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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Black Tea Increased Survival of Caenorhabditis elegans under Stress.
J. Agric. Food Chem.
PUBLISHED: 11-05-2014
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The present study examined the effects of black tea (Camellia sinensis) extracts (BTE) in Caenorhabditis elegans under various abiotic stressors. Results showed BTE increased nematode resistance to osmosis, heat, and UV irradiation treatments. However, BTE could not increase nematodes' lifespan under normal culture conditions and MnCl2-induced toxicity at concentrations we used. Further studies showed that BTE decreased reactive oxygen species and up-regulated some antioxidant enzymes, including GSH-PX, and genes, such as gsh-px and sod-3. However, only a slight extension in mev-1 mutants mean lifespan was observed without significance. These results indicated that the antioxidant activity of BTE might be necessary but not sufficient to protect against aging to C. elegans. Moreover, BTE increased the mRNA level of stress-response genes such as sir-2.1 and sek-1. Our finding demonstrated BTE might increase heat and UV stress resistance in a sir.2.1-dependent manner. Taken together, BTE enhanced stress resistance with multiple mechanisms in C. elegans.
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[Study on spectral calibration of discrimination of corn variety using near-infrared spectra based on DS algorithm].
Guang Pu Xue Yu Guang Pu Fen Xi
PUBLISHED: 11-01-2014
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From the perspective of calibration, the present paper studies the model stability problem in qualitative analysis of NIR. Aiming at the issue of model failure caused by different data acquisition time, 13 varieties of corn were used as experimental material, and learning from the idea of model calibration transfer between the two instruments in quantitative analysis of NIR, the DS (direct standardization) algorithm was used to calibrate the spectra acquired at different times with the same instrument, that made the varieties identification model established one time able to be applied to identify the test data at different acquisition time. First, transfer set was selected from the master spectrum set by Kennard/Stone algorithm, the corresponding number spectrums in slave spectrum set were selected, and then DS algorithm was applied to transfer set to calculate the transformation function between the two sets of data. Finally, the remaining slave spectrums were transformed so that they could apply to the model. This study does some experiment to discuss the impact of the number of transfer set and the location of calibration on the calibration results. Respectively, the experiment results were analyzed from two aspects, one is the correct discrimination rate in qualitative analysis, and the other is the distribution distance between master spectrums and slave spectrums before and after calibration. The experiment results indicate that this approach is effective to solve the spectra drift produced by sampling over time, can bring higher recognition rate on different sampling time test sets, also improves the robustness and application scope of the identification model, and the experiment results also indicate that the best result can be obtained with calibration locating after feature extraction.
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Association of Indoxyl Sulfate with Heart Failure among Patients on Hemodialysis.
Clin J Am Soc Nephrol
PUBLISHED: 10-22-2014
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Indoxyl sulfate, a protein-bound uremic toxin, may be associated with cardiovascular events and mortality in patients with CKD. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between indoxyl sulfate and heart failure in patients on hemodialysis.
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A free-radical cascade methylation/cyclization of N-arylacrylamides and isocyanides with dicumyl peroxide.
Org. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 10-15-2014
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A free-radical cascade methylation/cyclization of a wide range of N-arylacrylamides and isocyanides is demonstrated by using dicumyl peroxide as the methylating reagent, which provides a convenient and selective access to various methylated N-heterocycles such as oxindoles and phenanthridines.
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Degradation of the Neonicotinoid Insecticide Acetamiprid via the N-Carbamoylimine Derivate (IM-1-2) Mediated by the Nitrile Hydratase of the Nitrogen-Fixing Bacterium Ensifer meliloti CGMCC 7333.
J. Agric. Food Chem.
PUBLISHED: 10-06-2014
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The metabolism of the widely used neonicotinoid insecticide acetamiprid (ACE) has been extensively studied in plants, animals, soils, and microbes. However, hydration of the N-cyanoimine group in ACE to the N-carbamoylimine derivate (IM-1-2) by purified microbes, the enzyme responsible for this biotransformation, and further degradation of IM-1-2 have not been studied. The present study used liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy to determine that the nitrogen-fixing bacterium Ensifer meliloti CGMCC 7333 transforms ACE to IM-1-2. CGMCC 7333 cells degraded 65.1% of ACE in 96 h, with a half-life of 2.6 days. Escherichia coli Rosetta (DE3) overexpressing the nitrile hydratase (NHase) from CGMCC 7333 and purified NHase converted ACE to IM-1-2 with degradation ratios of 97.1% in 100 min and 93.9% in 120 min, respectively. Interestingly, IM-1-2 was not further degraded by CGMCC 7333, whereas it was spontaneously hydrolyzed at the N-carbamoylimine group to the derivate ACE-NH, which was further converted to the derivative ACE-NH2. Then, ACE-NH2 was cleaved to the major metabolite IM-1-4. IM-1-2 showed significantly lower insecticidal activity than ACE against the aphid Aphis craccivora Koch. The present findings will improve the understanding of the environmental fate of ACE and the corresponding enzymatic mechanisms of degradation.
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An association study on the CHRNA5/A3/B4 gene cluster, smoking and psoriasis vulgaris.
Arch. Dermatol. Res.
PUBLISHED: 09-29-2014
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Genome-wide association and large cohort studies have consistently linked several single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) located in the CHRNA5/A3/B4 gene cluster to smoking behaviors and nicotine dependence. Smoking is one of the well-established environmental risk factors for psoriasis and also associated with severity of the disease. Then we conduct the study to examine whether the genetic variations related to smoking behavior located in the CHRNA5/A3/B4 gene cluster also predict the risk of psoriasis vulgaris (PV). The investigations may help explain the mechanisms of the smoking-PV relationship. This is a hospital base case-control study including 634 subjects (329 PV patients and 305 controls), all Chinese Han population. 8 SNPs were selected based on findings from recent studies on smoking and nicotine dependence, all located in the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subunits CHRNA5/A3/B4 gene cluster. The variants were typed by SNaPshot Multiplex Kit (Applied Biosystems Co., USA). We confirmed that smoking, alcohol consumption and higher body mass index (BMI ?25) were risk factors for PV. However, none of the selected SNPs was associated with PV risk in the overall analysis and stratification analysis. And we found no association between the selected SNPs in CHRNA5/A3/B4 gene cluster and the clinical features of PV in case-only analysis. This exploratory study does not provide a relationship between these smoking-related SNPs in the CHRNA5/A3/B4 gene cluster and PV in Chinese Han population.
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[Reflection on the exfoliation of the tunic albuginea after the low-temperature plasma operation].
Lin Chung Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 09-25-2014
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To discuss the potential problems caused by the exfoliation of the tunic albuginea after the low-temperature plasma operation.
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[Anthropogenic VOC emission inventory and contribution from industrial sources in Ningbo].
Huan Jing Ke Xue
PUBLISHED: 09-24-2014
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Ningbo is an important industrial city in eastern China and is also the economic center in the south wing of the Yangtze River Delta (YRD). Recently, the VOC emissions from the local industrial activities and its effects on both the regional air quality and people's health were getting more and more attention. The anthropogenic VOC emission inventory of Ningbo in 2010 was established with collecting comprehensive activity data of anthropogenic sources. Furthermore, the industrial sectors were studied and the significant industries were identified with their contribution quantified. The result shows that the amount of anthropogenic VOC emission in Ningbo in 2010 is 176 kt. Industry, transportation and residential source are the most important VOC anthropogenic sources in Ningbo, which accounted for 62.0%, 17.2% and 15.5% respectively. Synthetic materials manufacturing and refined petroleum products manufacturing are the most important VOC emitting industries, which contributed 18.6% and 13.1% of the total VOC amount respectively, signifying the influence of these two industries to the VOC emissions in Ningbo.
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Norcantharidin enhances TIMP?2 anti?vasculogenic mimicry activity for human gallbladder cancers through downregulating MMP?2 and MT1?MMP.
Int. J. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 09-12-2014
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Vasculogenic mimicry (VM) is a tumor microcirculation pattern in highly aggressive gallbladder cancers (GBCs). We recently reported the anti?VM activity of norcantharidin (NCTD) in highly aggressive GBC?SD cells and xenografts. In this study, we further investigated that NCTD enhanced tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase?2 (TIMP?2) anti?VM activity for GBCs and the underlying mechanisms. In vivo and in vitro experiments were performed to determine the effects of NCTD in combination with TIMP?2 on tumor growth, host survival, VM formation, hemodynamic of GBC?SD xenografts, and VM?like networks and malignant phenotypes of GBC?SD cells. Expression of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)?2 and membrane type 1?MMP (MT1?MMP) among human GBCs, GBC?SD cells and xenografts were determined, respectively. The results showed that expression of MMP?2 and MT1?MMP in human GBCs, GBC?SD cells and xenografts was significantly related to VM in GBCs; a shorter survival time of VM?positive patients with high expression of MMP?2 or MT1?MMP compared to that of the patients with low expression. After treatment with NCTD+TIMP?2, tumor growth, VM formation, VM hemodynamic of the xenografts in vivo were significantly inhibited as compared to control, NCTD or TIMP?2 group, with a prolonged survival time of the xenograft mice (log?rank test, P=0.0115); and these observations were confirmed by VM?like networks by 3?D matrices and showed that proliferation, apoptosis, invasion, migration of GBC?SD cells in vitro were markedly affected. Furthermore, expression of MMP?2 and MT1?MMP in VM formation of the xenografts in vivo and GBC?SD cells in vitro was downregulated as compared to control, NCTD or TIMP?2 group. Thus, we concluded that NCTD enhances TIMP?2 antitumor and anti?VM activities in GBCs through downregulating MMP?2 and MT1?MMP.
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Pharmacokinetic comparisons of benzoylmesaconine in rats using ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry after administration of pure benzoylmesaconine and wutou decoction.
Molecules
PUBLISHED: 09-11-2014
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Wutou decoction is widely used in China because of its therapeutic effect on rheumatoid arthritis. Benzoylmesaconine (BMA), the most abundant component of Wutou decoction, was used as the marker compound for the pharmacokinetic study of Wutou decoction. The aim of the present study was to compare the pharmacokinetics of BMA in rats after oral administration of pure BMA and Wutou decoction. Pure BMA (5 mg/kg) and Wutou decoction (0.54 g/kg, equivalent to 5 mg/kg BMA) were orally administered to rats with blood samples collected over 10 h. Quanti?cation of BMA in rat plasma was achieved using sensitive and validated ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS). Specifically, the half-life (T1/2) and mean residence time values of pure BMA were 228.3 ± 117.0 min and 155.0 ± 33.2 min, respectively, whereas those of BMA in Wutou decoction were decreased to 61.8 ± 35.1 min and 55.8 ± 16.4 min, respectively. The area under the curve (AUC) of BMA after administration of Wutou decoction was significantly decreased (five-fold) compared with that of pure BMA. The results indicate that the elimination of BMA in rats after the administration of Wutou decoction was significantly faster compared with that of pure BMA.
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In Vitro Potential of Lycosin-I as an Alternative Antimicrobial Drug for Treatment of Multidrug-Resistant Acinetobacter baumannii Infections.
Antimicrob. Agents Chemother.
PUBLISHED: 09-08-2014
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The resistance of multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (MDRAB) isolates to most traditional antibiotics results in huge challenges for infection therapy. We investigated the in vitro activities of both l- and d-lycosin-I against MDRAB. These two compounds displayed high antibacterial activities and rapid bactericidal effects against MDRAB. Moreover, the compounds retained their activity even at high salt (Mg(2+) or Ca(2+)) concentrations. These results demonstrate the potential of lycosin-I to be developed as a new antibiotic.
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Inappropriately elevated endothelin-1 plays a role in the pathogenesis of intradialytic hypertension.
Hemodial Int
PUBLISHED: 09-02-2014
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The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of endogenous vasoactive substances on the occurrence of intradialytic hypertension (IDH) in patients during maintenance hemodialysis. Thirty-four maintenance hemodialysis patients were enrolled in this trial, and 17 of them were diagnosed with IDH (defined as an increase in blood pressure of at least 10?mmHg during or immediately after a hemodialysis session), while 17 age-matched and sex-matched controls without IDH were selected for a retrospective comparison. We collected patients' blood samples before and after a dialysis session and measured the plasma levels of N-terminal fragment brain natriuretic peptide, renin, angiotensin-II, aldosterone (ALD), angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE), endothelin-1 (ET-1), nitric oxide (NO), norepinephrine (NOR), and adrenomedullin. The post-dialysis serum ET-1 concentrations were significantly higher (4.09?±?2.06 vs. 2.75?±?1.34?pg/mL, P?
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Comprehensive proteome quantification reveals NgBR as a new regulator for epithelial-mesenchymal transition of breast tumor cells.
J Proteomics
PUBLISHED: 08-27-2014
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Nogo-B receptor (NgBR) is a type I receptor and specifically binds to ligand Nogo-B. Our previous work has shown that NgBR is highly expressed in human breast invasive ductal carcinoma. Here, comprehensive proteome quantification was performed to examine the alteration of protein expression profile in MDA-MB-231 breast tumor cells after knocking down NgBR using lentivirus-mediated shRNA approach. Among a total of 1771 proteins feasibly quantified, 994 proteins were quantified in two biological replicates with RSD <50%. There are 122 proteins significantly down-regulated in NgBR knockdown MDA-MB-231 breast tumor cells, such as vimentin and S100A4, well-known markers for mesenchymal cells, and CD44, a stemness indicator. The decrease of vimentin, S100A4 and CD44 protein expression levels was further confirmed by Western blot analysis. MDA-MB-231 cells are typical breast invasive ductal carcinoma cells showing mesenchymal phenotype. Cell morphology analysis demonstrates NgBR knockdown in MDA-MB-231 cells results in reversibility of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), which is one of the major mechanisms involved in breast cancer metastasis. Furthermore, we demonstrated that NgBR knockdown in MCF-7 cells significantly prevented the TGF-?-induced EMT process as determined by the morphology change, and staining of E-cadherin intercellular junction as well as the decreased expression of vimentin.
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Entrapping an Ionic Liquid with Nanocarbon: The Formation of a Tailorable and Functional Surface.
Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl.
PUBLISHED: 08-13-2014
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An interface microenvironment between nanocarbon and ionic liquids (ILs) is presented. By an entrapping effect, a few layers of ILs can be finely deposited on the surface of nanocarbon, endowing amazingly tailorable surface properties. The entrapped IL layer, which was believed to be unable to be charred under pyrolysis conditions alone, can be further carbonized to a functional carbon layer. C, B, and N were confirmed to share the same hexagonal ring in the resultant layer, which provides more designable electronic properties.
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Indimicins A-E, Bisindole Alkaloids from the Deep-Sea-Derived Streptomyces sp. SCSIO 03032.
J. Nat. Prod.
PUBLISHED: 07-29-2014
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Five new bisindole alkaloids, indimicins A-E (1-5), bearing a unique 1',3'-dimethyl-2'-hydroindole moiety, were isolated from the marine-derived Streptomyces sp. SCSIO 03032, along with two new compounds, lynamicins F and G (6 and 7). Their planar structures were elucidated by detailed interpretation of their MS and NMR spectroscopic data, and the absolute configurations were determined by X-ray crystallographic analysis (for 1), comparison of CD spectra (for 2-4), and quantum chemical calculations (for 5). Indimicin B (2) exhibited moderate cytotoxic activity toward the MCF-7 cell line.
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Association Between Genetic Polymorphisms in the ADAM33 Gene and Asthma Risk: A Meta-Analysis.
DNA Cell Biol.
PUBLISHED: 07-28-2014
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The aim of this study was to evaluate the associations between the rs3918396 G>A and rs528557 C>G polymorphisms in the disinterring and metalloproteinase domain 33 (ADAM33) gene and asthma risk. We searched CISCOM, CINAHL, Web of Science, PubMed, Google Scholar, EBSCO, Cochrane Library, and CBM databases from inception through August 1st, 2013 without language restrictions. Meta-analysis was performed using the STATA 12.0 software. Crude odds ratios (ORs) with their 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were calculated. Thirteen case-control studies were included with a total of 7104 asthma patients and 8172 healthy controls. Our meta-analysis results revealed that ADAM33 rs528557 C>G polymorphism was associated with an increased risk of asthma (all p<0.05). However, we found no correlation between the ADAM33 rs3918396 G>A polymorphism and asthma risk (all p>0.05). Subgroup analysis by ethnicity indicated that the ADAM33 rs528557 C>G polymorphism might be strongly associated with an increased risk of asthma among both Caucasian and Asian populations (All p<0.05). No significant association was found between the ADAM33 rs3918396 G>A polymorphism and the risk of asthma among the studied ethnicities (All p>0.05). The present meta-analysis suggests that the ADAM33 rs528557 C>G polymorphism may contribute to susceptibility to asthma. Thus, the ADAM33 rs528557 C>G polymorphism may be utilized as a biomarker for early diagnosis of asthma.
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Influence of As2O3 combined with ginsenosides Rg3 on inhibition of lung cancer NCI-H1299 cells and on subsistence of nude mice bearing hepatoma.
Asian Pac J Trop Med
PUBLISHED: 07-10-2014
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To study the effect of arsenic trioxide (As2O3) combined with ginsenosides Rg3 on inhibiting the NCI-H1299 lung cancer cells and subsistence in nude mice bearing hepatoma.
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Combined effects of the BDNF rs6265 (Val66Met) polymorphism and environment risk factors on psoriasis vulgaris.
Mol. Biol. Rep.
PUBLISHED: 07-05-2014
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Smoking, alcohol consumption and higher body mass index (BMI) are well established risk factors for psoriasis and also associated with the clinical traits of the disease. And the genetic influences on these three risk factors indeed exist. Previously studies have demonstrated these risk factors related genetic variants may also play a role in the development of risk factors-related diseases. Then we performed a hospital-based study in order to evaluate the combined effect of the risk factors and their related polymorphism rs6265 in brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) gene on psoriasis vulgaris (PV) risk and clinic traits. The case-control study involved 660 subjects including 345 cases and 315 controls in Chinese Han population. The variant of rs6265 was typed by SNaPshot Multiplex Kit (Applied Biosystems Co., USA). We confirmed that higher BMI (?25), smoking and alcohol consumption were risk factors for PV, and the estimated ORs were 1.63(95 % confidence interval (CI); 1.12-2.37), 2.09(95 % CI; 1.44-3.03) and 1.65(95 % CI; 1.15-2.37) respectively. Genotype and allele distributions did not differ significantly between case and control. However, we found combined effect of rs6265 genotype (GG) and higher BMI (?25) increased risk of PV (OR = 2.09; 95 % CI, 1.02-4.28; P < 0.05; adjusted OR = 3.19; 95 % CI, 1.37-7.45; P < 0.05) and clinically severity of PV (OR = 2.71; 95 % CI, 1.09-6.72; P < 0.05; adjusted OR = 1.25; 95 % CI, 1.10-1.40; P < 0.05). But none such significant combined effect was observed between others genotype (AA and AG) and other risk factors. In conclusions, the combined effect of BDNF rs6265 genotype (GG) and higher BMI may increases the risk and clinical severity of PV in Chinese Han population.
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A free-radical cascade trifluoromethylation/cyclization of N-arylmethacrylamides and enynes with sodium trifluoromethanesulfinate and iodine pentoxide.
Org. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 07-01-2014
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An I(2)O(5)-promoted free-radical cascade trifluoromethylation/cyclization of a broad range of N-arylmethacrylamides and enynes with sodium trifluoromethanesulfinate in aqueous medium has been achieved. This strategy allows highly selective access to a variety of CF(3)-containing oxindoles and pyrrolidines. Electron spin resonance (ESR) studies indicate that atom-transfer processes are involved in this system.
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Iodotrifluoromethylation of alkenes and alkynes with sodium trifluoromethanesulfinate and iodine pentoxide.
Org. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 07-01-2014
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A scalable, selective, and operationally easy iodotrifluoromethylation of a wide range of alkenes and alkynes by using two simple and safe solids, sodium trifluoromethanesulfinate and iodine pentoxide, in aqueous medium has been developed. Mechanistic studies confirm that free-radical processes are involved in this system since the key radical intermediates such as CF(3) and ?-CF(3) alkyl radicals have been clearly detected by spin trapping and electron spin resonance.
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Clinical significance of the low expression of FER1L4 in gastric cancer patients.
Tumour Biol.
PUBLISHED: 05-19-2014
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Long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) is a new class of regulative non-coding RNA, with a length larger than 200 nucleotides. Recent studies found that there are close relations between disregulative lncRNAs and human tumors. However, the clinical significances are largely unknown. In this study, we investigated the lncRNA-Fer-1-like protein 4 (FER1L4) level in gastric cancer tissues and plasma. The FER1L4 level in human tissues and plasma were measured by real-time quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Then, the correlations between the tissue or plasma FER1L4 levels and clinicopathological factors were assessed. A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was constructed for differentiating GC patients from controls. Compared to matched adjacent non-tumorous tissues, FER1L4 expression levels in 91.80 % (56/61) of gastric cancer tissues are significantly decreased. The low FER1L4 level were associated with tumor size (p?
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Gastric juice long noncoding RNA used as a tumor marker for screening gastric cancer.
Cancer
PUBLISHED: 05-09-2014
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Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) play a crucial role in tumorigenesis. However, the value of lncRNAs in the diagnosis of gastric cancer remains unknown. To identify whether lncRNA-AA174084 is a potential marker for the early diagnosis of gastric cancer (GC), the authors investigated its levels in tissues, blood, and gastric juices from patients with various stage of gastric tumorigenesis.
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[Advances in genes and molecular markers of pheochromocytoma].
Zhejiang Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban
PUBLISHED: 05-01-2014
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Pheochromocytoma is a tumor derived from chromaffin tissue in the adrenergic system with excessive secretion of catecholamine.Pheochromocytoma occurs at any age of patients,commonly in 40-60 years,and the incidence is slightly higher in women than in men.In recent years,studies have shown that the mutations of von Hippel-Lindau gene (VHL),rearranged during transfaction gene (RET),neurofibromatosis type 1 gene (NF-1),succinate dehydrogenase gene (SDH),transmembrane protein 127 gene (TMEM127),myelocytomatosis oncogene-associated factor X gene (MAX) are associated with pheochromocytoma.Immunohistochemical studies have revealed that a number of molecular markers,such as telomerase,vascular endothelial growth factor,cyclooxygenase-2,adrenomedullin,plasma chromaffin protein A,signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 are of velue in identification of tumor origin,its biological behaviors and differentiation of pheochromocytoma. This article reviews the newest research progresses in molecular biology of pheochromocytoma.
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Combined effect between CHRNB3-CHRNA6 region gene variant (rs6474412) and smoking in psoriasis vulgaris severity.
Gene
PUBLISHED: 04-22-2014
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Many factors associated with causing psoriasis have been reported, such as the genetic and environmental factors. Smoking is one of the well-established environmental risk factors for psoriasis and also associated with the disease severity. In addition, several studies of psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis have documented gene-environment interactions involving smoking behavior. Although gene polymorphisms on nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subunits CHRNB3-CHRNA6 region gene have been found to correlate with smoking behavior and lung cancer susceptibility in Chinese Han population, the combined effect between the smoking-related genetic variants and smoking behavior on psoriasis vulgaris (PV) has been unreported.
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Hepatitis B virus infection in a cohort of HIV infected blood donors and AIDS patients in Sichuan, China.
J Transl Med
PUBLISHED: 03-15-2014
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Co-infections of HBV and HIV are frequent due to similar routes of transmission. In that transmission through blood is an important route for both HBV and HIV, evaluation of the prevalence of HBV in HIV infected blood donors may be important for transfusion safety. In addition, because the epidemiological characteristics of HBV in HIV infected patients and blood donors may differ from each other, understanding of it could be significant for therapy and prevention of HBV in HIV infected adults. However, data reported on these in Chinese people remains limited.
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Norcantharidin inhibits tumor growth and vasculogenic mimicry of human gallbladder carcinomas by suppression of the PI3-K/MMPs/Ln-5?2 signaling pathway.
BMC Cancer
PUBLISHED: 03-10-2014
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Vasculogenic mimicry (VM) is a novel tumor blood supply in some highly aggressive malignant tumors. Recently, we reported VM existed in gallbladder carcinomas (GBCs) and the formation of the special passage through the activation of the PI3K/MMPs/Ln-5?2 signaling pathway. GBC is a highly aggressive malignant tumor with disappointing treatments and a poor prognosis. Norcantharidin (NCTD) has shown to have multiple antitumor activities against GBCs, etc; however the exact mechanism is not thoroughly elucidated. In this study, we firstly investigated the anti-VM activity of NCTD as a VM inhibitor for GBCs and its underlying mechanisms.
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Blood donor management in china.
Transfus Med Hemother
PUBLISHED: 02-12-2014
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Despite a steady increase in total blood collections and voluntary non-remunerated blood donors, China continues to have many challenges with its blood donation system. The country's donation rate remains low at 9%o, with over 60% of donors being first-time donors. Generally there is a lack of adequate public awareness about blood donation. The conservative donor selection criteria, the relatively long donation interval, and the small donation volume have further limited blood supply. To ensure a sufficient and safe blood supply that meets the increasing clinical need for blood products, there is an urgent need to strengthen the country's blood donor management. This comprehensive effort should include educating and motivating more individuals especially from the rural areas to be involved in blood donation, developing rational and evidence-based selection criteria for donor eligibility, designing a donor follow-up mechanism to encourage more future donations, assessing the current donor testing strategy, improving donor service and care, building regional and national shared donor deferral database, and enhancing the transparency of the blood donation system to gain more trust from the general public. The purpose of the review is to provide an overview of the key process of and challenges with the blood donor management system in China.
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Effect of sevoflurane on tissue permeability of lung ischemia-reperfusion injury in rats.
Asian Pac J Trop Med
PUBLISHED: 02-11-2014
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To investigate the effect of sevoflurane on tissue permeability of lung ischemia-reperfusion injury (LIRI) in rats.
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Protection effect of Xuanfudaizhetang on reflux esophagitis in rats.
Asian Pac J Trop Med
PUBLISHED: 02-11-2014
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To study protection effect of Xuanfudaizhetang on reflux esophagitis in rats.
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Dosimetric benefits of robust treatment planning for intensity modulated proton therapy for base-of-skull cancers.
Pract Radiat Oncol
PUBLISHED: 01-14-2014
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The clinical advantage of intensity modulated proton therapy (IMPT) may be diminished by range and patient setup uncertainties. We evaluated the effectiveness of robust optimization that incorporates uncertainties into the treatment planning optimization algorithm for treatment of base of skull cancers.
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The pharmacokinetic study of sinomenine, paeoniflorin and paeonol in rats after oral administration of a herbal product Qingfu Guanjiesu capsule by HPLC.
Biomed. Chromatogr.
PUBLISHED: 01-06-2014
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An accurate and reliable high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detector (HPLC-DAD) method was developed and validated for determination of sinomenine (SI), paeoniflorin (PF) and paeonol (PA), which was further applied to assess the pharmacokinetics of SI, PF and PA in an anti-arthritic herbal product, Qingfu Guanjieshu (QFGJS) capsule, in rats. Successful separation was achieved with a C18 column and a mobile phase composed of acetonitrile and aqueous phase (containing 0.1% formic acid, adjusted with triethylamine to pH 3.5 ± 0.2). The method was validated with excellent precision, accuracy, recovery and stability in calibration ranges from 0.06 to 11.62 µg/mL for SI, from 0.09 to 35.70 µg/mL for PF, and from 0.15 to 4.53 µg/mL for PA (with r(2) > 0.999 for all three compounds). Our results showed that absorption of PF after administration of QFGJS was similar to that after oral administration of PF alone; the absorption of SI was decreased while the absorption of PA was increased after giving QFGJS orally compared with pure compounds. We may conclude that pharmacokinetic studies of complex herbal products are not only necessary but also feasible by using representative bioactive chemicals as indicators of establishing quality control standards and of determining pharmacokinetic behavior of herbal medicines. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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Continuous passages accelerate the reprogramming of mouse induced pluripotent stem cells.
Cell Reprogram
PUBLISHED: 01-04-2014
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Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) are usually generated by reprogramming somatic cells through transduction with a transcription factor cocktail. However, the low efficiency of this procedure has kept iPSCs away from the study of the clinical application of stem cell biology. Our research shows that continuous passage increases the efficiency of reprogramming. Compared with conventional method of establishment of iPSCs, more embryonic stem cell (ESC)-like clones are generated by continuous passage during early reprogramming. These inchoate clones, indistinguishable from genuine ESC clones, are closer to fully reprogrammed cells compared with those derived from classical iPSC induction, which increased the expression of pluripotent gene markers and the levels of demethylation of Oct4 and Nanog. These results suggested that full reprogramming is a gradual process that does not merely end at the point of the activation of endogenous pluripotency-associated genes. Continuous passage could increase the pluripotency of induced cells and accelerate the process of reprogramming by epigenetic modification. In brief, we have provided an advanced strategy to accelerate the reprogramming and generate more nearly fully reprogrammed iPSCs efficiently and rapidly.
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Efficacy and tolerability of adding coenzyme A 400 U/d capsule to stable statin therapy for the treatment of patients with mixed dyslipidemia: an 8-week, multicenter, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study.
Lipids Health Dis
PUBLISHED: 01-02-2014
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Patients with mixed hyperlipidemia usually are in need of combination therapy to achieve low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and triglyceride (TG) target values for reduction of cardiovascular risk. This study investigated the efficacy and safety of adding a new hypolipidemic agent, coenzyme A (CoA) to stable statin therapy in patients with mixed hyperlipidemia.
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Comparative analysis of autologous blood transfusion and allogeneic blood transfusion in surgical patients.
Int J Clin Exp Med
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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To investigate application effects of autologous blood transfusion and allogeneic blood transfusion in surgically treated patients receiving spine surgery, abdomen surgery and ectopic pregnancy surgery.
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Inhibition of tumor vasculogenic mimicry and prolongation of host survival in highly aggressive gallbladder cancers by norcantharidin via blocking the ephrin type a receptor 2/focal adhesion kinase/paxillin signaling pathway.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Vasculogenic mimicry (VM) is a newly-defined tumor microcirculation pattern in highly aggressive malignant tumors. We recently reported tumor growth and VM formation of gallbladder cancers through the contribution of the ephrin type a receptor 2 (EphA2)/focal adhesion kinase (FAK)/Paxillin signaling pathways. In this study, we further investigated the anti-VM activity of norcantharidin (NCTD) as a VM inhibitor for gallbladder cancers and the underlying mechanisms. In vivo and in vitro experiments to determine the effects of NCTD on tumor growth, host survival, VM formation of GBC-SD nude mouse xenografts, and vasculogenic-like networks, malignant phenotypes i.e., proliferation, apoptosis, invasion and migration of GBC-SD cells. Expression of VM signaling-related markers EphA2, FAK and Paxillin in vivo and in vitro were examined by immunofluorescence, western blotting and real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), respectively. The results showed that after treatment with NCTD, GBC-SD cells were unable to form VM structures when injecting into nude mouse, growth of the xenograft was inhibited and these observations were confirmed by facts that VM formation by three-dimensional (3-D) matrix, proliferation, apoptosis, invasion, migration of GBC-SD cells were affected; and survival time of the xenograft mice was prolonged. Furthermore, expression of EphA2, FAK and Paxillin proteins/mRNAs of the xenografts was downregulated. Thus, we concluded that NCTD has potential anti-VM activity against human gallbladder cancers; one of the underlying mechanisms may be via blocking the EphA2/FAK/Paxillin signaling pathway.
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The novel mitochondrial 16S rRNA 2336T>C mutation is associated with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.
J. Med. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 12-23-2013
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Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is a primary disorder characterised by asymmetric thickening of septum and left ventricular wall, with a prevalence of 0.2% in the general population.
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Free-Radical Cascade Alkylarylation of Alkenes with Simple Alkanes: Highly Efficient Access to Oxindoles via Selective (sp(3))C-H and (sp(2))C-H Bond Functionalization.
Org. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 12-19-2013
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A copper-catalyzed alkylarylation of alkenes with simple alkanes was achieved, which not only provided an efficient method to prepare various alkyl-substituted oxindoles, but also represented a novel strategy for selective sp(3) C-H functionalization/C-C bond formation via a free-radical cascade process. Additionally, selective activation of unactivated (sp(3))C-H and (sp(2))C-H bonds by one single step is achieved in this system, which would also provide a novel strategy for raising efficiency in C-H bond functionalization.
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[Clinical analysis of 29 cases with neuroendocrine neoplasm in the digestive system].
Zhonghua Wei Chang Wai Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 11-27-2013
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To investigate the diagnosis and treatment of neuroendocrine neoplasm (NEN) in the digestive system.
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Morphological changes and germ layer formation in the porcine embryos from days 7-13 of development.
Zygote
PUBLISHED: 11-16-2013
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Summary Morphogenesis and identification of embryonic differentiation in porcine embryos are crucial issues for developmental biology and laboratory animal science. The current paper presents a study on the asynchronous development of hatched porcine embryos from days 7 to 13 post-insemination. Examination of semi-thin sections of the hypoblast showed that it had characteristics similar to those of the mouse anterior visceral endoderm during embryonic disc formation. Also, a cavity appeared in the epiblast, which was similar to a mouse proamniotic cavity. With the gradual disappearance of Raubers layer, the cavity opened and contacted the external environment directly, all of which formed the embryonic disc. To confirm the differentiation characteristics, we performed immunohistochemical analyses and showed that GATA6 was detected clearly in parietal endoderm cells during embryonic disc establishment. OCT4 was expressed in the inner cell mass (ICM) and trophoblast of hatched blastocysts and in the epiblast during formation of the embryonic disc. However, OCT4 showed comparatively decreased expression in the posterior embryonic disc, primitive streak and migrating cells. SOX2 was present in the ICM and epiblast. Therefore, both SOX2 and OCT4 can be used as markers of pluripotent cells in the porcine embryonic disc. At the start of gastrulation, staining revealed VIMENTIN in the posterior of the embryonic disc, primitive streak and in migrating cells that underlay the embryonic disc and was also expressed in epiblast cells located in the anterior primitive streak. Together with serial sections of embryos stained by whole mount immunohistochemistry, the mesoderm differentiation pattern was shown as an ingression movement that took place at the posterior of the embryonic disc and with bilateral migration along the embryonic disc borders.
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Metal-free [3 + 2 + 1]/[2 + 2 + 1] biscyclization: stereospecific construction with concomitant functionalization of indolizin-5(1H)-one.
J. Org. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 11-07-2013
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A metal-free [3 + 2 + 1]/[2 + 2 + 1] biscyclization strategy has been developed for the stereospecific construction with concomitant derivation of biologically significant indolizin-5(1H)-ones from simple and commercial starting materials. The transformations are notable because they can yield five new ? bonds and six stereocenters including a quaternary carbon center in a single operation.
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[Re-optimized technology of protective ileostomy with no need of reversal].
Zhonghua Wei Chang Wai Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 10-26-2013
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To explore the clinical application of aoptimizedtechniquebased onpreviouslyreported protecting stoma with no need forreversal.
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Generation of neural progenitors from induced Bama miniature pig pluripotent cells.
Reproduction
PUBLISHED: 10-17-2013
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Pig pluripotent cells may represent an advantageous experimental tool for developing therapeutic application in the human biomedical field. However, it has previously been proven to be difficult to establish from the early embryo and its pluripotency has not been distinctly documented. In recent years, induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cell technology provides a new method of reprogramming somatic cells to pluripotent state. The generation of iPS cells together with or without certain small molecules has become a routine technique. However, the generation of iPS cells from pig embryonic tissues using viral infections together with small molecules has not been reported. Here, we reported the generation of induced pig pluripotent cells (iPPCs) using the iPS technology in combination with valproic acid (VPA). VPA treatment significantly increased the expression of pluripotent genes and played an important role in early reprogramming. We showed that iPPCs resembled pig epiblast cells in their morphology and pluripotent markers, such as OCT4, NANOG, and SSEA1. It had a normal karyotype and could form embryoid bodies, which express three germ layer markers in vitro. In addition, the iPPCs might directly differentiate into neural progenitors after being induced with the retinoic acid and extracellular matrix. Our study established a reasonable method to generate pig pluripotent cells, which might be a new donor cell source for human neural disease therapy.
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Regulation of anthocyanin biosynthesis in Arabidopsis thaliana red pap1-D cells metabolically programmed by auxins.
Planta
PUBLISHED: 10-12-2013
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Red pap1-D cells of Arabidopsis thaliana have been cloned from production of anthocyanin pigmentation 1-Dominant (pap1-D) plants. The red cells are metabolically programmed to produce high levels of anthocyanins by a WD40-bHLH-MYB complex that is composed of the TTG1, TT8/GL3 and PAP1 transcription factors. Here, we report that indole 3-acetic acid (IAA), naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) and 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) regulate anthocyanin biosynthesis in these red cells. Seven concentrations (0, 0.2, 0.4, 2.2, 9, 18 and 27 ?M) were tested for the three auxins. IAA and 2,4-D at 2.2-27 ?M reduced anthocyanin levels. NAA at 0-0.2 ?M or above 9 ?M also decreased anthocyanin levels, but from 0.4 to 9 ?M, it increased them. HPLC-ESI-MS analysis identified seven cyanin molecules that were produced in red pap1-D cells, and their levels were affected by auxins. The expression levels of ten genes, including six transcription factors (TTG1, EGL3, MYBL2, TT8, GL3 and PAP1) and four pathway genes (PAL1, CHS, DFR and ANS) involved in anthocyanin biosynthesis were analyzed upon various auxin treatments. The resulting data showed that 2,4-D, NAA and IAA control anthocyanin biosynthesis by regulating the expression of TT8, GL3 and PAP1 as well as genes in the anthocyanin biosynthetic pathway, such as DFR and ANS. In addition, the expression of MYBL2, PAL1 and CHS in red pap1-D and wild-type cells differentially respond to the three auxins. Our data demonstrate that the three auxins regulate anthocyanin biosynthesis in metabolically programmed red cells via altering the expression of transcription factor genes and pathway genes.
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Long non-coding RNA expression profile in human gastric cancer and its clinical significances.
J Transl Med
PUBLISHED: 08-24-2013
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Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are prevalently transcribed in the genome yet their potential roles in human cancers are not well understood. The aim of the present study was to determine the lncRNA expression profile in gastric cancer and its potential clinical value.
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[Cell death of THP-1 induced by puried Rv3671c protein of tuberculosis and the detection of TNF-? and IL-1? in Mycobacterium tuberculosis].
Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 08-21-2013
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To assess the response in THP-1 treated with Rv3671c protein in Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tuberculosis).
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Up-regulation of SUMO1 pseudogene 3 (SUMO1P3) in gastric cancer and its clinical association.
Med. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 08-06-2013
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Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) play crucial roles during cancer occurrence and progression. The pseudogene-expressed lncRNA is one major type of lncRNA family. However, their association with cancers is largely unknown. In this study, we focused on small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO) 1 pseudogene 3, SUMO1P3. Gastric cancer tissues and adjacent nontumor tissues were collected from 96 patients with gastric cancer. The SUMO1P3 levels were detected by quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Then, the association between the level of SUMO1P3 in gastric cancer tissues and the clinicopathological features of patients with gastric cancer was further analyzed. A receiver operating characteristic curve was constructed for differentiating patients with gastric cancer from patients with benign gastric diseases. The results showed that SUMO1P3 was significantly up-regulated in gastric cancer tissues compared with paired-adjacent nontumorous tissues (p < 0.01). Its expression level was significantly correlated with tumor size (p = 0.003), differentiation (p = 0.002), lymphatic metastasis (p = 0.001), and invasion (p = 0.039). The area under the ROC curve of SUMO1P3 was up to 0.666. These results indicated, for the first time, that pseudogene-expressed lncRNA SUMO1P3 may be a potential biomarker in the diagnosis of gastric cancer.
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Soy food consumption and lung cancer risk: a meta-analysis using a common measure across studies.
Nutr Cancer
PUBLISHED: 07-18-2013
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A published meta-analysis pooled individual studies by using the study-specific odds ratio (OR) or relative risk (RR) for the highest vs. lowest category of soy or isoflavone intake from each study, but it should be problematic to make comparison between studies/populations for lung cancer risk as the quantiles are so different from different studies/populations. Therefore, we conducted a meta-analysis to explore the association between exposure of estimated daily soy protein intake in grams and lung cancer risk. We extracted ORs or RRs and 95% confidence intervals (CIs), converted them to the estimated ones for daily soy protein intake and pooled them using fixed or random effects models from 11 epidemiologic studies. Overall, the inverse association between daily grams of soy protein intake and risk of lung cancer was borderline statistically significant (OR = 0.98, 95% CI = 0.96 to 1.00); the inverse association was statistically significant in nonsmokers (OR = 0.96; 95% CI = 0.93 to 0.99) and stronger than in smokers (P for difference <0.05). No statistical significance for the associations was observed between genders, the origin of the participants, study design and types of soy intake. This study suggests a borderline reduction in risk of lung cancer with daily soy protein intake in grams, and a significant inverse association in nonsmokers.
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Pneumococcal vaccination programs and the burden of invasive pneumococcal disease in Ontario, Canada, 1995-2011.
Vaccine
PUBLISHED: 07-14-2013
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In 1995, a publicly funded pneumococcal vaccination program for 23-valent polysaccharide vaccine (PPV23) was introduced in Ontario. Conjugate vaccines were authorized in 2001 (PCV7), 2009 (PCV10) and 2010 (PCV13).
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Development of a hydrophilic interaction chromatography-UPLC assay to determine trigonelline in rat plasma and its application in a pharmacokinetic study.
Chin J Nat Med
PUBLISHED: 06-22-2013
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Trigonelline (Tr) is the second most abundant alkaloid in coffee beans. This study developed an assay combining hydrophilic interaction chromatography with ultra performance liquid chromatography (HILIC-UPLC) for the quantification of Tr in rat plasma to determine its pharmacokinetic behavior.
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Transcriptome dynamics of transgene amplification in Chinese hamster ovary cells.
Biotechnol. Bioeng.
PUBLISHED: 05-29-2013
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Dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) system is used to amplify the product gene to multiple copies in Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cells for generating cell lines which produce the recombinant protein at high levels. The physiological changes accompanying the transformation of the non-protein secreting host cells to a high producing cell line is not well characterized. We performed transcriptome analysis on CHO cells undergoing the selection and amplification processes. A host CHO cell line was transfected with a vector containing genes encoding the mouse DHFR (mDHFR) and a recombinant human IgG (hIgG). Clones were isolated following selection and subcloned following amplification. Control cells were transfected with a control plasmid which did not have the hIgG genes. Although methotrexate (MTX) amplification increased the transcript level of the mDHFR gene significantly, its effect on both hIgG heavy and light chain genes was more modest. The subclones appeared to retain the transcriptome signatures of their parental clones, however, their productivity varied among those derived from the same clone. The transcript levels of hIgG transgenes of all subclones fall in a narrower range than the product titer, alluding to the role of many functional attributes, other than transgene transcript, on productivity. We cross examined functional class enrichment during selection and amplification as well as between high and low producers and discerned common features among them. We hypothesize that the role of amplification is not merely increasing transcript levels, but also enriching survivors which have developed the cellular machinery for secreting proteins, leading to an increased frequency of isolating high-producing clones. We put forward the possibility of assembling a hyper-productivity gene set through comparative transcriptome analysis of a wide range of samples. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2013;9999: XX-XX. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
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Stem cells and small molecule screening: haploid embryonic stem cells as a new tool.
Acta Pharmacol. Sin.
PUBLISHED: 05-06-2013
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Stem cells can both self-renew and differentiate into various cell types under certain conditions, which makes them a good model for development and disease studies. Recently, chemical approaches have been widely applied in stem cell biology by promoting stem cell self-renewal, proliferation, differentiation and somatic cell reprogramming using specific small molecules. Conversely, stem cells and their derivatives also provide an efficient and robust platform for small molecule and drug screening. Here, we review the current research and applications of small molecules that modulate stem cell self-renewal and differentiation and improve reprogramming, as well as the applications that use stem cells as a tool for small molecule screening. Moreover, we introduce the recent advance in haploid embryonic stem cells research. Haploid embryonic stem cells maintain haploidy and stable growth over extensive passages, possess the ability to differentiate into all three germ layers in vitro and in vivo, and contribute to the germlines of chimeras when injected into blastocysts. Androgenetic haploid stem cells can also be used in place of sperm to produce fertile progeny after intracytoplasmic injection into mature oocytes. Such characteristics demonstrate that haploid stem cells are a new approach for genetic studies at both the cellular and animal levels and that they are a valuable platform for future small molecule screening.
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The Hsp90 inhibitor SNX-2112, induces apoptosis in multidrug resistant K562/ADR cells through suppression of Akt/NF-?B and disruption of mitochondria-dependent pathways.
Chem. Biol. Interact.
PUBLISHED: 05-03-2013
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Heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) serves as an ATP-dependent molecular chaperone for numerous cell signaling proteins, including many oncogenes and clinically validated cancer targets that are involved in cell proliferation and survival. Recent studies have shown that the Hsp90 inhibitor, SNX-2112, effectively inhibits tumor cell growth and angiogenesis in hematological and solid tumors. However, little is known about the effects of SNX-2112 on leukemias that are resistant to chemotherapy, which is emerging as a major clinical problem. In this study, the effects of SNX-2112 on the multidrug-resistant human chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) K562/ADR cell line were investigated. We observed that SNX-2112 exhibited dose- and time-dependent inhibitory activities against K562/ADR cells. These effects included the induction of apoptosis and secondary necrosis in addition to cell cycle arrest at the G1 and G2 phases. Furthermore, SNX-2112-induced apoptosis was predominantly mediated by the mitochondrial pathway, initiated by the release of cytochrome c and the participation of Bcl-2 family proteins. SNX-2112 also induced the activation of the caspase-3, -8 and -9 cascade and the subsequent cleavage of PARP in K562/ADR cells. Moreover, the inactivation of the Akt and NF-?B signaling pathways may be involved in SNX-2112-induced apoptosis. The expression levels of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and several chaperons related to drug resistance and apoptosis were also shown to be inhibited, including the Grp78 and Hsp90 isoforms, Grp94 and Trap1. Taken together, these results provide a possible molecular mechanism for the anti-cancer effect of SNX-2112 on K562/ADR cells and provide new insights into the future application of SNX-2112 as a therapeutic agent for anti-multidrug-resistant leukemias.
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[Preliminary study of HCT-CI score system for prognosis prediction in elderly patients with acute myeloid leukemia after chemotherapy].
Zhonghua Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 04-20-2013
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To investigate the value of the HCT-CI score in chemotherapy risk assessment and prognosis of elderly patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML).
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Nocardiamides A and B, two cyclohexapeptides from the marine-derived actinomycete Nocardiopsis sp. CNX037.
J. Nat. Prod.
PUBLISHED: 04-15-2013
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Two new cyclic hexapeptides, nocardiamides A (1) and B (2), were isolated from the culture broth of marine-derived actinomycete CNX037 strain that was identified as a Nocardiopsis species. The planar structures of nocardiamides A (1) and B (2) were assigned on the basis of 1D and 2D NMR and HRESIMS spectroscopic analyses. Their absolute configurations were deduced by the advanced Marfeys method and chiral-phase HPLC analysis. The challenge of locating two d- and one l-valine residue in 1 and 2 was accomplished by total synthesis using solid-phase peptide synthetic methods. Both 1 and 2 showed negligible antimicrobial activities against seven indicator strains and exhibited no cytotoxicity against HCT-116.
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Detection of Mycoplasma pneumoniae by colorimetric loop-mediated isothermal amplification.
Acta Microbiol Immunol Hung
PUBLISHED: 03-27-2013
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Mycoplasma pneumoniae (M. pneumoniae) is one of the most important pathogens that cause respiratory tract infection in children and adults. In this study, we describe a rapid and sensitive colorimetric loop mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) method to detect M. pneumoniae. The specificity and sensitivity of this assay were detected with 21 common respiratory pathogens and 39 M. pneumoniae DNA. The sensitivity of LAMP was 100% among 39 M. pneumoniae isolates and the specificity was 100% among 9 members of other Mycoplasma and 12 common respiratory pathogens. The lowest detectable limit (LDL) of this assay was 102 copies, which detected by a series of standard M. pneumoniae DNA. To evaluate the clinical applicability of the LAMP assay, a total of 80 clinical samples were examined by conventional PCR, real-time PCR and the LAMP assays, respectively. The positive rates were 15.0%, 32.5% and 26.3%, respectively. This colorimetric LAMP assay demonstrated a high level of sensitivity comparable with that of conventional PCR for the detection of M. pneumoniae. It is a valuable method for simple, cost-effective and rapid detection of M. pneumoniae in the rural areas and basic clinical of China.
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Monoester-Diterpene Aconitum Alkaloid Metabolism in Human Liver Microsomes: Predominant Role of CYP3A4 and CYP3A5.
Evid Based Complement Alternat Med
PUBLISHED: 03-26-2013
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Aconitum, widely used to treat rheumatoid arthritis for thousands of years, is a toxic herb that can frequently cause fatal cardiac poisoning. Aconitum toxicity could be decreased by properly hydrolyzing diester-diterpene alkaloids into monoester-diterpene alkaloids. Monoester-diterpene alkaloids, including benzoylaconine (BAC), benzoylmesaconine (BMA), and benzoylhypaconine (BHA), are the primary active and toxic constituents of processed Aconitum. Cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes protect the human body by functioning as the defense line that limits the invasion of toxicants. Our purposes were to identify the CYP metabolites of BAC, BMA, and BHA in human liver microsomes and to distinguish which isozymes are responsible for their metabolism through the use of chemical inhibitors, monoclonal antibodies, and cDNA-expressed CYP enzyme. High-resolution mass spectrometry was used to characterize the metabolites. A total of 7, 8, and 9 metabolites were detected for BAC, BMA, and BHA, respectively. The main metabolic pathways were demethylation, dehydrogenation, demethylation-dehydrogenation, hydroxylation and didemethylation, which produced less toxic metabolites by decomposing the group responsible for the toxicity of the parent compound. Taken together, the results of the chemical inhibitors, monoclonal antibodies, and cDNA-expressed CYP enzymes experiments demonstrated that CYP3A4 and CYP3A5 have essential functions in the metabolism of BAC, BMA, and BHA.
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The effects of DNA double-strand breaks on mouse oocyte meiotic maturation.
Cell Cycle
PUBLISHED: 03-21-2013
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Both endogenous and exogenous factors can induce DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) in oocytes, which is a potential risk for human-assisted reproductive technology as well as animal nuclear transfer. Here we used bleomycin (BLM) and laser micro-beam dissection (LMD) to induce DNA DSBs in germinal vesicle (GV) stage oocytes and compared the germinal vesicle breakdown (GVBD) rates and first polar body extrusion (PBE) rates between DNA DSB oocytes and untreated oocytes. Employing live cell imaging and immunofluorescence labeling, we observed the dynamics of DNA fragments during oocyte maturation. We also determined the cyclin B1 expression pattern in oocytes to analyze spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) activity in DNA DSB oocytes. We used parthenogenetic activation to determine if the DNA DSB oocytes could be activated. As a result, we found that the BLM- or LMD-induced DSB oocytes showed lower GVBD rates and took a longer time to undergo GVBD compared with untreated oocytes. PBE was also delayed in DSB oocytes, but once GVBD had occurred, PBE was not affected, even in oocytes with severe DSBs. Compared with control oocytes, the DSB oocytes showed higher SAC activity, as indicated by less Ccnb1-GFP degradation during metaphase I to anaphase I transition. Parthenogenetic activation could activate the metaphase to interphase transition in the DNA DSB mature oocytes, but many oocytes contained multiple pronuclei or numerous micronuclei. These data suggest that DNA damage inhibits or delays the G2/M transition, but once GVBD occurs, DNA-damaged oocytes can complete chromosome separation and polar body extrusion even under a higher SAC activity, causing the formation of numerous micronuclei in early embryos.
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Designer D-form self-assembling peptide nanofiber scaffolds for 3-dimensional cell cultures.
Biomaterials
PUBLISHED: 02-22-2013
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Traditional 2-D cell cultures have many limitations because they do not truly mimic the natural environment. In order to fully understand the in vivo 3-D environment, it is crucial to develop a biomimetic 3-D culture system. Recently progress toward 3-D tissue cell cultures has been gradually made by addressing many critical issues including the microenvironment, gradient diffusion and apoptosis. Here we report a D-form self-assembly peptide system that provides insight into the relationships between nanofiber scaffolds and cell behaviors in 3-D cell cultures. We observed the peptide secondary structures response to ions and confirmed that their participation increases mechanical force rapidly. We also showed the enzymes attachment to nanofibers, investigated scaffolds to form 3-D microenvironment and described a modified protocol for 3-D cell culture D-form self-assembly peptide. Using this protocol, we showed cell behavior in the D-form peptide with high cell viability and low-level cell apoptosis for weeks. Furthermore, we proposed a plausible model for chiral self-assembly peptides in 3-D culture. Our research may further stimulate others to design novel biological materials at single chiral amino acid level, and may broaden the applications of designer D-form self-assembling peptides in clinical and medical nanobiotechnology.
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Synthesis and biological evaluation of 1, 3-dihydroxyxanthone mannich base derivatives as anticholinesterase agents.
Chem Cent J
PUBLISHED: 02-12-2013
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Alzheimers disease (AD), a progressive and degenerative disorder, has become one of the severe problems among the aged population all over the world. To use cholinesterase inhibitor drugs has become the most predominant treatment strategy for AD.
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Identification of a novel endogenous regulatory element in Chinese hamster ovary cells by promoter trap.
J. Biotechnol.
PUBLISHED: 02-07-2013
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The objective of this study was to identify and isolate endogenous promoters in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells using a promoter trap approach. A promoter-less vector harboring a green fluorescent protein (GFP)-hygromycin resistance gene cassette was designed and transfected into CHO cells. Putative promoters were identified by selecting for GFP(+) clones under hygromycin selection. Genomic DNA from these clones was then digested and self-ligated to give rise to a plasmid carrying the putative promoter sequence as well as elements for replication in E. coli. Functional promoter sequences were subsequently identified by screening the recovered plasmids for their ability to drive GFP expression upon re-transfection into CHO cells. One of the fragments isolated through this approach was found to drive gene expression in two different reporter systems. Further dissection of the fragment led to the identification of a 156-bp element that was four-fold more active than the full-length fragment and 66% as active as the SV-40 promoter. Thus, promoter trap represents an effective strategy for identifying endogenous regulatory regions that can potentially be incorporated into expression vectors to augment expression of recombinant biopharmaceuticals.
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Breast Cancer Resistance Protein-Mediated Efflux of Luteolin Glucuronides in HeLa Cells Overexpressing UDP-Glucuronosyltransferase 1A9.
Pharm. Res.
PUBLISHED: 02-04-2013
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UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs) are responsible for the formation of glucuronides of polyphenolic flavonoids. This study investigated the UGT1A9-mediated glucuronidation of luteolin and the kinetics of luteolin glucuronide efflux.
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The Effect of Mitochondrial Calcium Uniporter Opener Spermine on Diazoxide Against Focal Cerebral Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury in Rats.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis
PUBLISHED: 01-22-2013
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BACKGROUND: Recent research has indicated that mitochondrial adenosine triphosphate-sensitive potassium channels play an important role in cerebral protection, which involves in attenuating the calcium of mitochondria. However, the effect of diazoxide on cerebral ischemia-reperfusion and the role of spermine, the agonist of mitochondrial calcium uniporter (MCU), remain unknown. OBJECTIVE: We investigated the effect of MCU opener spermine on diazoxide against focal cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury in rats. METHODS: Adult male Wistar rats were randomly divided into 5 groups: the Sham group, the I/R group, the Dzx + I/R group, the Dzx + Sper + I/R group, and the Sper + I/R group. Rats were exposed to 2-hour ischemia and 24-hour reperfusion. Diazoxide were administrated 30 minutes before ischemia, and spermine were given 10 minutes before reperfusion. Rats in the Sham group did not experience the process of ischemia-reperfusion. After 24-hour reperfusion, rats were given neurological performance tests, overdosed with general anesthesia, and then their brains were excised for infarct volume, pathological changes, and biochemical evaluation and analysis. RESULTS: Rats in the Dzx + I/R group displayed improved neurological deficits and decreased infarct volume and oxidative stress (evidenced by decreased nitric oxide and malondialdehyde but increased antioxidant enzymes [eg, glutathione peroxide and superoxide dismutase]) caused by ischemia-reperfusion. The beneficial effects of diazoxide were significantly attenuated by spermine treatment. Rats in the Sper + I/R group displayed worse neurological deficits, larger infarct volume and more oxidative stress, and less antioxidant enzymes than those in the Dzx + I/R. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggested that diazoxide, which improved neurological deficits and decreased infarct volume and oxidative stress against ischemia-reperfusion injury, is mediated by spermine.
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MicroRNA-195 and microRNA-378 mediate tumor growth suppression by epigenetical regulation in gastric cancer.
Gene
PUBLISHED: 01-17-2013
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The epigenetic regulation of microRNAs is one of several mechanisms underlying carcinogenesis. We found that microRNA-195 (miR-195) and microRNA-378 (miR-378) were significantly down-regulated in gastric cancer tissues and gastric cancer cell lines. The expression of miR-195 and miR-378 in gastric cancer cells was significantly restored by 5-aza-dC, a demethylation reagent. The low expression of miR-195 and miR-378 was closely related to the presence of promoter CpG island methylation. Treatment with miR-195/miR-378 mimics strikingly suppressed the growth of gastric cancer cells whereas promoted the growth of normal gastric epithelial cells. In contrast, administration of miR-195/miR-378 inhibitors significantly prevented the growth of normal gastric epithelial cells. Expression of cyclin-dependent kinase 6 and vascular endothelial growth factor was down-regulated by exogenous miR-195 and miR-378, respectively. In conclusion, miR-195 and miR-378 are abnormally expressed and epigenetically regulated in gastric cancer cell lines and tissues via the suppression of CDK6 and VEGF signaling, suggesting that miR-195 and miR-378 have tumor suppressor properties in gastric cancer.
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Acrylamide biodegradation ability and plant growth-promoting properties of Variovorax boronicumulans CGMCC 4969.
Biodegradation
PUBLISHED: 01-16-2013
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Species of the genus Variovorax are often isolated from nitrile or amide-containing organic compound-contaminated soil. However, there have been few biological characterizations of Variovorax and their contaminant-degrading enzymes. Previously, we reported a new soil isolate, Variovorax boronicumulans CGMCC 4969, and its nitrile hydratase that transforms the neonicotinoid insecticide thiacloprid into an amide metabolite. In this study, we showed that CGMCC 4969 is able to degrade acrylamide, a neurotoxicant and carcinogen in animals, during cell growth in a mineral salt medium as well as in its resting state. Resting cells rapidly hydrolyzed 600 mg/L acrylamide to acrylic acid with a half-life of 2.5 min. In in vitro tests, CGMCC 4969 showed plant growth-promoting properties; it produced a siderophore, ammonia, hydrogen cyanide, and the phytohormone salicylic acid. Interestingly, in soil inoculated with this strain, 200 mg/L acrylamide was completely degraded in 4 days. Gene cloning and overexpression in the Escherichia coli strain Rosetta (DE3) pLysS resulted in the production of an aliphatic amidase of 345 amino acids that hydrolyzed acrylamide into acrylic acid. The amidase contained a conserved catalytic triad, Glu59, Lys 134, and Cys166, and an "MRHGDISSS" amino acid sequence at the N-terminal region. Variovorax boronicumulans CGMCC 4969, which is able to use acrylamide for cell growth and rapidly degrade acrylamide in soil, shows promising plant growth-promoting properties. As such, it has the potential to be developed into an effective Bioaugmentation strategy to promote growth of field crops in acrylamide-contaminated soil.
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Pharmacokinetic characterization of oxymatrine and matrine in rats after oral administration of radix Sophorae tonkinensis extract and oxymatrine by sensitive and robust UPLC-MS/MS method.
J Pharm Biomed Anal
PUBLISHED: 01-15-2013
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The purpose of this study is to systematically investigate the pharmacokinetic (PK) behaviors of radix Sophorae tonkinensis (S. tonkinensis) using oxymatrine (OMT) and matrine (MT) as the target markers (2 mg/kg OMT and 1.3 mg/kg MT, oral administration). The PK characteristics in radix S. tonkinensis extracts were also compared with those of pure OMT. A fast ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) method was developed. OMT absorption was very fast, and no significant differences were observed (p>0.05) in tmax, CL, and t1/2 for both pure OMT and extracts. Cmax and AUC0?? of pure OMT were significantly higher than those of S. tonkinensis extracts (Cmax, 61.64±6.65 vs. 43.24±10.14 ng/mL; AUC, 9894.48±2234.99 vs. 4730.30±3503.8 min ng/mL) (p<0.05). However, the absolute OMT bioavailability of pure OMT was higher than that of the compound in radix S. tonkinensis extracts (6.79±2.52% vs. 1.87±2.66%). By contrast, the bioavailability of total alkaloids (OMT+MT) after pure OMT administration was 81.14±8.83%, similar to that of radix S. tonkinensis extracts (69.36±17.37%) (p>0.05). It was presumed that OMT absorption has no effect on the bioavailability of the two alkaloids. Other constituents in radix S. tonkinensis extracts can influence the transformation of OMT to MT, which directly leads to variations in the PK behavior of OMT. In addition, the protein binding of OMT and MT in plasma was very low (4.80%-8.95% for OMT, 5.10-10.55% for MT). In conclusion, OMT in radix S. tonkinensis extracts exhibits different PK behaviors with pure OMT through the transformation of OMT to MT due to other complex ingredients.
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Hedgehog signaling acts with the temporal cascade to promote neuroblast cell cycle exit.
PLoS Biol.
PUBLISHED: 01-14-2013
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In Drosophila postembryonic neuroblasts, transition in gene expression programs of a cascade of transcription factors (also known as the temporal series) acts together with the asymmetric division machinery to generate diverse neurons with distinct identities and regulate the end of neuroblast proliferation. However, the underlying mechanism of how this "temporal series" acts during development remains unclear. Here, we show that Hh signaling in the postembryonic brain is temporally regulated; excess (earlier onset of) Hh signaling causes premature neuroblast cell cycle exit and under-proliferation, whereas loss of Hh signaling causes delayed cell cycle exit and excess proliferation. Moreover, the Hh pathway functions downstream of Castor but upstream of Grainyhead, two components of the temporal series, to schedule neuroblast cell cycle exit. Interestingly, hh is likely a target of Castor. Hence, Hh signaling provides a link between the temporal series and the asymmetric division machinery in scheduling the end of neurogenesis.
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Enhancement of auranofin-induced apoptosis in MCF-7 human breast cells by selenocystine, a synergistic inhibitor of thioredoxin reductase.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-14-2013
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Thioredoxin system plays an important role in regulation of intracellular redox balance and various signaling pathways. Thioredoxin reductase (TrxR) is overexpressed in many cancer cells and has been identified as a potential target of anticancer drugs. Auranofin (AF) is potent TrxR inhibitor with novel in vitro and in vivo anticancer activities. Selenocystine (SeC) is a nutritionally available selenoamino acid with selective anticancer effects through induction of apoptosis. In the present study, we demonstrated the synergistic effects and the underlying molecular mechanisms of SeC in combination with AF on MCF-7 human breast cancer cells. The results showed that SeC and AF synergistically inhibited the cancer cell growth through induction of ROS-dependent apoptosis with the involvement of mitochondrial dysfunction. DNA damage-mediated p53 phosphorylation and down-regulation of phosphorylated AKT and ERK also contributed to cell apoptosis. Moreover, we demonstrated the important role of TrxR activity in the synergistic action of SeC and AF. Taken together, our results suggest the strategy to use SeC and AF in combination could be a highly efficient way to achieve anticancer synergism by targeting TrxR.
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Steroid-associated hip joint collapse in bipedal emus.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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In this study we established a bipedal animal model of steroid-associated hip joint collapse in emus for testing potential treatment protocols to be developed for prevention of steroid-associated joint collapse in preclinical settings. Five adult male emus were treated with a steroid-associated osteonecrosis (SAON) induction protocol using combination of pulsed lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and methylprednisolone (MPS). Additional three emus were used as normal control. Post-induction, emu gait was observed, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed, and blood was collected for routine examination, including testing blood coagulation and lipid metabolism. Emus were sacrificed at week 24 post-induction, bilateral femora were collected for micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) and histological analysis. Asymmetric limping gait and abnormal MRI signals were found in steroid-treated emus. SAON was found in all emus with a joint collapse incidence of 70%. The percentage of neutrophils (Neut %) and parameters on lipid metabolism significantly increased after induction. Micro-CT revealed structure deterioration of subchondral trabecular bone. Histomorphometry showed larger fat cell fraction and size, thinning of subchondral plate and cartilage layer, smaller osteoblast perimeter percentage and less blood vessels distributed at collapsed region in SAON group as compared with the normal controls. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) showed poor mineral matrix and more osteo-lacunae outline in the collapsed region in SAON group. The combination of pulsed LPS and MPS developed in the current study was safe and effective to induce SAON and deterioration of subchondral bone in bipedal emus with subsequent femoral head collapse, a typical clinical feature observed in patients under pulsed steroid treatment. In conclusion, bipedal emus could be used as an effective preclinical experimental model to evaluate potential treatment protocols to be developed for prevention of ON-induced hip joint collapse in patients.
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.