-Met is sufficient to suppress sphere formation, tumor initiation and metastatic properties of HN-CSC. Pharmacologic inhibition of c-Met with the selective inhibitor PF-2341066 preferentially targeted CSC and synergized with conventional chemotherapy to improve efficacy in a mouse xenograft model of HNSCC, impeding tumor growth and reducing metastasis. Mechanistic investigations showed that CSC elimination was due to downregulation of Wnt/?-catenin signaling in HN-CSC and that the Wnt pathway receptor FZD8 was essential for interactions of c-Met and Wnt/?-catenin signaling in HN-CSC. Notably, ectopic expression of FZD8 rescued the impaired phenotype of HN-CSC where c-Met was inhibited. Furthermore, c-Met upregulated FZD8 through the ERK/c-Fos cascade in HN-CSC. Taken together, our results offer a preclinical proof-of-concept for targeting the c-Met/FZD8 signaling axis as a CSC-directed therapy to improve HNSCC treatment.
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A retrospective 3- to 5-year study of the reconstruction of oral function using implant-supported prostheses in patients with hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia.
J Oral Implantol
PUBLISHED: 10-09-2014
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The aim of this study was to evaluate oral function rehabilitation in patients with hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia (HED) using implant-supported prostheses based on bone augmentation. From September 2005 and March 2009, 25 HED patients were chosen for clinical data analysis in this study. The criteria for patient selection included the following: the display of clinical features of HED, the number of congenitally missing teeth (>5), the patient age (>16 years), the patient's willingness, and the patient's tolerance for bone graft surgery and implant placement. Follow-up evaluations were initiated from the time of implant prosthetic placement and scheduled annually for 3-5 years. The effects of oral function reconstruction were assessed based on the cumulative survival and success rates of implants, the health of the peri-implant area, and the degree of patient satisfaction. Twenty-five HED patients received 169 conventional implants and 10 zygomatic implants (179 total implants). During 3-5 years of post-loading evaluations, 5 of the 179 implants failed and 3 implants were removed. The 3-year success and cumulative survival rates were 97.2% and 98.3%, respectively. Furthermore, periodontal probing and radiographic assessments showed that the 3-year incidence of peri-implantitis was 4.5%. Finally, HED patients expressed high degrees of satisfaction with their facial contours, masticatory function, pronunciation ability, and comfort with the implant-supported prostheses. The results of this 3- to 5-year retrospective study indicate that the oral function of HED patients can be effectively reconstructed using bone augmentation and implant-supported prostheses; however, longer term results are warranted in the future.
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[Altered effective connectivity of insula in nicotine addiction].
Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 08-26-2014
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To explore the changes of effective connectivity associated with insula in different nicotine addiction sessions so as to understand its role and function.
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[The expression of miR-183 family in the pathogenesis and development of noise-induced deafness].
Lin Chung Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 07-17-2014
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To detect the expression variation of microRNA-183 family in cochlea of animal model characterized by noise-induced deafness at various time points, and to explore the mechanisms responsible for noise-induced deafness.
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Effect of nano-structured bioceramic surface on osteogenic differentiation of adipose derived stem cells.
Biomaterials
PUBLISHED: 06-07-2014
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Tissue engineering strategies to construct vascularized bone grafts potentially revolutionize the treatment of massive bone loss. The surface topography of the grafts plays critical roles on bone regeneration, while adipose derived stem cells (ASCs) are known for their capability to promote osteogenesis and angiogenesis when applied to bone defects. In the present study, the effects of hydroxyapatite (HAp) bioceramic scaffolds with nanosheet, nanorod, and micro-nano-hybrid (the hybrid of nanorod and microrod) surface topographies on attachment, proliferation and osteogenic differentiation, as well as the expression of angiogenic factors of rat ASCs were systematically investigated. The results showed that the HAp bioceramic scaffolds with the micro-/nano-topography surfaces significantly enhanced cell attachment and viability, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, and mRNA expression levels of osteogenic markers and angiogenic factors of ASCs. More importantly, the biomimetic feature of the hierarchical micro-nano-hybrid surface topography showed the highest stimulatory effect. The activation in Akt signaling pathway was observed in ASCs cultured on HAp bioceramics with nanorod, and micro-nano-hybrid surface topographies. Moreover, these induction effects could be repressed by Akt signaling pathway inhibitor LY294002. Finally, the in vivo bone regeneration results of rat critical-sized calvarial defect models confirmed that the combination of the micro-nano-hybrid surface and ASCs could significantly enhance both osteogenesis and angiogenesis as compared with the control HAp bioceramic scaffold with traditional smooth surface. Our results suggest that HAp bioceramic scaffolds with micro-nano-hybrid surface can act as cell carrier for ASCs, and consequently combine with ASCs to construct vascularized tissue-engineered bone.
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Enhanced bioremediation of soil from Tianjin, China, contaminated with polybrominated diethyl ethers.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int
PUBLISHED: 05-09-2014
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This work aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of nutrients, H2O2, and tourmaline on the bioremediation of fields where the soil was contaminated with polybrominated diethyl ethers (PBDEs). The results showed that 39.2, 38.3, and 48.1 % of total PBDE removal was observed in microcosms with the addition of nutrients, such as NaNO3, NH4Cl, and NH4NO3, respectively, compared to only 15.2 and 5.8 % of PBDE removal from soil with added Aspergillus niger and control soil, respectively, after 50 days of incubation. In addition, 50.8 and 56.5 % of total PBDE removal were observed in microcosms with 0.5 and 1 ?L H2O2. The addition of tourmaline increased total PBDE removal to 32.4 %. Significant increases in soil enzymatic activity with PBDE degraders and bacterial communities were observed using polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). These observations suggested that the combination of inorganic nutrients with chemical, mineral, and biological treatment could improve the PBDE removal efficiency. However, the combination of H2O2 and biological treatment processes is the most efficient technology. This combination of technologies would not cause adverse effects on the subsequent bioremediation process. Therefore, this work offers a potential alternative for the remediation of soil contaminated with PBDE pollutants.
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Use of the Buccal Fat Pad in the Immediate Reconstruction of Palatal Defects Related to Cancer Surgery With Postoperative Radiation Therapy.
J. Oral Maxillofac. Surg.
PUBLISHED: 03-29-2014
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To evaluate the use of the buccal fat pad (BFP) in the immediate reconstruction of oncologic palate defects and the influence of postoperative radiotherapy on reconstruction.
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Selective recovery of palladium from waste printed circuit boards by a novel non-acid process.
J. Hazard. Mater.
PUBLISHED: 03-27-2014
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An environmental benign, non-acid process was successfully developed for selective recovery of palladium from waste printed circuit boards (PCBs). In the process, palladium was firstly enriched during copper recovery procedure and dissolved in a special solution made of CuSO4 and NaCl. The dissolved palladium was then extracted by diisoamyl sulfide (S201). It was found that 99.4% of Pd(II) could be extracted from the solution under the optimum conditions (10% S201, A/O ratio 5 and 2min extraction). In the whole extraction process, the influence of base metals was negligible due to the relatively weak nucleophilic substitution of S201 with base metal irons and the strong steric hindrance of S201 molecular. Around 99.5% of the extracted Pd(II) could be stripped from S201/dodecane with 0.1mol/L NH3 after a two-stage stripping at A/O ratio of 1. The total recovery percentage of palladium was 96.9% during the dissolution-extraction-stripping process. Therefore, this study established a benign and effective process for selective recovery of palladium from waste printed circuit boards.
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A novel electrospun nerve conduit enhanced by carbon nanotubes for peripheral nerve regeneration.
Nanotechnology
PUBLISHED: 03-26-2014
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For artificial nerve conduits, great improvements have been achieved in mimicking the structures and components of autologous nerves. However, there are still some problems in conduit construction, especially in terms of mechanical properties, biomimetic surface tomography, electrical conductivity and sustained release of neurotrophic factors or cells. In this study, we designed and fabricated a novel electrospun nerve conduit enhanced by multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) on the basis of a collagen/poly(?-caprolactone) (collagen/PCL) fibrous scaffold. Our aim was to provide further knowledge about the mechanical effects and efficacy of MWNTs on nerve conduits as well as the biocompatibility and toxicology of MWNTs when applied in vivo.The results showed that as one component, carboxyl MWNTs could greatly alter the composite scaffold's hydrophilicity, mechanical properties and degradability. The electrospun fibers enhanced by MWNTs could support Schwann cell adhesion and elongation as a substrate in vitro. In vivo animal studies demonstrated that the MWNT-enhanced collagen/PCL conduit could effectively promote nerve regeneration of sciatic nerve defect in rats and prevent muscle atrophy without invoking body rejection or serious chronic inflammation. All of these results showed that this MWNT-enhanced scaffold possesses good biocompatibility and MWNTs might be excellent candidates as engineered nanocarriers for further neurotrophic factor delivery research.
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Accumulation of connective tissue growth factor+ cells during the early phase of rat traumatic brain injury.
Diagn Pathol
PUBLISHED: 03-15-2014
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Glial scar formation is a common histopathological feature of traumatic brain injury (TBI). Astrogliosis and expression of transforming growth factor beta (TGF-?) are key components of scar formation and blood-brain barrier modulation. Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) is considered a cytokine mediating the effects of TGF-?.
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Study of induction chemotherapy efficacy in oral squamous cell carcinoma using pseudotargeted metabolomics.
J. Proteome Res.
PUBLISHED: 03-06-2014
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The effect of induction chemotherapy on oral cancer is controversial owing to inconsistent results. However, the efficacy of induction chemotherapy is closely related to locoregional recurrence, distant metastasis, and overall survival after the treatment. A pseudotargeted metabolomics revealed that metabolites involved in glycolysis and amino acid metabolism were inversely regulated in patients with different chemotherapy responses, and most fatty acids, steroids, and antioxidant substances were up-regulated in all patients after the treatment. Among the metabolites, lactic acid, glucose, glutamic acid, aspartic acid, leucine, and glycerol were remarkably associated with induction chemotherapy efficacy. Subsequently, lactic acid, glutamic acid, and aspartic acid were defined as potential biomarkers of the suitability and efficacy of induction chemotherapy. Our results show that 100.0 and 84.37% of patients with different chemotherapy efficacy were correctly identified in the training and test sets, respectively. Moreover, patient suitability for treatment was correctly predicted for 100.0, 81.25, and 100.0% of patients in the training, test, and external validation sets, respectively. In conclusion, metabolites related to glycolysis, redox homeostasis, and anabolic progress were indicative of induction chemotherapy efficacy both pre- and post-chemotherapy and beneficial for outcome evaluation and prediction. These results illustrate the potentials of metabolomics in personalized induction chemotherapy.
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Taking advantage of neural development to treat glioblastoma.
Eur. J. Neurosci.
PUBLISHED: 01-27-2014
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Glioblastoma (GBM) is by far the most common and most malignant primary adult brain tumor (World Health Organization grade IV), containing a fraction of stem-like cells that are highly tumorigenic and multipotent. Recent research has revealed that GBM stem-like cells play important roles in GBM pathogenesis. GBM is thought to arise from genetic anomalies in glial development. Over the past decade, a wide range of studies have shown that several signaling pathways involved in neural development, including basic helix-loop-helix, Wnt-?-catenin, bone morphogenetic proteins-Smads, epidermal growth factor-epidermal growth factor receptor, and Notch, play important roles in GBM pathogenesis. In this review, we highlight the significance of these pathways in the context of developing treatments for GBM. Extrapolating knowledge and concepts from neural development will have significant implications for designing better strategies with which to treat GBM.
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The immobilization of heavy metals in soil by bioaugmentation of a UV-mutant Bacillus subtilis 38 assisted by NovoGro biostimulation and changes of soil microbial community.
J. Hazard. Mater.
PUBLISHED: 01-24-2014
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Bacillus subtilis 38 (B38) is a mutant species of Bacillus subtilis acquired by UV irradiation with high cadmium tolerance. This study revealed that B38 was a good biosorbent for the adsorption of multiple heavy metals (cadmium, chromium, mercury, and lead). Simultaneous application of B38 and NovoGro (SNB) exhibited a synergetic effect on the immobilization of heavy metals in soil. The heavy metal concentrations in the edible part of the tested plants (lettuce, radish, and soybean) under SNB treatment decreased by 55.4-97.9% compared to the control. Three single extraction methods, diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA), Mehlich 3 (M3), and the first step of the Community Bureau of Reference method (BCR1), showed good predictive capacities for metal bioavailability to leafy, rhizome, and leguminous plant, respectively. The polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) profiles revealed that NovoGro could enhance the proliferation of both exotic B38 and native microbes. Finally, the technology was checked in the field, the reduction in heavy metal concentrations in the edible part of radish was in the range between 30.8% and 96.0% after bioremediation by SNB treatment. This study provides a practical strategy for the remediation of farmland contaminated by multiple heavy metals.
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Rapamycin inhibits Toll-like receptor 4-induced pro-oncogenic function in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma.
Oncol. Rep.
PUBLISHED: 01-21-2014
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Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) is expressed in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) cells and is associated with HNSCC cancer progression. Rapamycin has been proven to be efficient for the treatment of HNSCC in vivo, yet the mechanism is not understood and rapamycin demonstrates little effect in vitro. In the present study, the HNSCC cell lines CAL27 and SCC4 were pre-treated with rapamycin then stimulated with a TLR4 ligand lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Cell proliferation, migration, invasion, resistance to TRAIL-induced apoptosis, cytokine production, NF-?B and p65 activation were determined. The results indicated that LPS significantly stimulated HNSCC cell proliferation, cytokine production, migration, invasion and resistance to apoptosis induced by tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL). Pretreatment with rapamycin significantly attenuated LPS-induced pro-oncogenic effects by inhibiting the activation of NF-?B by LPS. siRNA knockdown of TLR4 in HNSCC cells demonstrated that rapamycin attenuated LPS-induced pro-oncogenic effects via TLR4. Hence, this study suggests rapamycin may be efficient for the treatment of HNSCC by attenuating TLR4-induced pro-oncogenic effects.
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Application of modified Karapandzic flaps in large lower lip defect reconstruction.
J. Oral Maxillofac. Surg.
PUBLISHED: 01-12-2014
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Reconstruction of a lower lip defect with a Karapandzic flap often leads to greater rounding of the commissure. The aim of this study was to provide a new design of bilateral Karapandzic flap for large lower lip defect reconstruction.
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Tricholemmal carcinoma of the head and neck region: A report of 15 cases.
Oncol Lett
PUBLISHED: 01-08-2014
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Tricholemmal carcinoma is an extremely rare malignancy of the skin, and its biological behavior and management is controversial. The objective of the present study was to investigate the clinicopathological characteristics and management of tricholemmal carcinoma of the head and neck region. The study analyzed 15 patients with tricholemmal carcinoma. Demographic and clinical data were collected, and features associated with the management and prognosis of tricholemmal carcinoma were analyzed. Two of the 15 patients were lost to follow-up. The results showed that, during the follow-up period, 5 of the 13 available patients succumbed to the causes of recurrence (n=3), neck lymph node metastasis (n=1) and Parkinson's disease (n=1). No patients developed distant metastasis. The disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) were 31.1±7.8 and 32.9±7.4 months (mean ± SE), respectively, and the DFS and OS rates were 69.2 and 61.5%, respectively. In conclusion, the biological behavior of tricholemmal carcinoma is locoregionally aggressive. The recommended management for head and neck tricholemmal carcinoma is radical resection and neck dissection, and post-operative radiotherapy may be considered for high-risk patients.
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A 3-year prospective clinical study of telescopic crown, bar, and locator attachments for removable four implant-supported maxillary overdentures.
Int J Prosthodont
PUBLISHED: 11-02-2013
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Purpose: To evaluate telescopic crown (TC), bar, and locator attachments used in removable four implant-supported overdentures for patients with edentulous maxillae. Materials and Methods: A total of 30 maxillary edentulous patients were enrolled in a 3-year prospective study. Ten patients (group A) were treated with overdentures supported by TCs, 10 patients (group B) with overdentures supported by bar attachments, and 10 patients (group C) with overdentures supported by locator attachments. A total of 120 implants were used to restore oral function. During the 3-year follow-up period, implant survival and success rates, biologic and mechanical complications, prosthodontic maintenance efforts, and patient satisfaction were evaluated. Results: All 30 patients were available for the 3-year follow-up and exhibited 100% implant survival and success rates. Peri-implant marginal bone resorption was not statistically significant for the three groups. There were lower plaque, bleeding, gingiva, and calculus indices in group C compared with groups A and B. The number of prosthodontic maintenance visits revealed eight complications in the TC group, seven complications in the bar group, and four complications in the locator group. However, there were no differences in the clinical effects of the overdentures in the three groups. Conclusion: Within the limits of this prospective study, it was concluded that the locator system produced superior clinical results compared with the TC and bar attachments in terms of peri-implant hygiene parameters, the frequency of prosthodontic maintenance measures, cost, and ease of denture preparation. However, longer-term prospective studies are required to confirm these results.
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Accumulation of Fascin+ cells during experimental autoimmune neuritis.
Diagn Pathol
PUBLISHED: 10-24-2013
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Experimental autoimmune neuritis (EAN) is a well-known animal model of human demyelinating polyneuropathies and is characterized by inflammation and demyelination in the peripheral nervous system. Fascin is an evolutionarily highly conserved cytoskeletal protein of 55 kDa containing two actin binding domains that cross-link filamentous actin to hexagonal bundles.
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Comprehensive Evaluation of Cryopreserved Bone-Derived Osteoblasts for the Repair of Segmental Mandibular Defects in Canines.
Clin Implant Dent Relat Res
PUBLISHED: 10-18-2013
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The repair of segmental mandibular defects remains challenging in the clinic. Previous studies have shown that cryopreserved bone-derived osteoblasts (CBOs) have good proliferation and osteogenicity. However, whether these cells can be used in the repair of segmental mandibular defects is largely unknown.
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A 5- to 8-year retrospective study comparing the clinical results of implant-supported telescopic crown versus bar overdentures in patients with edentulous maxillae.
Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants
PUBLISHED: 09-26-2013
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The objective of this study was to compare implant survival and success rates, peri-implant parameters, and prosthodontic maintenance efforts for implant-supported telescopic crown overdentures and bar overdentures to restore maxillary edentulism.
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The five ws for information visualization with application to healthcare informatics.
IEEE Trans Vis Comput Graph
PUBLISHED: 09-14-2013
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The Five Ws is a popular concept for information gathering in journalistic reporting. It captures all aspects of a story or incidence: who, when, what, where, and why. We propose a framework composed of a suite of cooperating visual information displays to represent the Five Ws and demonstrate its use within a healthcare informatics application. Here, the who is the patient, the where is the patients body, and the when, what, why is a reasoning chain which can be interactively sorted and brushed. The patient is represented as a radial sunburst visualization integrated with a stylized body map. This display captures all health conditions of the past and present to serve as a quick overview to the interrogating physician. The reasoning chain is represented as a multistage flow chart, composed of date, symptom, data, diagnosis, treatment, and outcome. Our system seeks to improve the usability of information captured in the electronic medical record (EMR) and we show via multiple examples that our framework can significantly lower the time and effort needed to access the medical patient information required to arrive at a diagnostic conclusion.
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The miR-223/nuclear factor I-A axis regulates glial precursor proliferation and tumorigenesis in the CNS.
J. Neurosci.
PUBLISHED: 08-16-2013
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Contemporary views of tumorigenesis regard its inception as a convergence of genetic mutation and developmental context. Glioma is the most common and deadly malignancy in the CNS; therefore, understanding how regulators of glial development contribute to its formation remains a key question. Previously we identified nuclear factor I-A (NFIA) as a key regulator of developmental gliogenesis, while miR-223 has been shown to repress NFIA expression in other systems. Using this relationship as a starting point, we found that miR-223 can suppress glial precursor proliferation via repression of NFIA during chick spinal cord development. This relationship is conserved in glioma, as miR-223 and NFIA expression is negatively correlated in human glioma tumors, and the miR-223/NFIA axis suppresses tumorigenesis in a human glioma cell line. Subsequent analysis of NFIA function revealed that it directly represses p21 and is required for tumorigenesis in a mouse neural stem cell model of glioma. These studies represent the first characterization of miR-223/NFIA axis function in glioma and demonstrate that it is a conserved proliferative mechanism across CNS development and tumorigenesis.
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Tailoring the nanostructured surfaces of hydroxyapatite bioceramics to promote protein adsorption, osteoblast growth, and osteogenic differentiation.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces
PUBLISHED: 08-01-2013
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To promote and understand the biological responses of the implant via nanostructured surface design is essential for the development of bioactive bone implants. However, the control of the surface topography of the bioceramics in nanoscale is a big challenge because of their brittle property. Herein, the hydroxyapatite (HAp) bioceramics with distinct nanostructured topographies were fabricated via hydrothermal treatment using ?-tricalcium phosphate ceramic as hard-template under different reaction conditions. HAp bioceramics with nanosheet, nanorod and micro-nanohybrid structured surface in macroscopical size were obtained by controlling the composition of the reaction media. Comparing with the traditional sample with flat and dense surface, the fabricated HAp bioceramics with hierarchical 3D micro-nanotextured surfaces possessed higher specific surface area, which selectively enhanced adsorption of specific proteins including Fn and Vn in plasma, and stimulated osteoblast adhesion, growth, and osoteogenic differentiation. In particular, the biomimetic features of the hierarchical micro-nanohybrid surface resulted in the best ability for simultaneous enhancement of protein adsorption, osteoblast proliferation, and differentiation. The results suggest that the hierarchical micro-nanohybrid topography might be one of the critical factors to be considered in the design of functional bone grafts.
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Enhanced osteoporotic bone regeneration by strontium-substituted calcium silicate bioactive ceramics.
Biomaterials
PUBLISHED: 07-23-2013
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The regeneration capacity of the osteoporotic bones is generally lower than that of the normal bones. Current methods of bone defect treatment for osteoporosis are not always satisfactory. Recent studies have shown that the silicate based biomaterials can stimulate osteogenesis and angiogenesis due to the silicon (Si) ions released from the materials, and enhance bone regeneration in vivo. Other studies showed that strontium (Sr) plays a distinct role on inhibiting bone resorption. Based on the hypothesis that the combination of Si and Sr may have synergetic effects on osteoporotic bone regeneration, the porous Sr-substituted calcium silicate (SrCS) ceramic scaffolds combining the functions of Sr and Si elements were developed with the goals to promote osteoporotic bone defect repair. The effects of the ionic extract from SrCS on osteogenic differentiation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells derived from ovariectomized rats (rBMSCs-OVX), angiogenic differentiation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were investigated. The in vitro results showed that Sr and Si ions released from SrCS enhanced cell viability, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, and mRNA expression levels of osteoblast-related genes of rBMSCs-OVX and expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) without addition of extra osteogenic and angiogenic reagents. The activation in extracellular signal-related kinases (ERK) and p38 signaling pathways were observed in rBMSCs-OVX cultured in the extract of SrCS, and these effects could be blocked by ERK inhibitor PD98059, and P38 inhibitor SB203580, respectively. Furthermore, the ionic extract of SrCS stimulated HUVECs proliferation, differentiation and angiogenesis process. The in vivo experiments revealed that SrCS dramatically stimulated bone regeneration and angiogenesis in a critical sized OVX calvarial defect model, and the enhanced bone regeneration might be attributed to the modulation of osteogenic differentiation of endogenous mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and the inhibition of osteoclastogenesis, accompanying with the promotion of the angiogenic activity of endothelial cells (ECs).
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Tourmaline combined with Phanerochaete chrysosporium to remediate agricultural soil contaminated with PAHs and OCPs.
J. Hazard. Mater.
PUBLISHED: 06-19-2013
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The potential application on tourmaline was explored. The combination of tourmaline and Phanerochaete chrysosporium was conducted to remediate the field soil from the Dagu Drainage River bank of Tianjin in China. The total PAH and OCP concentrations in the soil were 6.4±0.05 and 145.9±1.9mg/kg, respectively. During the 60 day remediation program, the remediation degradation rates of all the 16 U.S. EPA priority PAHs and OCPs were 53.2±4.7% and 43.5±3.1%, respectively. The PAH and OCP removal rates were 31.9±2.9% and 26.4±1.8%, respectively, in soil with the addition of tourmaline, and the removal rates were 40.5±2.3% and 34.2±3.9%, respectively, in soil with the addition of P. chrysosporium. Thus, the combination of tourmaline and P. chrysosporium promoted the bioremediation rate of PAHs and OCPs in the soil, compared with the rates obtained using tourmaline or P. chrysosporium individually for the remediation of PAH and OCP degradation. In addition, tourmaline can promote the generation of soil hydrogen peroxidase and invertase enzyme, significantly increase the indigenous bacterial community and the number of PAH and OCP-degraders compared to those in the control, and reduce the soil humic acid content. Hence, the present study provides a potential alternative for the remediation of soils contaminated by PAHs and OCPs.
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The Five Ws for Information Visualization with Application to Healthcare Informatics.
IEEE Trans Vis Comput Graph
PUBLISHED: 06-12-2013
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The Five Ws is a popular concept for information gathering in journalistic reporting. It captures all aspects of a story or incidence: who, when, what, where, and why. We propose a framework composed of a suite of cooperating visual information displays to represent the Five Ws and demonstrate its use within a healthcare informatics application. Here, the who is the patient, the where is the patients body, and the when, what, why is a reasoning chain which can be interactively sorted and brushed. The patient is represented as a radial sunburst visualization integrated with a stylized body map. This display captures all health conditions of the past and present to serve as a quick overview to the interrogating physician. The reasoning chain is represented as a multi-stage flow chart, composed of date, symptom, data, diagnosis, treatment, and outcome. Our system seeks to improve the usability of information captured in the electronic medical record (EMR) and makes ample use of popular hierarchical medical codes, such as ICD9 and CPT, for information organization. We show via multiple examples that our framework can significantly lower the time and effort needed to access the medical patient information required to arrive at a diagnostic conclusion.
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Inhibitory effect of the HPV-16mE6?/mE7/TBhsp70? vaccine on oral squamous cell carcinoma.
Am. J. Med. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 06-08-2013
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To evaluate the inhibitory effect of a recombinant human papillomavirus (HPV) fusion protein vaccine on oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC).
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Tongue reconstruction with tongue base island advancement flap.
J Craniofac Surg
PUBLISHED: 05-30-2013
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Reconstruction of a medium-sized defect of the tongue remains a challenge if aesthetic impairment is to be avoided. In this study, 19 tongue base island advancement flaps were developed to reconstruct medium-sized defects after the tongue squamous cell carcinoma ablations: 13 cases were T1N0M0, and 6 cases were T2N0?1M0. The largest size amounts to 5.4 × 4.8 cm (length × width), with a mean of 4.6 × 4.4 cm. The tongue base island advancement flap reduces the volume of the tongue base without causing function impairment of the tongue. All patients recovered with good objective and subjective speech and swallowing and aesthetics. No patient developed local recurrence or lymphatic metastasis. The technique of tongue base advancement flap is ideal for functional and aesthetic repair of medium-sized tongue defects after cancer ablation.
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Management of hydrocephalus secondary to pineal region tumors.
Clin Neurol Neurosurg
PUBLISHED: 05-02-2013
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Hydrocephalus is often secondary to pineal region tumors. Hydrocephalus can lead to high intracranial pressure, which in turn results in disturbance of consciousness, cerebral hernia, and even death. Hydrocephalus management is important in the treatment of pineal region tumors. It is still controversial regarding to when and how to treat hydrocephalus secondary to pineal region tumors. The objective of this study is to investigate the management of hydrocephalus secondary to pineal region tumors.
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Melanocytomas of the central nervous system: a clinicopathological and molecular study.
Eur. J. Clin. Invest.
PUBLISHED: 04-22-2013
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Melanocytomas of the Central Nervous System (CNS) are rare and benign lesions. These slow-growing tumours can behave aggressively, with local recurrence. Various genetic aberrations occur in malignant melanomas and raise possible new therapeutic options. However, little information is available regarding these characteristic genetic alterations in melanocytomas of the CNS. This study was designed to better understand the clinicopathological and molecular features of melanocytomas.
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The remodeling of alveolar bone supporting the mandibular first molar with different levels of periodontal attachment.
Med Biol Eng Comput
PUBLISHED: 04-19-2013
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The objective of this study was to investigate alveolar bone remodeling of the mandibular first molar with differing levels of periodontal attachment under mastication loading. Three-dimensional finite element models of the mandibular first molar with differing levels of periodontal attachment were established. The stress distributions and bone density changes were analyzed under mastication loading to simulate the remodeling process of mandibular bone based on the theory of strain energy density. The results showed that the alveolar buccal, lingual ridges and root apex areas experienced higher stresses. The stresses and densities of the alveolar bone increased proportionally to increased mastication loading. Decrease in alveolar bone density under extreme loading indicated bone resorption. The remodeling rate was continual with gradual loading. Periodontal ligament support marginally decreased with an increased remodeling rate under extreme loading. Changes in alveolar bone density can reflect the remodeling process of periodontal tissue under mastication loading. The relationship between the change in density and mastication loading during remodeling can provide useful indicators into clinical treatment and diagnosis of the periodontal disease.
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Mechanical properties of thin films of laser-welded titanium and their associated welding defects.
Lasers Med Sci
PUBLISHED: 04-18-2013
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The aim of this study was to evaluate the mechanical properties of thin films of laser-welded cast titanium using an interference strain/displacement gauge (ISDG) and to analyze factors that affect laser welding. Dog-bone-shaped small specimens of cast titanium were prepared by wire cutting after they were laser-welded. The specimens were divided into three groups according to the gap distance of the laser weld; the control was non-welded titanium. Small specimens without cast defects detected by X-ray screening were measured by a tensile test machine using ISDG, and stress-strain curves were drawn. Finally, the fracture texture was analyzed. The ultimate tensile strengths (UTSs) of specimens with a gap distance of 0.00, 0.25, and 0.50 mm were 492.16?±?33.19, 488.09?±?43.18, and 558.45?±?10.80 MPa, respectively. There were no significant differences in UTS between the test groups and the control group (p?>?0.05). However, the plastic deformation and the percent elongation increased as the gap distance increased. Incomplete penetration defects appeared in groups that had small gap distances, which may have affected the properties of the laser-welded titanium. However, the welding material was still pure titanium. These results suggest that an appropriate gap distance should be maintained to improve the application of dental laser welding.
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Oxidative degradation of azo dyes using tourmaline.
J. Hazard. Mater.
PUBLISHED: 04-14-2013
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This study aimed to investigate the catalyzed degradation ability of tourmaline on the dyes methylene blue (MB), rhodamine B (RhB), and congo red (CR) at different pH values. Interestingly, tourmaline strongly adsorbed anionic dyes, but it did not adsorb cationic dyes. When H?O? was introduced into the tourmaline-dye systems, the degradation percentage for CR catalysis by tourmaline was lower than the percentage of adsorption, whereas the opposite was true for MB and RhB systems. Notably, the catalyzed degradation decreased from 100% to 45% for MB, 100% to 15% for RhB and 100% to 25% for CR as the pH increased from 3.0 to 10.0, respectively, which was much greater than the degradation obtained for previously reported materials at pH values ranging from 4.0 to 10.0. Tourmaline catalytically degraded the dyes over a broad range of pH values, which was attributed to tourmaline automatically adjusting the pH of the dye solutions to approximately 5.5 from an initial range of 4.2-10.0. An electron paramagnetic resonance spin trapping technique observed peroxyl (ROO·) and alkoxy (RO·) or alkyl (R·) radicals originated from the attack of ·OH radicals and O?(·-) radicals, indicating that these radicals were involved in the catalyzed degradation of MB. Importantly, four intermediate products of MB at m/z 383, 316, 203 and 181 were observed by LC/MS.
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Effects of Carbon Nanotubes in a Chitosan/Collagen-Based Composite on Mouse Fibroblast Cell Proliferation.
Cell. Mol. Neurobiol.
PUBLISHED: 04-12-2013
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This study investigated the in vitro cytocompatibility of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) in a chitosan/collagen-based composite. Mouse fibroblasts were cultured on the surface of a novel material consisting of CNTs in a chitosan/collagen-based composite (chitosan/collagen+CNTs group). Chitosan/collagen composites without CNTs served as the control material (chitosan/collagen group) and cells cultured normally in tissue culture plates served as blank controls (blank control group). Cell adhesion and proliferation were observed, and cell apoptosis was measured. The doubling time (DT1) of cells was significantly shorter in the chitosan/collagen+CNTs group than in the chitosan/collagen group, and that in the chitosan/collagen group was shorter than in the blank control group. The CNTs in the chitosan/collagen-based composites promoted mouse fibroblast adhesion, producing a distinct cytoskeletal structure. At 24 h after culture, the cytoskeleton of the cells in the chitosan/collagen+CNTs group displayed typical fibroblastic morphology, with clear microfilaments. Cells in the chitosan/collagen group were typically round, with an unclear cytoskeleton. The blank control group even had a few unattached cells. At 4 days after incubation, no early apoptosis of cells was detected in the blank control group, whereas early apoptosis of cells was observed in the chitosan/collagen+CNTs and chitosan/collagen groups. No significant difference in the proportion of living cells was detected among the three groups. After entering the plateau stage, the average cell number in the chitosan/collagen+CNTs group was similar to that in the chitosan/collagen group and significantly smaller than that in the blank control group. Early apoptosis of cells in the blank control group was not detectable. There were significant differences in early apoptosis among the three groups. These results suggest that CNTs in a chitosan/collagen-based composite did not cause significant cytotoxic effects on mouse fibroblasts. Compared with chitosan/collagen composites, early adhesion and proliferation of fibroblasts were increased on chitosan/collagen+CNTs. However, at relatively high cell densities, the CNTs in the chitosan/collagen-based composite might exert an inhibitory effect on mouse fibroblast proliferation by inducing apoptosis.
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Synthesis of cuprous chloride and simultaneous recovery of Ag and Pd from waste printed circuit boards.
J. Hazard. Mater.
PUBLISHED: 04-12-2013
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A benign and effective process for cuprous chloride synthesis and simultaneously recovery of Ag and Pd from waste printed circuit boards (PCBs) was developed in the present study. The main merit of the process is that neither corrosive acid nor strong oxidant was used. The PCBs were firstly pretreated by thermal shock process to obtain metallic particles (MPs), then cuprous chloride was synthesized by reacting MPs with cupric sulfate in the presence of sodium chloride. The optimum [Formula: see text] (mL/g) ratio, [Cu]/[Cu(2+)] mole ratio, treatment time and operation temperature were 6, 0.95, 30 min and 60°C, respectively. Approximately 98.5% of Cu could be recovered from the PCBs through two synthesis circles. During the synthesis process, Ag and Pd could be simultaneously recovered by forming a stable chloride complex since Cu(2+) played the role of oxidant in the system. The recovery percentages of Ag and Pd were 93.9% and 95.3%, respectively. Accordingly, it is believed that the process developed in the current study is benign and practical for copper and precious metal (Ag, Pd) recovery from waste PCBs.
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Erythropoietin is a hypoxia inducible factor-induced protective molecule in experimental autoimmune neuritis.
Biochim. Biophys. Acta
PUBLISHED: 04-07-2013
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Experimental autoimmune neuritis (EAN), an autoantigen-specific T-cell-mediated disease model for human demyelinating inflammatory disease of the peripheral nervous system, is characterized by self-limitation. Here we investigated the regulation and contribution of erythropoietin (EPO) in EAN self-limitation. In EAN sciatic nerves, hypoxia, and protein and mRNA levels of hypoxia-inducible factor 1? (HIF-1?), HIF-2?, EPO and EPO receptor (EPOR) were induced in parallel at disease peak phase but reduced at recovery periods. Further, the deactivation of HIF reduced EAN-induced EPO/EPOR upregulation in EAN, suggesting the central contribution of HIF to EPO/EPOR induction. The deactivation of EPOR signalling exacerbated EAN progression, implying that endogenous EPO contributed to EAN recovery. Exogenous EPO treatment greatly improved EAN recovery. In addition, EPO was shown to promote Schwann cell survival and myelin production. In EAN, EPO treatment inhibited lymphocyte proliferation and altered helper T cell differentiation by inducing increase of Foxp3(+)/CD4(+) regulatory T cells and decrease of IFN-?(+)/CD4(+) Th1 cells. Furthermore, EPO inhibited inflammatory macrophage activation and promoted its phagocytic activity. In summary, our data demonstrated that EPO was induced in EAN by HIF and contributed to EAN recovery, and endogenous and exogenous EPO could effectively suppress EAN by attenuating inflammation and exerting direct cell protection, indicating that EPO contributes to the self-recovery of EAN and could be a potent candidate for treatment of autoimmune neuropathies.
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Clinicopathological features of myxopapillary ependymoma.
J Clin Neurosci
PUBLISHED: 03-09-2013
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Myxopapillary ependymoma (MPE) is a rare and distinct variant of ependymoma with a tendency for local recurrence and metastasis. Its clinicopathological spectrum is heterogenous, underscoring the need to understand and characterize MPE for better diagnosis and treatment. The purpose of this study was to explore the tumor biology and assess the management of patients with MPE. Tumors from a cohort of 19 patients were analyzed by light microscopy, electron microscopy, immunohistochemistry and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Clinical characteristics, therapeutic options and clinical follow-up data were also analyzed. Back pain was the most common presenting symptom. The main pathological morphology observed was papillae embedded in a myxoid background, but other rare morphologies were also present. Immunostaining revealed epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) expression in four MPE, while FISH for EGFR was negative. No correlation between tumor recurrence and EGFR overexpression was found. Ultrastructural examination revealed adherens junctions and intracytoplasmic lumina with microvilli. Patients with gross-total resection (GTR) had no tumor recurrence (p=0.021). Also, patients with subtotal resection (STR) followed by radiotherapy showed a higher local control rate than patients with STR alone (p=0.043). The diagnosis of MPE should be made considering the histology, immunohistochemistry, imaging studies and anatomical site. GTR of the tumor or STR followed by radiotherapy are more likely to avoid tumor recurrence than STR alone. Based on our findings, there is no correlation between tumor recurrence and EGFR expression.
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Lesional accumulation of heme oxygenase-1+ microglia/macrophages in rat traumatic brain injury.
Neuroreport
PUBLISHED: 03-09-2013
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Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) is an inducible rate-limiting enzyme for heme degradation. Here, we studied the HO-1 expression in an open-skull weight-drop-induced traumatic brain injury, with a focus on the early phase, most amenable to therapy. In normal rat brains of our study, HO-1 cells were rarely observed. Significant parenchymal accumulation of HO-1 non-neuron cells was observed 18 h post-traumatic brain injury and increased continuously during the investigating time. We also observed that the accumulated HO-1 non-neuron cells were mainly distributed in the perilesional areas and showed activated microglia/macrophage phenotypes with ramified or amoeboid morphologic characteristics. Further double-labeling experiments showed that most HO-1 non-neuron cells coexpressed CD68 and CD163, but not glial fibrillary acid protein. Our data suggest that HO-1 expression defines a subtype of activated microglia/macrophages involved in the early processes following traumatic brain injury.
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Osteolytic myxopapillary ependymoma with marked hyaline degeneration in a 72-year-old male: A case report.
Oncol Lett
PUBLISHED: 02-02-2013
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Myxopapillary ependymomas (MPEs) are uncommon and account for ?15% of all ependymomas. The current study presents a case of rare spinal MPE with abnormal hyaline degeneration. The patient was a 72-year-old male with a 10-month history of lower back pain. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a mass involving the L4 and L5 vertebrae with local bone destruction. The tumor was completely resected. Histologically, the majority of the tumor exhibited low cellularity. A marked change in hyaline was observed in the blood vessels and stroma. In specific areas, the tumor showed reticular or tubular patterning embedded in hyaline materials. The tumor cells were cuboidal to columnar in shape with strong immunostaining for glial fibrillary acidic protein and S-100. A fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis for amplification of the epidermal growth factor receptor gene was negative. The results of pathological and immunohistochemical studies were consistent with the ependymal nature of neoplastic cells.
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Dose dependent activation of retinoic acid-inducible gene-I promotes both proliferation and apoptosis signals in human head and neck squamous cell carcinoma.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-31-2013
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The retinoic-acid-inducible gene (RIG)-like receptor (RLR) family proteins are major pathogen reorganization receptors (PRR) responsible for detection of viral RNA, which initiates antiviral response. Here, we evaluated the functional role of one RLR family member, RIG-I, in human head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). RIG-I is abundantly expressed both in poorly-differentiated primary cancer and lymph node metastasis, but not in normal adjacent tissues. Activation of RIG-I by transfection with low dose of 5-triphosphate RNA (3p-RNA) induces low levels of interferon and proinflammatory cytokines and promotes NF-?B- and Akt-dependent cell proliferation, migration and invasion. In contrast, activation of RIG-I by a high dose of 3p-RNA induces robust mitochondria-derived apoptosis accompanied by decreased activation of Akt, which is independent of the interferon and TNF? receptor, but can be rescued by over-expression of constitutively active Akt. Furthermore, co-immunoprecipitation experiments indicate that the CARD domain of RIG-I is essential for inducing apoptosis by interacting with caspase-9. Together, our results reveal a dual role of RIG-I in HNSCC through regulating activation of Akt, in which RIG-I activation by low-dose viral dsRNA increases host cell survival, whereas higher level of RIG-I activation leads to apoptosis. These findings highlight the therapeutic potential of dsRNA mediated RIG-I activation in the treatment of HNSCC.
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Trehalose maintains bioactivity and promotes sustained release of BMP-2 from lyophilized CDHA scaffolds for enhanced osteogenesis in vitro and in vivo.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-24-2013
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Calcium phosphate (Ca-P) scaffolds have been widely employed as a supportive matrix and delivery system for bone tissue engineering. Previous studies using osteoinductive growth factors loaded Ca-P scaffolds via passive adsorption often experience issues associated with easy inactivation and uncontrolled release. In present study, a new delivery system was fabricated using bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) loaded calcium-deficient hydroxyapatite (CDHA) scaffold by lyophilization with addition of trehalose. The in vitro osteogenesis effects of this formulation were compared with lyophilized BMP-2/CDHA construct without trehalose and absorbed BMP-2/CDHA constructs with or without trehalose. The release characteristics and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity analyses showed that addition of trehalose could sufficiently protect BMP-2 bioactivity during lyophilization and achieve sustained BMP-2 release from lyophilized CDHA construct in vitro and in vivo. However, absorbed BMP-2/CDHA constructs with or without trehalose showed similar BMP-2 bioactivity and presented a burst release. Quantitative real-time PCR (RT-qPCR) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) demonstrated that lyophilized BMP-2/CDHA construct with trehalose (lyo-tre-BMP-2) promoted osteogenic differentiation of bone marrow stromal cells (bMSCs) significantly and this formulation could preserve over 70% protein bioactivity after 5 weeks storage at 25°C. Micro-computed tomography, histological and fluorescent labeling analyses further demonstrated that lyo-tre-BMP-2 formulation combined with bMSCs led to the most percentage of new bone volume (38.79% ± 5.32%) and area (40.71% ± 7.14%) as well as the most percentage of fluorochrome stained bone area (alizarin red S: 2.64% ± 0.44%, calcein: 6.08% ± 1.37%) and mineral apposition rate (4.13 ± 0.62 µm/day) in critical-sized rat cranial defects healing. Biomechanical tests also indicated the maximum stiffness (118.17 ± 15.02 Mpa) and load of fracture (144.67 ± 16.13 N). These results lay a potential framework for future study by using trehalose to preserve growth factor bioactivity and optimize release profile of Ca-P based delivery system for enhanced bone regeneration.
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A receptor-like kinase gene (GbRLK) from Gossypium barbadense enhances salinity and drought-stress tolerance in Arabidopsis.
BMC Plant Biol.
PUBLISHED: 01-10-2013
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Cotton (Gossypium spp.) is widely cultivated due to the important economic value of its fiber. However, extreme environmental degradation impedes cotton growth and production. Receptor-like kinase (RLK) proteins play important roles in signal transduction and participate in a diverse range of processes in response to plant hormones and environmental cues. Here, we introduced an RLK gene (GbRLK) from cotton into Arabidopsis and investigated its role in imparting abiotic stress tolerance.
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Comparison of multi-space infections of the head and neck in the elderly and non-elderly: part I the descriptive data.
J Craniomaxillofac Surg
PUBLISHED: 01-09-2013
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This study aims to analyze the difference between the aged patients and non-elderly with multi-space infections of the head and neck.
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Enhanced dentin-like mineralized tissue formation by AdShh-transfected human dental pulp cells and porous calcium phosphate cement.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of Sonic hedgehog (Shh) on human dental pulp cells (hDPCs) and the potential of complexes with Shh gene modified hDPCs and porous calcium phosphate cement (CPC) for mineralized tissue formation. hDPCs were cultured and transfected with adenoviral mediated human Shh gene (AdShh). Overexpression of Shh and cell proliferation was tested by real-time PCR analysis, western blotting analysis, and MTT analysis, respectively. The odontoblastic differentiation was assessed by alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and real-time PCR analysis on markers of Patched-1 (Ptc-1), Smoothened (Smo), Gli 1, Gli 2, Gli 3, osteocalcin (OCN), dentin matrix protein-1 (DMP-1), and dentin sialophosphoprotein (DSPP). Finally, AdShh-transfected hDPCs were combined with porous CPC and placed subcutaneously in nude mice for 8 and 12 weeks, while AdEGFP-transfected and untransfected hDPCs were treated as control groups. Results indicated that Shh could promote proliferation and odontoblastic differentiation of hDPCs, while Shh/Gli 1 signaling pathway played a key role in this process. Importantly, more mineralized tissue formation was observed in combination with AdShh transfected hDPCs and porous CPC, moreover, the mineralized tissue exhibited dentin-like features such as structures similar to dentin-pulp complex and the positive staining for DSPP protein similar to the tooth tissue. These results suggested that the constructs with AdShh-transfected hDPCs and porous CPC might be a better alternative for dental tissue regeneration.
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Enhanced healing of rat calvarial defects with sulfated chitosan-coated calcium-deficient hydroxyapatite/bone morphogenetic protein 2 scaffolds.
Tissue Eng Part A
PUBLISHED: 12-02-2011
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Calcium phosphate cements (CPCs), which are widely used in bone regeneration, possess good biocompatibility and osteoconductivity and have been demonstrated to be candidate carriers for bone growth factors. However, limited release of growth factors from CPCs and slow degradation of the materials are not desirable for certain clinical applications. Previous studies have shown that calcium-deficient hydroxyapatite (CDHA) from CPCs presents more rapid degradation rate than CPCs. In this study, a hybrid growth factor delivery system was prepared by using bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2) loaded CDHA porous scaffold with sulfated chitosan (SCS) coating for improved release profile. We tested the BMP-2 release characteristic of CDHA/BMP-2/SCS composite in vitro and its ability to repair rat calvarial bone defects. A higher percentage of BMP-2 was released when sulfated chitosan coating was present compared with CDHA/BMP-2 group. Eight weeks postoperation, the repaired crania were evaluated by microcomputed tomography, sequential fluorescent labeling, histological analysis, and immunohistochemistry. CDHA/BMP-2/SCS group promoted the most extensive new bone formation than CDHA/BMP-2 and CDHA groups. Our observations suggest that sulfated chitosan coating could enhance the release profile of CDHA/BMP-2 composite in vitro and promote new bone formation in vivo. The hybrid CDHA/BMP-2/SCS system is a promising growth factor delivery strategy for bone regeneration.
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Blood vessel formation in the tissue-engineered bone with the constitutively active form of HIF-1? mediated BMSCs.
Biomaterials
PUBLISHED: 11-03-2011
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The successful clinical outcome of the implanted tissue-engineered bone is dependent on the establishment of a functional vascular network. A gene-enhanced tissue engineering represents a promising approach for vascularization. Our previous study indicated that hypoxia-inducible factor-1? (HIF-1?) can up-regulate the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and stromal-derived factor 1 (SDF-1) in bone mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs). The angiogenesis is a co-ordinated process that requires the participation of multiple angiogenic factors. To further explore the angiogenic effect of HIF-1? mediated stem cells, in this study, we systematically evaluated the function of HIF-1? in enhancing BMSCs angiogenesis in vitro and in vivo. A constitutively active form of HIF-1? (CA5) was inserted into a lentivirus vector and transduced into BMSCs, and its effect on vascularization and vascular remodeling was further evaluated in a rat critical-sized calvarial defects model with a gelatin sponge (GS) scaffold. The expression of the key angiogenic factors including VEGF, SDF-1, basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), placental growth factor (PLGF), angiopoietin 1 (ANGPT1), and stem cell factor (SCF) at both mRNAs and proteins levels in BMSCs were significantly enhanced by HIF-1? overexpression compared to the in vitro control group. In addition, HIF-1?-over expressing BMSCs showed dramatically improved blood vessel formation in the tissue-engineered bone as analyzed by photography of specimen, micro-CT, and histology. These data confirm the important role of HIF-1? in angiogenesis in tissue-engineered bone. Improved understanding of the mechanisms of angiogenesis may offer exciting therapeutic opportunities for vascularization, vascular remodeling, and bone defect repair using tissue engineering strategies in the future.
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Ganglioneuroma of the base of the skull.
J Craniofac Surg
PUBLISHED: 10-01-2011
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Ganglioneuromas are rare benign tumors originating from the ganglion cells of the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous system. Ganglioneuromas in the base of skull are extremely rare. In this article, we describe a case of primary ganglioneuroma below the foramen ovale observed in a 38-year-old man. The lesion was asymptomatic. The patient underwent surgical intervention for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. Craniomaxillofacial surgery was conducted by the oral and maxillofacial surgical team and the neurosurgical team. Combined frontotemporal-preauricular infratemporal approach was used to expose the lesion. Cerebrospinal fluid leakage and facial paralysis did not occur postoperatively. The results of histopathologic examination indicated that the excised lesion was a ganglioneuroma. Clinical follow-up was done, and no recurrence has been observed up to now.
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Effects of irradiation on growth and differentiation-related gene expression in osteoblasts.
J Craniofac Surg
PUBLISHED: 10-01-2011
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Osteoblasts are bone-forming cells that are responsible for the production of bone extracellular matrix. Osteoradionecrosis is a complication of radiation therapy for carcinoma of the head and neck that occurs in 3% to 8.2% of irradiated patients. The irradiation effect on osteoblast differentiation has not been fully elucidated. The objective of our research was to elucidate the effects of radiation on the growth and differentiation-related gene expression in osteoblast in vitro. Three differentiation-related genes, alkaline phosphatase, type I collagen, and osteocalcin, were tested in our experiment. The results showed that radiation inhibited the proliferation of the osteoblasts in a dose-dependent manner and induced G2/M cell cycle arrest. Irradiation, 4 and 8 Gy, enhanced the differentiation-related gene expression of MC3T3-E1 cells 7 days after irradiation. However, the differentiation-related gene expression was decreased 21 days after irradiation in the 4- and 8-Gy groups. This work presents the dynamic phenotypic expression changes of osteoblastic cells after x-ray irradiation.
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[Expression of cytokeratin 17 in oral squamous cell carcinoma].
Hua Xi Kou Qiang Yi Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 09-22-2011
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To investigate the expression of cytokeratin 17 (CK17) in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) as well as its clinical significance.
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Bone regeneration by stem cell and tissue engineering in oral and maxillofacial region.
Front Med
PUBLISHED: 08-31-2011
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Clinical imperatives for the reconstruction of jaw bone defects or resorbed alveolar ridge require new therapies or procedures instead of autologous/allogeneic bone grafts. Regenerative medicine, based on stem cell science and tissue engineering technology, is considered as an ideal alternative strategy for bone regeneration. In this paper, we review the current choices of cell source and strategies on directing the osteogenic differentiation of stem cells. The preclinical animal models for bone regeneration and the key translational points to clinical success in oral and maxillofacial region are also discussed. We propose comprehensive strategies based on stem cell and tissue engineering researches, allowing for clinical application in oral and maxillofacial region.
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Repairing critical-sized calvarial defects with BMSCs modified by a constitutively active form of hypoxia-inducible factor-1? and a phosphate cement scaffold.
Biomaterials
PUBLISHED: 08-20-2011
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Tissue engineering combined with gene therapy represents a promising approach for bone regeneration. The Hypoxia-inducible factor-1? (HIF-1?) gene is a pivotal regulator of vascular reactivity and angiogenesis. Our recent study has showed that HIF-1? could promote osteogenesis of bone mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) using a gene point mutant technique. To optimize the function of HIF-1? on inducing stem cells, another constitutively active form of HIF-1? (CA5) was constructed with truncation mutant method and its therapeutic potential on critical-sized bone defects was evaluated with calcium-magnesium phosphate cement (CMPC) scaffold in a rat model. BMSCs were treated with Lenti (lentivirus) -CA5, Lenti-WT (wild-type HIF-1?), and Lenti-LacZ. These genetically modified BMSCs were then combined with CMPC scaffolds to repair critical-sized calvarial defects in rats. The results showed that the overexpression of HIF-1? obviously enhanced the mRNA and protein expression of osteogenic markers in vitro and robust new bone formation with the higher local bone mineral density (BMD) was found in vivo in the CA5 and WT groups. Furthermore, CA5 showed significantly greater stability and osteogenic activity in BMSCs compared with WT. These data suggest that BMSCs transduced with truncation mutanted HIF-1? gene can promote the overexpression of osteogenic markers. CMPC could serve as a potential substrate for HIF-1? gene modified tissue engineered bone to repair critical sized bony defects.
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Repair of critical-sized rat calvarial defects using genetically engineered bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells overexpressing hypoxia-inducible factor-1?.
Stem Cells
PUBLISHED: 07-21-2011
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The processes of angiogenesis and bone formation are coupled both temporally and spatially during bone repair. Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) have been effectively used to heal critical-size bone defects. Enhancing their ability to undergo angiogenic and osteogenic differentiation will enhance their potential use in bone regeneration. Hypoxia-inducible factor-1? (HIF-1?) has recently been identified as a major regulator of angiogenic-osteogenic coupling. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that HIF-1? gene therapy could be used to promote the repair of critical-sized bone defects. Using lentivirus-mediated delivery of wild-type (HIF) or constitutively active HIF-1? (cHIF), we found that in cultured BMSCs in vitro, HIF and cHIF significantly enhanced osteogenic and angiogenic mRNA and protein expression when compared with the LacZ group. We found that HIF-1?-overexpressing BMSCs dramatically improved the repair of critical-sized calvarial defects, including increased bone volume, bone mineral density, blood vessel number, and blood vessel area in vivo. These data confirm the essential role of HIF-1? modified BMSCs in angiogenesis and osteogenesis in vitro and in vivo.
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[Experimental and clinical study on the diagnosis for pathogenic fungi of fungal rhinosinusitis by multiplex PCR].
Lin Chung Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 07-19-2011
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To develop a multiplex PCR method used to fast diagnose pathogenic fungi of fungal rhinosinusitis.
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Proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of human periodontal ligament cells on akermanite and ?-TCP bioceramics.
Eur Cell Mater
PUBLISHED: 07-16-2011
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The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of akermanite as compared to ?-TCP on attachment, proliferation, and osteogenic differentiation of human periodontal ligament cells (hPDLCs). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and actin filament labeling were used to reveal attachment and growth of hPDLCs seeded on ?-TCP and akermanite ceramic. Cell proliferation was tested by lactic acid production and MTT analysis, while osteogenic differentiation was assayed by alkaline phosphatase (ALP) expression and real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis on markers of osteopontin (OPN), dentin matrix acidic phosphoprotein-1 (DMP-1), and osteocalcin (OCN), and further detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent analysis (ELISA) analysis for OCN expression. Besides, the ions released from akermanite and their effect on hPDLCs was also measured by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES), MTT analysis, ALP expression and real-time PCR analysis. hPDLCs attached well on both ceramics, but showed better spreading on akermanite. hPDLCs proliferated more rapidly on akermanite than ?-TCP. Importantly, osteogenic differentiation of hPDLCs was enhanced on akermanite compared to ?-TCP. Besides, Ca, Mg and Si ions were released from akermanite, while only Ca ions were released from ?-TCP. Moreover, more pronounced proliferation and higher osteogenic gene expression for hPDLCs cultured with akermanite extract were detected as compared to cells cultured on akermanite. Therefore, akermanite ceramic showed an enhanced effect on proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of hPDLCs, which might be attributed to the release of ions containing Ca, Mg and Si from the material. It is suggested that akermanite ceramics may serve as a potential material for periodontal bone regeneration.
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The use of injectable sonication-induced silk hydrogel for VEGF(165) and BMP-2 delivery for elevation of the maxillary sinus floor.
Biomaterials
PUBLISHED: 07-02-2011
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Sonication-induced silk hydrogels were previously prepared as an injectable bone replacement biomaterial, with a need to improve osteogenic features. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF(165)) and bone morphogenic protein-2 (BMP-2) are key regulators of angiogenesis and osteogenesis, respectively, during bone regeneration. Therefore, the present study aimed at evaluating in situ forming silk hydrogels as a vehicle to encapsulate dual factors for rabbit maxillary sinus floor augmentation. Sonication-induced silk hydrogels were prepared in vitro and the slow release of VEGF(165) and BMP-2 from these silk gels was evaluated by ELISA. For in vivo studies for each time point (4 and 12 weeks), 24 sinus floors elevation surgeries were made bilaterally in 12 rabbits for the following four treatment groups: silk gel (group Silk gel), silk gel/VEGF(165) (group VEGF), silk gel/BMP-2 (group BMP-2), silk gel/VEGF(165)/BMP-2 (group V + B) (n = 6 per group). Sequential florescent labeling and radiographic observations were used to record new bone formation and mineralization, along with histological and histomorphometric analysis. At week 4, VEGF(165) promoted more tissue infiltration into the gel and accelerated the degradation of the gel material. At this time point, the bone area in group V + B was significantly larger than those in the other three groups. At week 12, elevated sinus floor heights of groups BMP-2 and V + B were larger than those of the Silk gel and VEGF groups, and the V + B group had the largest new bone area among all groups. In addition, a larger blood vessel area formed in the remaining gel areas in groups VEGF and V + B. In conclusion, VEGF(165) and BMP-2 released from injectable and biodegradable silk gels promoted angiogenesis and new bone formation, with the two factors demonstrating an additive effect on bone regeneration. These results indicate that silk hydrogels can be used as an injectable vehicle to deliver multiple growth factors in a minimally invasive approach to regenerate irregular bony cavities.
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CCND1 as a predictive biomarker of neoadjuvant chemotherapy in patients with locally advanced head and neck squamous cell carcinoma.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 06-13-2011
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Cyclin D1 (CCND1) has been associated with chemotherapy resistance and poor prognosis. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that CCND1 expression determines response and clinical outcomes in locally advanced head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) patients treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy followed by surgery and radiotherapy.
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Porcine Fc gamma RIIb sub-isoforms are generated by alternative splicing.
Vet. Immunol. Immunopathol.
PUBLISHED: 06-06-2011
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Receptors for the Fc portion of IgG (Fc?Rs) are expressed on various leukocytes and they modulate both humoral and cell-mediated immune responses with different capacities for IgG binding and phagocytosis. Four different types of Fc?Rs, Fc?RI (CD64), Fc?RII (CD32), Fc?RIII (CD16) and Fc?RIV, have been identified. There are three Fc?RII isoforms (activating Fc?RIIa and Fc?RIIc, and inhibitory Fc?RIIb) in humans, one isoform (inhibitory Fc?RIIb) in mice, and two isoforms (inhibitory Fc?RIIb and activating Fc?RIIc) in cattle. Two alternativly spliced isoforms of Fc?RIIb, b1 and b2, have been identified in humans, mice and cattle, however, only two porcine Fc?RIIb transcripts have been reported. In this study, we report the identification of three new porcine Fc?RIIb transcript and analyze the sequences of five porcine Fc?RIIb transcript generated by alternative splicing. The porcine transcript 1 and porcine transcript 2 have a high homology and structural similarity with human b1 and b2, respectively, while there is only one alanine residue difference at the signal peptide region between porcine transcript 1 and transcript 4, as well as porcine transcript 2 and transcript 3. This is the first time that an alternativly spliced isoform of porcine transcript 5 is described in pigs rather than humans or other animals. All the five transcripts have the consensus sequence of an ITIM (ITYSLL) in their cytoplasmic tails. Analysis results indicate that the five transcripts serve as inhibitory receptors and are these sub-isoforms or alternativly spliced isoforms. Immunoglobulin-binding assays show that transcript 1, transcript 2, transcript 3 and transcript 4 have binding activity for IgG immune complexes, whereas transcripts 5 without domain 2 can not bind IgG-complexes. It is now clear that porcine Fc?RIIb exists as five sub-isoforms at least. These sub-isoforms may individually modulate Fc?RIIb-mediated immune responses in the porcine immune system.
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Doxycycline attenuates peripheral inflammation in rat experimental autoimmune neuritis.
Neurochem. Res.
PUBLISHED: 05-28-2011
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Experimental autoimmune neuritis (EAN) is a T cell-mediated autoimmune inflammatory demyelinating disease of the peripheral nervous system and widely-used animal model of human inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathies. Doxycycline is a well-known antibiotic and has been reported to have neuroprotective and anti-inflammatory effects. Here we investigated the effects of doxycycline on rat EAN. Therapeutic treatment with doxycycline (40 mg/kg body weight daily from the Day 9 to Day 14 post immunization) significantly attenuated the severity of EAN, decreased inflammatory infiltration of macrophages, B- and T-cells and demyelination in sciatic nerves of EAN rats. Pro-inflammatory molecules including matrixmetalloproteinase-9, inducible nitric oxide synthase and interleukin-17 were greatly decreased in sciatic nerves by administration of doxycycline as well. Taken together, our data showed that doxycycline could effectively suppress the peripheral inflammation to improve outcome of EAN, which suggests that doxycycline may be considered as a potential candidate of pharmacological treatment for neuropathies.
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Maxillary sinus floor elevation using BMP-2 and Nell-1 gene-modified bone marrow stromal cells and TCP in rabbits.
Calcif. Tissue Int.
PUBLISHED: 04-19-2011
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This study evaluated the synergistic osteogenic effect of bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) and Nel-like molecule-1 (Nell-1) genes in a rabbit maxillary sinus floor elevation model. Bone marrow stromal cells (bMSCs) were cultured and transduced with AdEGFP, AdNell-1, AdBMP-2, or AdNell-1 + AdBMP-2 overexpression virus. These gene-modified autologous bMSCs were then combined with a ?-tricalcium phosphate (?-TCP) granule scaffold and used to elevate the maxillary sinus floor in rabbits. bMSCs cotransduced with AdNell-1 + AdBMP-2 demonstrated a synergistic effect on osteogenic differentiation as detected by real-time PCR analysis on markers of runt-related transcription factor-2, osteocalcin, collagen type 1, alkaline phosphatase activity, and calcium deposits in vitro. As for maxillary sinus floor elevation in a rabbit model in vivo, AdNell-1 + AdBMP-2 gene-transduced autologeous bMSCs/?-TCP complex had the largest bone area and most mature bone structure among the groups, as detected by HE staining and immunohistochemistry at weeks 2 and 8 after implantation. Our data suggested that the BMP-2 and Nell-1 genes possessed a synergistic effect on osteogenic differentiation of bMSCs, while bMSCs modified with the BMP-2 and Nell-1 genes could promote new bone formation and maturation in the rabbit maxillary sinus model.
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Maxillary sinus floor elevation using a tissue-engineered bone with rhBMP-2-loaded porous calcium phosphate cement scaffold and bone marrow stromal cells in rabbits.
Cells Tissues Organs (Print)
PUBLISHED: 04-13-2011
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The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of maxillary sinus floor elevation by a tissue-engineered bone complex with recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2)-loaded porous calcium phosphate cement (CPC) scaffold and bone marrow stromal cells (bMSCs) in rabbits. bMSCs were cultured and osteogenically induced. The osteoblastic differentiation of expanded bMSCs was detected by alkaline phosphatase activity, and calcium deposits in vitro. Thirty-six rabbits were randomly allocated into week 2, 4 and 8 observation groups. At each time point, 24 maxillary sinus floor elevation surgeries in 12 rabbits were performed bilaterally and randomly implanted by (1) CPC materials alone (group A, n = 6), (2) rhBMP-2/CPC composite materials alone (group B, n = 6), (3) CPC/bMSCs complex (group C, n = 6) and (4) rhBMP-2/CPC/bMSCs complex (group D, n = 6). As for maxillary sinus floor elevation, rhBMP-2-loaded CPC could promote new bone formation as compared to CPC, while addition of bMSCs could further enhance its new bone formation and maturity significantly, as detected by histological findings, and fluorochrome labeling. Our data suggested that rhBMP-2/CPC possessed excellent osteoinductive ability, while combining with bMSCs could further promote new bone formation and maturation in maxillary sinus elevation.
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A novel approach to rescue immune escape in oral squamous cell carcinoma: Combined use of interferon-? and LY294002.
Oncol. Rep.
PUBLISHED: 04-07-2011
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Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I molecules have been found to be downmodulated in many tumors. The antigen-processing machinery (APM) genes, especially transporters associated with antigen processing (TAP)-1 and tapasin play important roles in the processing of class I antigens. In this study, we investigated the expression of TAP-1 and tapasin in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC); the result indicated significant down-regulation in the expression of these genes. Interferon (IFN)-? treatment was applied. After the addition of IFN-?, unexpectedly, the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/AKT signaling pathway was activated, which induced the proliferation of tumor cells. With the combined application of LY294002 (specific inhibitor of AKT signaling) and IFN-?, tumor cell apoptosis was induced and the expression of TAP-1 and tapasin was still up-regulated. Hence, our method is a novel and efficient approach to use IFN-? for rescuing the cells from immunosurveillance.
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LvBMP-2 gene-modified BMSCs combined with calcium phosphate cement scaffolds for the repair of calvarial defects in rats.
J Mater Sci Mater Med
PUBLISHED: 04-04-2011
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The study aims to evaluate the effect of bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) expressing bone morphogenic protein-2 (BMP-2) mediated by lentiviral (Lv) gene transduction combined with calcium phosphate cement (CPC) scaffolds for the repair of critical size calvarial defects in rats. BMSCs derived from Fisher 344 rats were transduced with LvBMP-2 or lentivirus encoding enhanced green fluorescent protein (LvEGFP) in vitro. Obvious osteogenic differentiation of BMSCs in the LvBMP-2 group was demonstrated by alkaline phosphatase staining and alizarin red staining. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay results show that LvBMP-2 gene expression in vitro can last for at least 8 weeks. Gene-transduced or untransduced BMSCs were seeded onto CPC scaffolds to repair rat calvarial defects with a diameter of 5 mm. Scanning electron microscope analysis indicated that porous CPC scaffolds facilitated initial adhesion and spreading of BMSCs onto its surface. Calvarial defects were successfully repaired with LvBMP-2-transduced BMSCs/CPC constructs 8 weeks postoperatively. The percentage of new bone formation in the LvBMP-2 group was significantly higher than in other control groups. Lentiviral mediated BMP-2 gene therapy together with CPC scaffolds can be used successfully in calvarial repair and bone regeneration.
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HH/GLI signalling as a new therapeutic target for patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma.
Oral Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 03-13-2011
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Aberrant activation of HH/GLI has recently been reported in multiple cancer types, yet its role in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) has not been investigated. In this study, we aimed to determine the role of HH/GLI in OSCC. Expression of GLI1 and GLI2 was examined in OSCC samples from 136 patients by immunohistochemistry and correlated with clinicopathology parameters and clinical outcomes of the patients. Two HH/GLI specific small molecule inhibitors cyclopamine and GANT61, were used to test the potential role of HH/GLI in OSCC. We found that GLI2, one of the main transcriptional activators of HH/GLI signalling, was expressed in 60 (44%) of the 136 OSCC samples and the expression was significantly associated with poor clinical outcomes. Only 44% of the patients whose tumours expressed GLI2 survived at 5years after surgery compared to 77% of those whose tumours lacked the GLI2 expression (P<0.0001). Both cyclopamine and GANT61 effectively inhibited GLI expression, slowed cell growth, promoted G1 arrest, increased apoptosis and inhibited migration of OSCC cells. Our results demonstrate that activation of HH/GLI pathway plays an important role in OSCC progression. Together with the finding that expression of GLI2 is strongly associated with a poor clinic outcome of OSCC patients, the data suggest that a subset of OSCC patients may benefit from anti-HH/GLI therapies.
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Subsequent chemotherapy reverses acquired tyrosine kinase inhibitor resistance and restores response to tyrosine kinase inhibitor in advanced non-small-cell lung cancer.
BMC Cancer
PUBLISHED: 03-02-2011
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Patients with advanced or metastatic non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) can develop acquired resistance to epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) erlotinib and gefitinib. Here, we report the successful treatment with alternating chemotherapy and TKIs of two cases of advanced NSCLC who developed resistance to TKI.
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Sciatic nerve regeneration in rats by a promising electrospun collagen/poly(?-caprolactone) nerve conduit with tailored degradation rate.
BMC Neurosci
PUBLISHED: 02-26-2011
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To cope with the limitations faced by autograft acquisitions particularly for multiple nerve injuries, artificial nerve conduit has been introduced by researchers as a substitute for autologous nerve graft for the easy specification and availability for mass production. In order to best mimic the structures and components of autologous nerve, great efforts have been made to improve the designation of nerve conduits either from materials or fabrication techniques. Electrospinning is an easy and versatile technique that has recently been used to fabricate fibrous tissue-engineered scaffolds which have great similarity to the extracellular matrix on fiber structure.
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Long-term outcome of cryopreserved bone-derived osteoblasts for bone regeneration in vivo.
Biomaterials
PUBLISHED: 02-20-2011
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Cryopreserved bone-derived osteoblasts (CBOs) have been considered as a promising cell source for bone regeneration. Previous studies have demonstrated that CBOs had good proliferation and osteogenicity. However, the long-term outcome of CBOs in vivo still remains unknown. In this experiment, we applied CBOs combined with calcium phosphate cement (CPC) to augment maxillary sinus in canine, computer tomography, polychrome labeling, biomechanical tests, fluorescent immunohistochemistry staining and histological analysis were used to analyze the property and mineralization process of the tissue-engineered bone preclinical application. Our results showed that CBOs combined with CPC could promote bone regeneration, dramatically maintain the height, volume and biomechanical property of augmented maxillary sinus. Furthermore, the tissue-engineered bone was more mature than scaffold alone or autogenous bone, and bone formation and remodeling were still apparent 20 months postoperatively. Additionally, 4 months after surgery might be the suitable time point for implants placement in the regenerated bone. These results also indicate that cryopreserved bone may be a potential source of osteoblasts for maxillary sinus augmentation.
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Does radiation-induced fibrosis have an important role in pathophysiology of the osteoradionecrosis of jaw?
Med. Hypotheses
PUBLISHED: 02-18-2011
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Osteoradionecrosis of the mandible is a serious complication following radiation therapy with or without surgical intervention for malignancies of the head and neck. The acknowledged clinical presentation of osteoradionecrosis is pain, fistulae of mucosa or skin, complete devitalization of bone and pathological fractures. Radiation-induced fibrosis is an irreversible pathological process, which leads to damages in lung, skin, intestine, and pelvic cavity after radiotherapy. Studies have proved that radiation-induced fibrosis is involved in the pathological onset, development, maintenance of osteoradionecrosis and there is dose-effect relationship between them, so the authors hypothesize that radiation-induced fibrosis plays an important role in osteoradionecrosis. Studies need to perform to look for more efficient methods of managing and preventing the osteoradionecrosis.
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IFN-? enhances the anti-tumour immune response of dendritic cells against oral squamous cell carcinoma.
Arch. Oral Biol.
PUBLISHED: 01-29-2011
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To investigate the expression of antigen processing-1 (Tap-1) and Tapasin in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC), and observe the immune response against OSCC by use of IFN-?-antigen induced dendritic cells (DCs) in vitro and in vivo.
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Molecular cloning and characterization of a porcine Fc gamma RIIb sub-isoform(Fc?RIIb1).
Vet. Immunol. Immunopathol.
PUBLISHED: 01-28-2011
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Receptors for the Fc fragment of IgG (Fc?Rs) constitute one of the main effector mechanisms through which IgG immune complexes exert their action. Four Fc?Rs, Fc?RI (CD64) with high affinity, Fc?RI with intermediate affinity, Fc?RII (CD32) and Fc?RIII (CD16) with low affinity, have been identified. There are three Fc?RII isoforms (activating Fc?RIIa and Fc?RIIc, and inhibiting Fc?RIIb) existing in humans, one isoform in mice (inhibiting Fc?RIIb), and two isoforms in cattle (inhibiting Fc?RIIb, activating Fc?RIIc). Two splice sub-isoforms of Fc?RIIb, Fc?RIIb1(b1) and Fc?RIIb2(b2), have been identified in humans, mice and cattle, however, few of Fc?RIIb sub-isoforms have been investigated in pig. In this study, we describe the molecular cloning, sequencing and characterization of a porcine Fc?RIIb sub-isoform, Fc?RIIb1. The cDNA encoding porcine Fc?RIIb1 was isolated from peripheral blood leucocytes RNA with RT-PCR. The porcine Fc?RIIb1 cDNA contains a 951bp open-reading frame, encoding a 316 amino acid transmembrane glycoprotein composed of two immunoglobulin (Ig)-like extracellular domains, a transmembrane region and a cytoplasmic tail with an immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibiting motif (ITIM). The porcine Fc?RIIb1 shares 98.3% homology and has a 19 amino acid in-frame insertion in cytoplasmic tail when compared with amino acid sequence of DQ026064. Immunofluorescence analysis showed that the glycoprotein encoded by the porcine Fc?RIIb1 cDNA was expressed in the stable transfected COS-7 cells, and an immunoglobulin-binding assay showed that it had binding activity for IgG immune complexes. Identification of the porcine Fc?RIIb1 will help our understanding of the molecular basis of IgG-Fc?R interaction in the porcine immune response.
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