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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Diagnostic and post-treatment CT appearance of biopsy proven mixed cryptococcus and candida cholangitis.
J Xray Sci Technol
PUBLISHED: 11-20-2014
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Cryptococcus neoformans and Candida are common opportunistic pathogens of human. There is very limited literature on Cryptococcus neoformans cholangitis or Candida cholangitis in immunocompetent patient while mixed Cryptococcus neoformans and Candida cholangitis has not been reported in the literature ever before. We hereby report the imaging findings of a case of mixed Cryptococcus neoformans and Candida cholangitis in an immunocompetent boy. The CT features included nodules in the cystic duct and common bile duct, dilatation of the intra- and extrahepatic bile ducts with mural thickening, irregular hypodense mass-like lesion extending along the bile ducts from the liver hilum to the periphery which was confirmed by the presence of enlarged and confluent lymph nodes. CT characteristics can contribute to timely diagnosis and treatment of this disease.
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A simple and convenient approach for preparing core-shell-like silica@nickel species nanoparticles: highly efficient and stable catalyst for the dehydrogenation of 1,2-cyclohexanediol to catechol.
Dalton Trans
PUBLISHED: 11-20-2014
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A simple and convenient approach denoted as gel-deposition-precipitation (G-D-P) for the preparation of core-shell-like silica@nickel species nanoparticles was studied systematically. Core-shell-like silica@nickel species nanoparticles consisted of a Si-rich core and a Ni-rich shell. The G-D-P process included two steps: one was the deposition-precipitation of nickel over the gelled colloidal silica particle, generating core-shell-like silica@nickel species nanoparticles, and the other was the aging period. It was found that the nickel phyllosilicate layer was formed mainly during the aging period and served as the protective cover to resist against aggregation of the nanoparticles, which could be utilized for regulating the dispersion of nickel over the silica@nickel species nanoparticles. In the present paper, the silica@nickel species nanoparticles were used as the catalysts for preparing catechol via dehydrogenation of 1,2-cyclohexanediol. Their catalytic activity and long-term stability were compared to those of a catalyst prepared by a conventional deposition-precipitation (D-P) approach. The higher activity and better stability of the title reaction over the silica@nickel species nanoparticles catalyst prepared by G-D-P than those over the catalyst prepared by D-P could be due to the higher dispersion of metallic nickel stabilized by the layers of nickel phyllosilicates. Moreover, it was found that the dehydrogenation of 1,2-cyclohexanediol to catechol was a structurally sensitive reaction.
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[A population-based epidemiological survey of neonatal respiratory failure in Huai'an City of Jiangsu Province, in 2010.]
Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 11-20-2014
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To investigate the prevalence, clinical characteristics, treatment, and prognosis of neonatal respiratory failure (NRF) in Huai'an, Jiangsu Province, China, in 2010.
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Biosynthesis of lycosantalonol, a cis-prenyl derived diterpenoid.
J. Am. Chem. Soc.
PUBLISHED: 11-19-2014
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Terpenoid natural products are generally derived from isoprenyl diphosphate precursors with trans double-bond configuration, and no diterpenoid derived from the cisoid precursor (Z,Z,Z)-nerylneryl diphosphate (1) has yet been identified. Here is reported further investigation of a terpenoid biosynthetic gene cluster from tomato, which resulted in identification of a biosynthetic pathway from 1, in a pathway featuring a number of interesting transformations. 1 is first cyclized to a tricyclene core ring structure analogous to that found in ?-santalene, with the resulting diterpene termed here lycosantalene (2). Quantum chemical calculations indicate a role for the diphosphate anion co-product in this cyclization reaction. Subsequently, the internal cis double bond of the neryl side chain in 2 then further transformed to an ?-hydroxy ketone moiety via an epoxide intermediate (3). Oxygen labeling studies indicate 3 undergoes oxidative conversion to lycosantalonol (4). Thus, in addition to elucidating the cisoid origins of 4, this work has further provided mechanistic insight into the interesting transformations required for its production.
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Analysis of all-optical temporal integrator employing phased-shifted DFB-SOA.
Opt Express
PUBLISHED: 11-18-2014
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All-optical temporal integrator using phase-shifted distributed-feedback semiconductor optical amplifier (DFB-SOA) is investigated. The influences of system parameters on its energy transmittance and integration error are explored in detail. The numerical analysis shows that, enhanced energy transmittance and integration time window can be simultaneously achieved by increased injected current in the vicinity of lasing threshold. We find that the range of input pulse-width with lower integration error is highly sensitive to the injected optical power, due to gain saturation and induced detuning deviation mechanism. The initial frequency detuning should also be carefully chosen to suppress the integration deviation with ideal waveform output.
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Thermally adaptive tradeoffs in closely-related marine bacterial strains.
Environ. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 11-08-2014
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Time series studies have shown that some bacterial taxa occur only at specific times of the year while others are ubiquitous in spite of seasonal shifts in environmental variables. Here, we ask if these ubiquitous clades are generalists that grow over a wide range of environmental conditions, or clusters of strain-level environmental specialists. To answer this question, vibrio strains isolated at a coastal time series were phylogenetically and physiologically characterized revealing three dominant strategies within the vibrio: mesophiles, psychrophiles and apparently generalist broad thermal range clades. Thermal performance curves from laboratory growth rate experiments help explain field observations of relative abundances: the mesophilic clade grows optimally at temperatures 16 ?C higher than the psychrophilic clade. Strains in the broad thermal range clade all have similar optimal growth temperatures but also exhibit temperature-related tradeoffs with faster growth rates for warm temperature strains and broader growth ranges for strains from cool temperatures. Moreover, the mechanisms of thermal adaptation apparently differ based on evolutionary time scales: shifts in the temperature of maximal growth occur between deeply branching clades but thermal performance curve shape changes on shorter time scales. Thus, apparently ubiquitous clades are likely not generalists, but contain subclusters with distinct environmental preferences.
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Development of new multifunctional terpolymer sorbent for proteomics applications.
Biomed. Chromatogr.
PUBLISHED: 10-05-2014
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Determination of the availability of phases for specific separations is an important task achieved by a separation chemist. This becomes vital when the complex samples like biofluids are dealt with in proteome science. The work presented here involves the synthesis and application of terpolymeric sorbent with different functionalizations adopted for the selective enrichment of biomolecules of interest from biological fluids. Synthesis of terpolymer was carried out by the radical polymerization of monomers: methyl acrylate, acrylic acid and vinyl acetate with diethylene glycol dimethacrylate as cross-linking agent, benzoyl peroxide as initiator and chloroform as a porogenic solvent. Characterization was done through Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and nitrogen adsorption porosimetry. The polymer was further modified to immobilized metal ion affinity chromatographic material, with immobilized Fe(3+) /La(3+) ions that allowed phosphopeptide enrichment from tryptic digests of standard proteins as well as milk, egg yolk and human serum. Sensitivity of enrichment down to 50 fmol was achieved in the presence of complex protein background as bovine serum albumin. Hydrophobicity was introduced through octadecyl amine, which provides comparable results to ZipTip C18 /C4 for desalting of complex mixtures of all caseins. Analysis of the enriched content was performed by Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization Mass Spectrometry (MALDI-MS). Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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Techniques for Quantifying Phytoplankton Biodiversity.
Ann Rev Mar Sci
PUBLISHED: 09-25-2014
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The biodiversity of phytoplankton is a core measurement of the state and activity of marine ecosystems. In the context of historical approaches, we review recent major advances in the technologies that have enabled deeper characterization of the biodiversity of phytoplankton. In particular, highthroughput sequencing of single loci/genes, genomes, and communities (metagenomics) has revealed exceptional phylogenetic and genomic diversity whose breadth is not fully constrained. Other molecular tools-such as fingerprinting, quantitative polymerase chain reaction, and fluorescence in situ hybridization-have provided additional insight into the dynamics of this diversity in the context of environmental variability. Techniques for characterizing the functional diversity of community structure through targeted or untargeted approaches based on RNA or protein have also greatly advanced. A wide range of techniques is now available for characterizing phytoplankton communities, and these tools will continue to advance through ongoing improvements in both technology and data interpretation. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Marine Science Volume 7 is January 03, 2015. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/catalog/pubdates.aspx for revised estimates.
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Tumor suppressor role of protein 4.1B/DAL-1.
Cell. Mol. Life Sci.
PUBLISHED: 09-03-2014
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Protein 4.1B/DAL-1 is a membrane skeletal protein that belongs to the protein 4.1 family. Protein 4.1B/DAL-1 is localized to sites of cell-cell contact and functions as an adapter protein, linking the plasma membrane to the cytoskeleton or associated cytoplasmic signaling effectors and facilitating their activities in various pathways. Protein 4.1B/DAL-1 is involved in various cytoskeleton-associated processes, such as cell motility and adhesion. Moreover, protein 4.1B/DAL-1 also plays a regulatory role in cell growth, differentiation, and the establishment of epithelial-like cell structures. Protein 4.1B/DAL-1 is normally expressed in multiple human tissues, but loss of its expression or prominent down-regulation of its expression is frequently observed in corresponding tumor tissues and tumor cell lines, suggesting that protein 4.1B/DAL-1 is involved in the molecular pathogenesis of these tumors and acts as a potential tumor suppressor. This review will focus on the structure of protein 4.1B/DAL-1, 4.1B/DAL-1-interacting molecules, 4.1B/DAL-1 inactivation and tumor progression, and anti-tumor activity of the 4.1B/DAL-1.
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Identification and characterization of novel serum microRNA candidates from deep sequencing in cervical cancer patients.
Sci Rep
PUBLISHED: 09-03-2014
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Small non-coding microRNAs (miRNAs) are involved in cancer development and progression, and serum profiles of cervical cancer patients may be useful for identifying novel miRNAs. We performed deep sequencing on serum pools of cervical cancer patients and healthy controls with 3 replicates and constructed a small RNA library. We used MIREAP to predict novel miRNAs and identified 2 putative novel miRNAs between serum pools of cervical cancer patients and healthy controls after filtering out pseudo-pre-miRNAs using Triplet-SVM analysis. The 2 putative novel miRNAs were validated by real time PCR and were significantly decreased in cervical cancer patients compared with healthy controls. One novel miRNA had an area under curve (AUC) of 0.921 (95% CI: 0.883, 0.959) with a sensitivity of 85.7% and a specificity of 88.2% when discriminating between cervical cancer patients and healthy controls. Our results suggest that characterizing serum profiles of cervical cancers by Solexa sequencing may be a good method for identifying novel miRNAs and that the validated novel miRNAs described here may be cervical cancer-associated biomarkers.
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Multimodal nonlinear optical microscopic imaging provides new insights into acetowhitening mechanisms in live mammalian cells without labeling.
Biomed Opt Express
PUBLISHED: 09-01-2014
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We developed a multimodal nonlinear optical microscopy imaging (e.g., third-harmonic generation (THG) and two-photon excited fluorescence (TPEF)) platform based on a femtosecond laser pumped photonic crystal fiber to investigate the acetowhitening phenomenon induced by acetic acid in live mammalian cells without labeling. After treated by acetic acid with concentrations of higher than 0.2%, THG images show that light scattering is remarkably increased inside the nucleus and cytoplasm in cells. Co-localized TPEF and THG imaging on tryptophan and NADH in cells indicates that the change of scattering property is largely originating from the morphological change of metabolic proteins induced by acetic acids. Further TPEF imaging on NADH and FAD in cells confirms that this change is irreversible when acetic acid concentration is higher than 1.2%. These subcellular-level THG/TPEF imaging results reveal that the acetowhitening phenomenon is highly related with proteins involved in metabolic pathways in the nucleus and cytoplasm in live cells.
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CT evaluation of gastroenteric neuroendocrine tumors: relationship between ct features and the pathologic classification.
AJR Am J Roentgenol
PUBLISHED: 08-23-2014
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The objective of our study was to compare the CT features of gastroenteric neuroendocrine neoplasms (GE-NENs) with the pathologic classification and to analyze the correlation between the CT features and classification of GE-NENs.
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Berberine and limonin suppress IgE production by human B cells and peripheral blood mononuclear cells from food-allergic patients.
Ann. Allergy Asthma Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 08-21-2014
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Currently, there is no satisfactory treatment for IgE-mediated food allergy. Food Allergy Herbal Formula 2 (FAHF-2) and butanol-purified FAHF-2 (B-FAHF-2) have been shown to protect against peanut-induced anaphylaxis and inhibit IgE synthesis in a murine model.
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[Effects of iron on the algae growth and microcystin synthesis: a review].
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 08-19-2014
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Iron, as one of the essential mineral elements for algae growth, plays an extremely important role in the physiological processes such as plant photosynthesis, respiration, nitrogen fixation, protein and nucleic acid synthesis. In view of the fact that iron in different forms could be absorbed and utilized by algae, the existing forms and circulation approaches in the aquatic environment, the absorption mechanism by algae, and the effects on algae growth and microcystin synthesis were reviewed in this paper. The relevant microcystin synthesis genes and their expression under iron restricted conditions were summarized, and the research directions for harmful algal blooms regulation and control by ferritin genes were suggested. It was hoped to provide the reference for eutrophication remediation technology.
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Revision of the Oriental genus Horniella Raffray (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae, Pselaphinae).
Zootaxa
PUBLISHED: 08-12-2014
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The Oriental pselaphine genus Horniella Raffray, 1905 (tribe Tyrini: subtribe Somatipionina) is redefined and revised. Twenty-five new species are described: H. centralis Yin & Li, sp. n., H. confragosa Yin & Li, sp. n., H. dao Yin & Li, sp. n., H. hongkongensis Yin & Li, sp. n., H. nakhi Yin & Li, sp. n., H. schuelkei Yin & Li, sp. n., H. sichuanica Yin & Li, sp. n., H. simplaria Yin & Li, sp. n., and H. tianmuensis Yin & Li, sp. n. from China, H. himalayica Yin & Li, sp. n. from Nepal and North India, H. asymmetrica Yin & Li, sp. n., H. burckhardti Yin & Li, sp. n., H. intricata Yin & Li, sp. n., H. kaengkrachan Yin & Li, sp. n., H. khaosabap Yin & Li, sp. n., H. loebli Yin & Li, sp. n., H. phuphaman Yin & Li, sp. n., H. prolixo Yin & Li, sp. n., and H. schwendingeri Yin & Li, sp. n. from Thailand, H. philippina Yin & Li, sp. n. from the Philippines, H. awana Yin & Li, sp. n., H. gigas Yin & Li, sp. n., H. pilosa Yin & Li, sp. n., and H. smetanai Yin & Li, sp. n. from Malaysia, and H. cibodas Yin & Li, sp. n. from Indonesia. The two previously described species, H. hirtella Raffray, 1901 (type species) from Sri Lanka and H. falcis Yin & Li, 2010 from China are redescribed, and a lectotype is designated for H. hirtella. Illustrations of habitus and important diagnostic features, an identification key, and distributional maps for all species are provided. Eleven unidentified species represented only by females are left unnamed. Illustrations of the habitus and the genital complex, and label data of these species are given to facilitate future study. All available data indicates that species of Horniella typically inhabit leaf litter of various kinds of forests, and can be most efficiently collected by sifting and use of Winkler-Moczarski extractors. 
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Efficacy of clarithromycin in pityriasis rosea.
J Coll Physicians Surg Pak
PUBLISHED: 08-07-2014
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To determine the efficacy of clarithromycin in the treatment of Pityriasis Rosea (PR).
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[94 km Brillouin distributed optical fiber sensors based on ultra-long fiber ring laser pumping].
Guang Pu Xue Yu Guang Pu Fen Xi
PUBLISHED: 08-07-2014
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A novel optical amplification configuration based on ultra-long fiber laser with a ring cavity was proposed and applied to Brillouin optical time-domain analysis (BOTDA) sensing system, in order to extend the measurement distance significantly. The parameters used in the experiment were optimized, considering the main limitations of the setup, such as depletion, self-phase modulation (SPM) and pump-signal relative intensity noise (RIN) transfer. Through analyzing Brillouin gain spectrum, we demonstrated distributed sensing over 94 km of standard single-mode fiber with 3 meter spatial resolution and strain/temperature accuracy of 28 /1. 4 degree C.
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CFI-rs7356506 is a genetic protective factor for acute anterior uveitis in Chinese patients.
Br J Ophthalmol
PUBLISHED: 07-29-2014
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Complement Factor I (CFI) and the CD46 complement regulator (CD46) play an important role in the complement activation pathways, which is known to affect the development of uveitis. The present study was performed to investigate the association of the CFI and CD46 genes with acute anterior uveitis (AAU).
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Normal mesenteric lymph ameliorates acute kidney injury following lipopolysaccharide challenge in mice.
Ren Fail
PUBLISHED: 07-14-2014
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The kidney is one of the prior damaged organs subjected to severe infection and sepsis shock. Our previous studies have shown that the normal mesenteric lymph (NML) obtained from healthy dogs could alleviate multiple organ injuries following endotoxic shock. In the current study, we further investigated the beneficial effect of NML from healthy mice on acute kidney injury (AKI) induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in mice.
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A novel Bruch's membrane-mimetic electrospun substrate scaffold for human retinal pigment epithelium cells.
Biomaterials
PUBLISHED: 07-10-2014
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Various artificial membranes have been used as scaffolds for retinal pigment epithelium cells (RPE) for monolayer reconstruction, however, long-term cell viability and functionality are still largely unknown. This study aimed to construct an ultrathin porous nanofibrous film to mimic Bruch's membrane, and in particular to investigate human RPE cell responses to the resultant substrates. An ultrathin porous nanofibrous membrane was fabricated by using regenerated wild Antheraea pernyi silk fibroin (RWSF), polycaprolactone (PCL) and gelatin (Gt) and displayed a thickness of 3-5 ?m, with a high porosity and an average fiber diameter of 166 ± 85 nm. Human RPE cells seeded on the RWSF/PCL/Gt membranes showed a higher cell growth rate (p < 0.05), and a typical expression pattern of RPE signature genes, with reduced expression of inflammatory mediators. With long-term cultivation on the substrates, RPE cells exhibited characteristic polygonal morphology and development of apical microvilli. Immunocytochemisty demonstrated RPE-specific expression profiles in cells after 12-weeks of co-culture on RWSF/PCL/Gt membranes. Interestingly, the cells on the RWSF/PCL/Gt membranes functionally secreted polarized PEDF and phagocytosed labeled porcine POS. Furthermore, RWSF/PCL/Gt membranes transplanted subsclerally exhibited excellent biocompatibility without any evidence of inflammation or rejection. In conclusion, we established a novel RWSF-based substrate for growth of RPE cells with excellent cytocompatibility in vitro and biocompatibility in vivo for potential use as a prosthetic Bruch's membrane for RPE transplantation.
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[DC-derived exosomes induce osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells].
Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 07-04-2014
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This study was aimed to investigate the effect of dendritic cell-derived exosome (DCex) on in vitro osteoblast differentiation of human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (hBM-MSC). DCex were harvested from the DC culture supernatants by ultracentrifugation. The morphology of DCex was observed by using transmission electron microscopy and the surface marker expression was detected by flow cytometry. MSCs at passage 3 were used in this study. DCex incorporation into MSCs was observed under a confocal microscope. MSCs were either exposed to DCex (10 µg/ml) or the standard osteogeneic induction condition. The cells cultured in complete medium were served as the control. The expression levels of Runt related transcription factor 2 (Runx2) were detected by real-time and standard PCR. The cellular alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity was also detected. The results showed that the DCex were spherical or oval membrane vesicles with diameters of about 40-100 nm under transmission electron microscope. The DCex expressed surface molecules specific for DCs, including CD83, CD86, CD80, and HLA-DR. After cultured for 7 days, the MSCs treated with DCex highly expressed Runx2 as compared with the control group (P < 0.05). After cultured for 14 days, ALP activity of the DCex-treated MSCs was markedly higher than the control group (P < 0.01), though it was lower than that of MSCs treated with standard inductive agents. It is concluded that DCex can induce MSCs to differentiate into osteoblasts. The detailed investigations are needed to clarify the underlying mechanisms.
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Post-shock Mesenteric Lymph Drainage Ameliorates Cellular Immune Function in Rats Following Hemorrhagic Shock.
Inflammation
PUBLISHED: 07-03-2014
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Disturbance of immunity is an important factor to modulate inflammatory responses after severe shock. Post-shock mesenteric lymph (PSML) return plays an adverse role in multiple organ injuries induced by the hemorrhagic shock, and the inflammatory factors are involved in this process. However, whether the PSML can exacerbate immune dysfunctions that modulate inflammatory response to the hemorrhagic shock remains unknown. In the present study, the effects of PSML drainage on the distribution of T lymphocyte subgroup, the release of inflammatory factors, and apoptosis of thymocytes were investigated; the effect of PSML on the specific parameters of cellular immune function was also determined. Results showed that PSML drainage reduced the increased levels of CD3+, CD3?+?CD4+, CD4?+?CD25+ lymphocytes, IFN-?, and the ratios of CD3?+?CD4+/CD3?+?CD4- in blood of the shocked rats at 3 h after resuscitation; PSML drainage also abolished the decreased IL-4 level and restored the higher ratio of IFN-?/IL-4 to normal levels. Tissue injury, including enlarged intermembrance space and edema with congestion in the medulla, increased apoptotic cells and bax expression, decreased number of cells in the S phase, and bcl-2 expression were observed in the thymus after hemorrhagic shock. PSML drainage reversed these effects. In particular, PSML drainage increased the proliferation index and decreased p53 expression of thymocytes. These results suggest that hyperimmunity occurred at early stages of hemorrhagic shock with resuscitation and that PSML drainage could markedly improve cellular immune function that is responsible for the reduced inflammatory responses.
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Changes in renal tissue proteome induced by mesenteric lymph drainage in rats after hemorrhagic shock with resuscitation.
Shock
PUBLISHED: 07-01-2014
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Kidney injury commonly occurs after hemorrhagic shock. Previous studies have shown that post-hemorrhagic shock mesenteric lymph (PHSML) return negatively affects the kidneys and may induce injury. This study investigates the effect of PHSML drainage on the proteome in renal tissue. A controlled hemorrhagic shock model was established in the shock and shock+drainage groups. After 1 h of hypotension, fluid resuscitation was implemented within 30 min. Meanwhile, PHSML was drained in the shock+drainage group. After 3 h of resuscitation, renal tissue was extracted for proteome analysis using two-dimensional fluorescence difference gel electrophoresis. Differential proteins with intensities that either increased or decreased by 1.5-fold or greater were selected for trypsin digestion and analyzed by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (TOF) mass spectrometry and tandem TOF/TOF mass spectrometry. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to validate the identified partial proteins. Compared with the sham group, hnRNPC and Starp decreased in the shock group, whereas Hadha, Slc25a13, Atp5b, hnRNPC, Starp, Rps3, and actin were downregulated in the shock+drainage group. Meanwhile, Atp5b and actin decreased in the shock+drainage group relative to the shock group. The identified proteins can be classified into different categories, such as cell proliferation (hnRNPC, Strap, and Rps3), energy metabolism (Hadha, Atp5b, and Slc25a13), cell motility, and cytoskeleton (actin). Moreover, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay measurement validated the changed levels of Atp5b and Actg2. Our findings provide a starting point for investigating the functions of differentially expressed proteins in acute kidney injury induced by hemorrhagic shock. These findings hold great potential for the development of therapeutic interventions.
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Genomes and gene expression across light and productivity gradients in eastern subtropical Pacific microbial communities.
ISME J
PUBLISHED: 06-24-2014
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Transitions in community genomic features and biogeochemical processes were examined in surface and subsurface chlorophyll maximum (SCM) microbial communities across a trophic gradient from mesotrophic waters near San Diego, California to the oligotrophic Pacific. Transect end points contrasted in thermocline depth, rates of nitrogen and CO2 uptake, new production and SCM light intensity. Relative to surface waters, bacterial SCM communities displayed greater genetic diversity and enrichment in putative sulfur oxidizers, multiple actinomycetes, low-light-adapted Prochlorococcus and cell-associated viruses. Metagenomic coverage was not correlated with transcriptional activity for several key taxa within Bacteria. Low-light-adapted Prochlorococcus, Synechococcus, and low abundance gamma-proteobacteria enriched in the>3.0-?m size fraction contributed disproportionally to global transcription. The abundance of these groups also correlated with community functions, such as primary production or nitrate uptake. In contrast, many of the most abundant bacterioplankton, including SAR11, SAR86, SAR112 and high-light-adapted Prochlorococcus, exhibited low levels of transcriptional activity and were uncorrelated with rate processes. Eukaryotes such as Haptophytes and non-photosynthetic Aveolates were prevalent in surface samples while Mamielles and Pelagophytes dominated the SCM. Metatranscriptomes generated with ribosomal RNA-depleted mRNA (total mRNA) coupled to in vitro polyadenylation compared with polyA-enriched mRNA revealed a trade-off in detection eukaryotic organelle and eukaryotic nuclear origin transcripts, respectively. Gene expression profiles of SCM eukaryote populations, highly similar in sequence identity to the model pelagophyte Pelagomonas sp. CCMP1756, suggest that pelagophytes are responsible for a majority of nitrate assimilation within the SCM.
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Microwave assisted tandem Heck-Sonogashira reactions of N,N-di-Boc-protected 6-amino-5-iodo-2-methyl pyrimidin-4-ol in an efficient approach to functionalized pyrido[2,3-d]pyrimidines.
Org. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 06-23-2014
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A microwave assisted tandem Heck-Sonogashira cross-coupling reaction between 6-N,N-di-Boc-amino-5-iodo-2-methyl pyrimidin-4-ol and various aryl alkynyl substrates has been developed. This process generates novel 5-enynyl substituted pyrimidines, which can be transformed to novel functionalized pyrido[2,3-d]pyrimidines by way of a silver catalyzed cyclization reaction.
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Genotype-phenotype correlation and mutation spectrum in a large cohort of patients with inherited retinal dystrophy revealed by next-generation sequencing.
Genet. Med.
PUBLISHED: 06-19-2014
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Purpose:Inherited retinal dystrophy (IRD) is a leading cause of blindness worldwide. Because of extreme genetic heterogeneity, the etiology and genotypic spectrum of IRD have not been clearly defined, and there is limited information on genotype-phenotype correlations. The purpose of this study was to elucidate the mutational spectrum and genotype-phenotype correlations of IRD.Methods:We developed a targeted panel of 164 known retinal disease genes, 88 candidate genes, and 32 retina-abundant microRNAs, used for exome sequencing. A total of 179 Chinese families with IRD were recruited.Results:In 99 unrelated patients, a total of 124 mutations in known retinal disease genes were identified, including 79 novel mutations (detection rate, 55.3%). Moreover, novel genotype-phenotype correlations were discovered, and phenotypic trends noted. Three cases are reported, including the identification of AHI1 as a novel candidate gene for nonsyndromic retinitis pigmentosa.Conclusion:This study revealed novel genotype-phenotype correlations, including a novel candidate gene, and identified 124 genetic defects within a cohort with IRD . The identification of novel genotype-phenotype correlations and the spectrum of mutations greatly enhance the current knowledge of IRD phenotypic and genotypic heterogeneity, which will assist both clinical diagnoses and personalized treatments of IRD patients.Genet Med advance online publication 6 November 2014Genetics in Medicine (2014); doi:10.1038/gim.2014.138.
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A recurrent deletion mutation in OPA1 causes autosomal dominant optic atrophy in a Chinese family.
Sci Rep
PUBLISHED: 06-16-2014
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Autosomal dominant optic atrophy (ADOA) is the most frequent form of hereditary optic neuropathy and occurs due to the degeneration of the retinal ganglion cells. To identify the genetic defect in a family with putative ADOA, we performed capture next generation sequencing (CNGS) to screen known retinal disease genes. However, six exons failed to be sequenced by CNGS in optic atrophy 1 gene (OPA1). Sequencing of those exons identified a 4?bp deletion mutation (c.2983-1_2985del) in OPA1. Furthermore, we sequenced the transcripts of OPA1 from the patient skin fibroblasts and found there is six-nucleotide deletion (c.2984-c.2989, AGAAAG). Quantitative-PCR and Western blotting showed that OPA1 mRNA and its protein expression have no obvious difference between patient skin fibroblast and control. The analysis of protein structure by molecular modeling suggests that the mutation may change the structure of OPA1 by formation of an alpha helix protruding into an existing pocket. Taken together, we identified an OPA1 mutation in a family with ADOA by filling the missing CNGS data. We also showed that this mutation affects the structural intactness of OPA1. It provides molecular insights for clinical genetic diagnosis and treatment of optic atrophy.
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New species and new record of Megatyrus Hlavá? & Nomura (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae: Pselaphinae) from Asia.
Zootaxa
PUBLISHED: 06-13-2014
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A new species, Megatyrus femoralis sp. n., is described from the Koshi Zone, East Nepal, with major diagnostic features illustrated. Megatyrus masumotoi Nomura, Sakchoowong & Chanpaisaeng, originally described from southwestern Thailand, is recorded from the Noring Timur Mountain, West Malaysia. The above data extends the known range of Megatyrus about 1,200 km to the west, and 870 km to the south.
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Ultra-long high-sensitivity ?-OTDR for high spatial resolution intrusion detection of pipelines.
Opt Express
PUBLISHED: 06-13-2014
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An ultra-long phase-sensitive optical time domain reflectometry (?-OTDR) that can achieve high-sensitivity intrusion detection over 131.5km fiber with high spatial resolution of 8m is presented, which is the longest ?-OTDR reported to date, to the best of our knowledge. It is found that the combination of distributed Raman amplification with heterodyne detection can extend the sensing distance and enhances the sensitivity substantially, leading to the realization of ultra-long ?-OTDR with high sensitivity and spatial resolution. Furthermore, the feasibility of applying such an ultra-long ?-OTDR to pipeline security monitoring is demonstrated and the features of intrusion signal can be extracted with improved SNR by using the wavelet detrending/denoising method proposed.
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Effects of let-7b and TLX on the proliferation and differentiation of retinal progenitor cells in vitro.
Sci Rep
PUBLISHED: 06-06-2014
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MicroRNAs manifest significant functions in brain neural stem cell (NSC) self-renewal and differentiation through the post-transcriptional regulation of neurogenesis genes. Let-7b is expressed in the mammalian brain and regulates NSC proliferation and differentiation by targeting the nuclear receptor TLX, which is an essential regulator of NSC self-renewal. Whether let-7b and TLX act as important regulators in retinal progenitor cell (RPC) proliferation and differentiation remains unknown. Here, our data show that let-7b and TLX play important roles in controlling RPC fate determination in vitro. Let-7b suppresses TLX expression to negatively regulate RPC proliferation and accelerate the neuronal and glial differentiation of RPCs. The overexpression of let-7b downregulates TLX levels in RPCs, leading to reduced RPC proliferation and increased neuronal and glial differentiation, whereas antisense knockdown of let-7b produces robust TLX expression,enhanced RPC proliferation and decreased differentiation. Moreover, the inhibition of endogenous TLX by small interfering RNA suppresses RPC proliferation and promotes RPC differentiation. Furthermore, overexpression of TLX rescues let-7b-induced proliferation deficiency and weakens the RPC differentiation enhancement caused by let-7b alone. These results suggest that let-7b, by forming a negative feedback loop with TLX, provides a novel model to regulate the proliferation and differentiation of retinal progenitors in vitro.
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A new species of Syndicus (s. str.) Motschulsky (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae, Scydmaeninae) from East China.
Zootaxa
PUBLISHED: 06-06-2014
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Syndicus (s. str.) jaloszynskii Yin and Song, new species is described from Fujian and Zhejiang, East China. All material was collected in rotten woods. The habitus of both sexes, aedeagus, and spermatheca are illustrated. The new species can be readily separated from all known congeners by the strikingly large body size, the structure of aedeagal endophallus, and the form of spermatheca. This is the first species of the nominotypical subgenus of Syndicus known to occur in China.
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Whole exome sequencing reveals genetic predisposition in a large family with retinitis pigmentosa.
Biomed Res Int
PUBLISHED: 05-22-2014
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Next-generation sequencing has become more widely used to reveal genetic defect in monogenic disorders. Retinitis pigmentosa (RP), the leading cause of hereditary blindness worldwide, has been attributed to more than 67 disease-causing genes. Due to the extreme genetic heterogeneity, using general molecular screening alone is inadequate for identifying genetic predispositions in susceptible individuals. In order to identify underlying mutation rapidly, we utilized next-generation sequencing in a four-generation Chinese family with RP. Two affected patients and an unaffected sibling were subjected to whole exome sequencing. Through bioinformatics analysis and direct sequencing confirmation, we identified p.R135W transition in the rhodopsin gene. The mutation was subsequently confirmed to cosegregate with the disease in the family. In this study, our results suggest that whole exome sequencing is a robust method in diagnosing familial hereditary disease.
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Autophagy correlates with maintenance of salivary gland function following radiation.
Sci Rep
PUBLISHED: 05-19-2014
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The current standard of care for head and neck cancer includes surgical resection of the tumor followed by targeted head and neck radiation. This radiotherapy results in a multitude of negative side effects in adjacent normal tissues. Autophagy is a cellular mechanism that could be targeted to ameliorate these side effects based on its role in cellular homeostasis. In this study, we utilized Atg5(f/f);Aqp5-Cre mice which harbor a conditional knockout of Atg5, in salivary acinar cells. These autophagy-deficient mice display increased radiosensitivity. Treatment of wild-type mice with radiation did not robustly induce autophagy following radiotherapy, however, using a model of preserved salivary gland function by IGF-1-treatment prior to irradiation, we demonstrate increased autophagosome formation 6-8?hours following radiation. Additionally, administration of IGF-1 to Atg5(f/f);Aqp5-Cre mice did not preserve physiological function. Thus, autophagy appears to play a beneficial role in salivary glands following radiation and pharmacological induction of autophagy could alleviate the negative side effects associated with therapy for head and neck cancer.
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Dosimetric comparison of intensity modulated and volumetric arc radiation therapy for gastric cancer.
Oncol Lett
PUBLISHED: 05-07-2014
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The aim of the present study was to compare radiotherapy treatment plans for gastric cancer using intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) and single/double-arc volumetric modulated arc therapy (SA/DA-VMAT) delivery techniques. A total of 29 postoperative gastric cancer patients were enrolled in this study and each patient was scheduled 5-field IMRT (5F-IMRT), 7-field IMRT (7F-IMRT), SA-VMAT and DA-VMAT techniques. Dose-volume histogram statistics, conformal index (CI), homogeneity index (HI) and monitor units (MUs) were analyzed to compare treatment plans. The DA-VMAT plans exceeded the other three methods in terms of planning tumor volume dose and organs at risk in the kidneys, but not in the liver. DA-VMAT exhibited a better mean CI (0.87±0.03) and HI (0.10±0.01) than the other techniques. In addition, for the kidneys the dose sparing (V13, V18 and mean kidney dose) was improved by DA-VMAT plans. Similar results were observed for MUs. However, 5F-IMRT showed a marginal advantage in V30 and mean dose in normal liver when compared with DA-VMAT. The results of this study suggest that DA-VMAT provides improved tumor coverage when compared with 5F-IMRT, 7F-IMRT and SA-VMAT; however, DA-VMAT exhibits no advantage in liver protection when compared with 5F-IMRT. Further studies are required to establish differences in treatment outcomes among the four technologies.
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Mesenteric lymph duct ligation after hemorrhagic shock enhances the ATP level and ATPase activity in rat kidneys.
Ren Fail
PUBLISHED: 04-19-2014
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Kidney injury commonly occurs following hemorrhagic shock. This study aims to observe the effects of mesenteric lymph duct ligation (MLDL) on the adenosine triphosphate (ATP) levels and the cell membrane adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase) activity in the kidneys of rats subjected to hemorrhagic shock.
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Clinical value of serum tumor markers CA19-9, CA125 and CA72-4 in the diagnosis of pancreatic carcinoma.
Mol Clin Oncol
PUBLISHED: 03-21-2014
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CA125 and CA72-4 are members of a family of high-molecular weight glycosylated proteins and are commonly considered as biomarkers in the diagnosis of ovarian and gastric cancer, respectively. However, recent studies have revealed that these two markers may be of clinical value in the diagnosis of pancreatic cancer. As the availability of data regarding CA72-4 and CA125 in the diagnosis of pancreatic cancer is limited, the aim of this study was to investigate the clinical value of serum tumor markers CA19-9, CA125 and CA72-4 in the diagnosis of pancreatic carcinoma according to logistic regression analysis and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves and to investigate the correlation of these markers with tumor TNM stage and location. An immunoradiometric assay was used to measure pre-operative serum CA19-9, CA125 and CA72-4 levels in 75 patients with pancreatic carcinoma and 70 patients with benign pancreatic diseases. The concentrations of serum CA19-9, CA125 and CA72-4 in patients with pancreatic carcinoma were found to be significantly higher (P<0.05) compared with those with benign pancreatic diseases. The combined detection of two serum markers (CA19-9 + CA72-4) yielded a ROC value of 0.895 that was significantly higher compared to others (P<0.05) in distinguishing pancreatic cancer from benign pancreatic diseases. At optimal cut-off, the sensitivity and specificity of combined detection (CA19-9 + CA72-4) were 70.6 and 92.8%, respectively. The concentrations of CA125 and CA19-9 in patients with pancreatic adenocarcinoma were found to be significantly higher (P<0.05) compared with those of pancreatic neuroendocrine carcinoma. In conclusion, the combined detection of CA19-9 and CA72-4) may significantly improve the diagnostic specificity and the serum concentrations of CA125 and CA19-9 are correlated with tumor histological type.
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Exogenous normal lymph alleviates lipopolysaccharide-induced acute lung injury through lessening the adhesion molecules.
Acta Cir Bras
PUBLISHED: 03-19-2014
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To evaluate the role of exogenous normal lymph (ENL) on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute lung injury (ALI) in rats.
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Novel product chemistry from mechanistic analysis of ent-copalyl diphosphate synthases from plant hormone biosynthesis.
Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl.
PUBLISHED: 02-28-2014
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An active-site water molecule coordinated by conserved histidine and asparagine residues seems to serve as the catalytic base in all ent-copalyl diphosphate synthases (CPSs). When these residues are substituted by alanine, the mutant CPSs produce stereochemically novel ent-8-hydroxy-CPP. Given the requisite presence of CPSs in all land plants for gibberellin phytohormone biosynthesis, such plasticity presumably underlies the observed extensive diversification of the resulting labdane-related diterpenoids.
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SLC7A14 linked to autosomal recessive retinitis pigmentosa.
Nat Commun
PUBLISHED: 02-26-2014
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Retinitis pigmentosa (RP) is characterized by degeneration of the retinal photoreceptors and is the leading cause of inherited blindness worldwide. Although few genes are known to cause autosomal recessive RP (arRP), a large proportion of disease-causing genes remain to be revealed. Here we report the identification of SLC7A14, a potential cationic transporter, as a novel gene linked to arRP. Using exome sequencing and direct screening of 248 unrelated patients with arRP, we find that mutations in the SLC7A14 gene account for 2% of cases of arRP. We further demonstrate that SLC7A14 is specifically expressed in the photoreceptor layer of the mammalian retina and its expression increases during postnatal retinal development. In zebrafish, downregulation of slc7a14 expression leads to an abnormal eye phenotype and defective light-induced locomotor response. Furthermore, targeted knockout of Slc7a14 in mice results in retinal degeneration with abnormal ERG response. This suggests that SLC7A14 has an important role in retinal development and visual function.
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A new species of Lasinus Sharp (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae: Pselaphinae) from East China.
Zootaxa
PUBLISHED: 02-12-2014
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Lasinus orientalis Yin & Bekchiev, new species, is described from the eastern Chinese provinces of Zhejiang and Jiangxi, with major diagnostic features illustrated. The new species is compared with, and distinguished from related congeners.
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Identification of a novel GJA8 (Cx50) point mutation causes human dominant congenital cataracts.
Sci Rep
PUBLISHED: 01-31-2014
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Hereditary cataracts are clinically and genetically heterogeneous lens diseases that cause a significant proportion of visual impairment and blindness in children. Human cataracts have been linked with mutations in two genes, GJA3 and GJA8, respectively. To identify the causative mutation in a family with hereditary cataracts, family members were screened for mutations by PCR for both genes. Sequencing the coding regions of GJA8, coding for connexin 50, revealed a C > A transversion at nucleotide 264, which caused p.P88T mutation. To dissect the molecular consequences of this mutation, plasmids carrying wild-type and mutant mouse ORFs of Gja8 were generated and ectopically expressed in HEK293 cells and human lens epithelial cells, respectively. The recombinant proteins were assessed by confocal microscopy and Western blotting. The results demonstrate that the molecular consequences of the p.P88T mutation in GJA8 include changes in connexin 50 protein localization patterns, accumulation of mutant protein, and increased cell growth.
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Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumours: correlation between MSCT features and pathological classification.
Eur Radiol
PUBLISHED: 01-28-2014
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We aimed to evaluate the multi-slice computed tomography (MSCT) features of pancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms (P-NENs) and analyse the correlation between the MSCT features and pathological classification of P-NENs.
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Mesenteric lymph reperfusion after superior mesenteric artery occlusion shock exacerbates endotoxin translocation in brain.
Acta Cir Bras
PUBLISHED: 01-22-2014
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To determine the role of mesenteric lymph reperfusion (MLR) on endotoxin translocation in brain to discuss the mechanism of brain injury subjected to superior mesenteric artery occlusion (SMAO) shock.
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To gibberellins and beyond! Surveying the evolution of (di)terpenoid metabolism.
Annu Rev Plant Biol
PUBLISHED: 01-22-2014
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The diterpenoids are classically defined by their composition--four isoprenyl units (20 carbons)--and are generally derived from [E,E,E]-geranylgeranyl diphosphate (GGPP). Such metabolism seems to be ancient and has been extensively diversified, with ?12,000 diterpenoid natural products known. Particularly notable are the gibberellin phytohormones, whose requisite biosynthesis has provided a genetic reservoir that gave rise to not only a large superfamily of ?7,000 diterpenoids but also, to some degree, all plant terpenoid natural products. This review focuses on the diterpenoids, particularly the defining biosynthetic characteristics of the major superfamilies defined by the cyclization and/or rearrangement of GGPP catalyzed by diterpene synthases/cyclases, although it also includes some discussion of the important subsequent elaboration in the few cases where sufficient molecular genetic information is available. It additionally addresses the array of biological activity providing the selective pressures that drive the observed gene family expansion and diversification, along with biosynthetic gene clustering.
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Identification of three novel mutations in the FRMD7 gene for X-linked idiopathic congenital nystagmus.
Sci Rep
PUBLISHED: 01-18-2014
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Idiopathic congenital nystagmus (ICN) consists of involuntary and periodic ocular motility, often with seriously reduced visual acuity. To identify the genetic defects associated with X-linked ICN, we performed PCR-based DNA direct sequencing of two candidate genes, FRMD7 and GPR143, in four families. Mutation analysis led to identification of three novel mutations, p.S260R, p.Q487X, and p.V549Y fsX554, in FRMD7 in three of the recruited families. Results from structural modeling indicated that the p.S260R may potentially disrupt FRMD7 function through loss of a phosphorylation site and/or interference with protein-protein interactions. Both p.Q487X, and p.V549Y fsX554 mutations were predicted to generate nonfunctional truncated proteins. Using a capture next generation sequencing method, we excluded CASK as the responsible gene for the remaining family. Combining sequence analysis and structural modeling, we report three novel mutations in FRMD7 in three independent families with XLICN, and provide molecular insights for future XLICN diagnosis and treatment.
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Paxillin regulates vascular endothelial growth factor A-induced in vitro angiogenesis of human umbilical vein endothelial cells.
Mol Med Rep
PUBLISHED: 01-09-2014
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The purpose of the present study was to investigate the role of paxillin in the vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF?A)?induced adhesion, proliferation, migration and capillary formation of endothelial cells (ECs) in vitro. Human umbilical vein ECs (HUVECs) were used to evaluate these four processes in vitro. The HUVECs were either mock?transfected (control), transfected with scramble small interference RNA (siRNA) or transfected with siRNA specifically targeting paxillin. VEGF?A (20 ng/ml) was used to stimulate angiogenesis. The VEGF?A treatment significantly increased the adhesion, proliferation, migration and tube formation of the HUVECs in the control and scramble siRNA groups, whereas the siRNA?-mediated knockdown of paxillin inhibited these VEGF?A?induced effects. Paxillin is essential for VEGF?A?mediated angiogenesis in ECs and its inhibition may be a potential target for antiangiogenic therapies.
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Comparison of non-canonical PAMs for CRISPR/Cas9-mediated DNA cleavage in human cells.
Sci Rep
PUBLISHED: 01-09-2014
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CRISPR/Cas9-mediated DNA cleavage (CCMDC) is becoming increasingly used for efficient genome engineering. Proto-spacer adjacent motif (PAM) adjacent to target sequence is one of the key components in the design of CCMDC strategies. It has been reported that NAG sequences are the predominant non-canonical PAM for CCMDC at the human EMX locus, but it is not clear whether it is universal at other loci. In the present study, we attempted to use a GFP-reporter system to comprehensively and quantitatively test the efficiency of CCMDC with non-canonical PAMs in human cells. The initial results indicated that the effectiveness of NGA PAM for CCMDC is much higher than that of other 14 PAMs including NAG. Then we further designed another three pairs of NGG, NGA and NAG PAMs at different locations in the GFP gene and investigated the corresponding DNA cleavage efficiency. We observed that one group of NGA PAMs have a relatively higher DNA cleavage efficiency, while the other groups have lower efficiency, compared with the corresponding NAG PAMs. Our study clearly demonstrates that NAG may not be the universally predominant non-canonical PAM for CCMDC in human cells. These findings raise more concerns over off-target effects in CRISPR/Cas9-mediated genome engineering.
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Phosgene-free synthesis of hexamethylene-1,6-diisocyanate by the catalytic decomposition of dimethylhexane-1,6-dicarbamate over zinc-incorporated berlinite (ZnAlPO4).
J. Hazard. Mater.
PUBLISHED: 01-08-2014
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The phosgene-free synthesis of hexamethylene-1,6-diisocyanate (HDI) by the decomposition of dimethylhexane-1,6-dicarbamate (HDU) was carried out on a self-designed fixed-bed catalytic reactor, using zinc-incorporated berlinite (ZnAlPO4) as catalyst, dioctyl phthalate (DOP) as solvent and N2 as carrier gas. Factors influencing the yield of HDI, including the Zn/Al molar ratio, HDU concentration and liquid space velocity (LHSV), were investigated. Under the optimized reaction conditions, i.e., 4.8 wt.% concentration of HDU in DOP, 100ml/min N2 flow rate, 0.09 MPa vacuum, 623K reaction temperature, 1.2h(-1) LHSV and catalyst usage 2.0 g, a 89.4% yield of HDI had been achieved over the ZnAlPO4 (molar ratio Zn/Al=0.04) catalyst. The ZnAlPO4 catalyst was found to exhibit a considerable large on-stream stability and could be repeatedly used in the decomposition of HDU to HDI, after its regeneration.
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Description of Bryantinus gen. n. from Sarawak, and New Distributional Records for Cerochusa cilioceps in Thailand (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae: Pselaphinae).
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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A new genus and species of the subtribe Batrisina from western Sarawak, Bryantinus matangus gen. et sp. n., is described, illustrated, and compared with related taxa. In addition, examination of a small series of batrisine material from Thailand revealed a new country record for Cerochusa cilioceps Yin & Nomura, which was previously known only from the island of Hainan in southern China.
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Pharmacological Activation of the EDA/EDAR Signaling Pathway Restores Salivary Gland Function following Radiation-Induced Damage.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Radiotherapy of head and neck cancers often results in collateral damage to adjacent salivary glands associated with clinically significant hyposalivation and xerostomia. Due to the reduced capacity of salivary glands to regenerate, hyposalivation is treated by substitution with artificial saliva, rather than through functional restoration of the glands. During embryogenesis, the ectodysplasin/ectodysplasin receptor (EDA/EDAR) signaling pathway is a critical element in the development and growth of salivary glands. We have assessed the effects of pharmacological activation of this pathway in a mouse model of radiation-induced salivary gland dysfunction. We report that post-irradiation administration of an EDAR-agonist monoclonal antibody (mAbEDAR1) normalizes function of radiation damaged adult salivary glands as determined by stimulated salivary flow rates. In addition, salivary gland structure and homeostasis is restored to pre-irradiation levels. These results suggest that transient activation of pathways involved in salivary gland development could facilitate regeneration and restoration of function following damage.
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MR Quantification of Total Liver Fat in Patients with Impaired Glucose Tolerance and Healthy Subjects.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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To explore the correlations between liver fat content and clinical index in patients with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and healthy subjects.
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Increased expression of IL-37 in patients with Graves' disease and its contribution to suppression of proinflammatory cytokines production in peripheral blood mononuclear cells.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Interleukin-37 (IL-37), a member of IL-1 family, is primarily an anti-inflammatory cytokine, which reduces systemic and local inflammation. However, the expression and role of IL-37 in Graves' disease (GD) remains unknown. This study aims to measure the levels of serum and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) IL-37 in patients with Graves' disease and to examine its association with disease activity. Furthermore, we investigate the effect of IL-37 on proinflammatory cytokines involved in the pathogenesis of GD.
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A new species of Diartiger Sharp (Staphylinidae, Pselaphinae, Clavigeritae) from the Fengyangshan - Baishanzu Nature Reserve, East China.
Zookeys
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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A new clavigerine pselaphine, Diartiger zhejiangensis Yin & Li, sp. n., from the Fengyangshan - Baishanzu Nature Reserve, southern Zhejiang, is described, illustrated, and compared with congeners. The species is hosted by ants in the genus Lasius. The key to Diartiger species from China is modified to accommodate the new species.
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Distribution and diversity of planktonic fungi in the West Pacific Warm Pool.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Fungi contribute substantially to biogeochemical cycles of terrestrial and marine habitats by decomposing matter and recycling nutrients. Yet, the diversity of their planktonic forms in the open ocean is poorly described. In this study, culture-independent and molecular approaches were applied to investigate fungal diversity and abundance derived from samples collected from a broad swath of the Pacific Warm Pool across major environmental gradients Our results revealed that planktonic fungi were molecularly diverse and their diversity patterns were related to major phytoplankton taxa and various nutrients including nitrate, nitrite, orthophosphate and silicic acid. Over 400 fungal phylotypes were recovered across this region and nearly half of them grouped into two major fungal lineages of Ascomycota and Basidiomycota, whose abundance varied among stations. These results suggest that planktonic fungi are a diverse and integral component of the marine microbial community and should be included in future marine microbial ecosystem models.
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pH-sensitive nanomicelles for controlled and efficient drug delivery to human colorectal carcinoma LoVo cells.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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The triblock copolymers PEG-P(Asp-DIP)-P(Lys-Ca) (PEALCa) of polyethylene glycol (PEG), poly(N-(N',N'-diisopropylaminoethyl) aspartamide) (P(Asp-DIP)), and poly (lysine-cholic acid) (P(Lys-Ca)) were synthesized as a pH-sensitive drug delivery system. In neutral aqueous environment such as physiological environment, PEALCa can self-assemble into stable vesicles with a size around 50-60 nm, avoid uptake by the reticuloendothelial system (RES), and encase the drug in the core. However, the PEALCa micelles disassemble and release drug rapidly in acidic environment that resembles lysosomal compartments.
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'RetinoGenetics': a comprehensive mutation database for genes related to inherited retinal degeneration.
Database (Oxford)
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Inherited retinal degeneration (IRD), a leading cause of human blindness worldwide, is exceptionally heterogeneous with clinical heterogeneity and genetic variety. During the past decades, tremendous efforts have been made to explore the complex heterogeneity, and massive mutations have been identified in different genes underlying IRD with the significant advancement of sequencing technology. In this study, we developed a comprehensive database, 'RetinoGenetics', which contains informative knowledge about all known IRD-related genes and mutations for IRD. 'RetinoGenetics' currently contains 4270 mutations in 186 genes, with detailed information associated with 164 phenotypes from 934 publications and various types of functional annotations. Then extensive annotations were performed to each gene using various resources, including Gene Ontology, KEGG pathways, protein-protein interaction, mutational annotations and gene-disease network. Furthermore, by using the search functions, convenient browsing ways and intuitive graphical displays, 'RetinoGenetics' could serve as a valuable resource for unveiling the genetic basis of IRD. Taken together, 'RetinoGenetics' is an integrative, informative and updatable resource for IRD-related genetic predispositions. Database URL: http://www.retinogenetics.org/.
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Molecular diagnosis of putative Stargardt disease by capture next generation sequencing.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Stargardt Disease (STGD) is the commonest genetic form of juvenile or early adult onset macular degeneration, which is a genetically heterogeneous disease. Molecular diagnosis of STGD remains a challenge in a significant proportion of cases. To address this, seven patients from five putative STGD families were recruited. We performed capture next generation sequencing (CNGS) of the probands and searched for potentially disease-causing genetic variants in previously identified retinal or macular dystrophy genes. Seven disease-causing mutations in ABCA4 and two in PROM1 were identified by CNGS, which provides a confident genetic diagnosis in these five families. We also provided a genetic basis to explain the differences among putative STGD due to various mutations in different genes. Meanwhile, we show for the first time that compound heterozygous mutations in PROM1 gene could cause cone-rod dystrophy. Our findings support the enormous potential of CNGS in putative STGD molecular diagnosis.
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Mesenteric lymph drainage alleviates acute kidney injury induced by hemorrhagic shock without resuscitation.
ScientificWorldJournal
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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This study aimed to investigate the effect of mesenteric lymph drainage on the acute kidney injury induced by hemorrhagic shock without resuscitation. Eighteen male Wistar rats were randomly divided into sham, shock, and drainage groups. The hemorrhagic shock model (40 mmHg, 3 h) was established in shock and drainage groups; mesenteric lymph drainage was performed from 1 h to 3 h of hypotension in the drainage group. The results showed that renal tissue damage occurred; the levels of urea, creatinine, and trypsin in the plasma as well as intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), receptor of advanced glycation end-products (RAGE), tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?), malondialdehyde (MDA), lactic acid (LA), and 2,3-DPG in the renal tissue were increased in the shock group after 3 h of hypotension. Mesenteric lymph drainage lessened the following: renal tissue damage; urea and trypsin concentrations in the plasma; ICAM-1, RAGE, TNF-?, MDA, and LA levels in the renal tissue. By contrast, mesenteric lymph drainage increased the 2,3-DPG level in the renal tissue. These findings indicated that mesenteric lymph drainage could relieve kidney injury caused by sustained hypotension, and its mechanisms involve the decrease in trypsin activity, suppression of inflammation, alleviation of free radical injury, and improvement of energy metabolism.
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R102W mutation in the RS1 gene responsible for retinoschisis and recurrent glaucoma.
Int J Ophthalmol
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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To identify the mutations in RS1 gene associated with typical phenotype of X-linked juvenile retinoschisis (XLRS) and a rare condition of concomitant glaucoma.
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Comprehensive molecular diagnosis of Bardet-Biedl syndrome by high-throughput targeted exome sequencing.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Bardet-Biedl syndrome (BBS) is an autosomal recessive disorder with significant genetic heterogeneity. BBS is linked to mutations in 17 genes, which contain more than 200 coding exons. Currently, BBS is diagnosed by direct DNA sequencing for mutations in these genes, which because of the large genomic screening region is both time-consuming and expensive. In order to develop a practical method for the clinic diagnosis of BBS, we have developed a high-throughput targeted exome sequencing (TES) for genetic diagnosis. Five typical BBS patients were recruited and screened for mutations in a total of 144 known genes responsible for inherited retinal diseases, a hallmark symptom of BBS. The genomic DNA of these patients and their families were subjected to high-throughput DNA re-sequencing. Deep bioinformatics analysis was carried out to filter the massive sequencing data, which were further confirmed through co-segregation analysis. TES successfully revealed mutations in BBS genes in each patient and family member. Six pathological mutations, including five novel mutations, were revealed in the genes BBS2, MKKS, ARL6, MKS1. This study represents the first report of targeted exome sequencing in BBS patients and demonstrates that high-throughput TES is an accurate and rapid method for the genetic diagnosis of BBS.
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An Analysis of Responses to Defibrotide in the Pulmonary Vascular Bed of the Cat.
Am J Ther
PUBLISHED: 12-26-2013
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Defibrotide is a polydisperse mixture of single-stranded oligonucleotides with many pharmacologic properties and multiple actions on the vascular endothelium. Responses to defibrotide and other vasodepressor agents were evaluated in the pulmonary vascular bed of the cat under conditions of controlled pulmonary blood flow and constant left atrial pressure. Lobar arterial pressure was increased to a high steady level with the thromboxane A2 analog U-46619. Under increased-tone conditions, defibrotide caused dose-dependent decreases in lobar arterial pressure without altering systemic arterial and left atrial pressures. Responses to defibrotide were significantly attenuated after the administration of the cyclooxygenase inhibitor sodium meclofenamate. Responses to defibrotide were also significantly attenuated after the administration of both the adenosine 1 and 2 receptor antagonists 8-cyclopentyl-1,3-dimethylxanthine and 8-(3-chlorostyryl)caffeine. Responses to defibrotide were not altered after the administration of the vascular selective adenosine triphosphate-sensitive potassium channel blocker U-37883A, or after the administration of the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor L-N-(1-iminoethyl)-ornithine. These data show that defibrotide has significant vasodepressor activity in the pulmonary vascular bed of the cat. They also suggest that pulmonary vasodilator responses to defibrotide are partially dependent on both the activation of the cyclooxygenase enzyme and adenosine 1 and 2 receptor pathways and independent of the activation of adenosine triphosphate-sensitive potassium channels or the synthesis of nitric oxide in the pulmonary vascular bed of the cat.
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[Comparison of (18)F-FDG PET/CT and enhancement CT in diagnosing regional lymph node metastasis of colorectal cancer].
Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 12-05-2013
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The aim of this study was to compare the diagnostic value of (18)F-FDG PET/CT with contrast CT for regional lymph node metastasis of colorectal cancer.
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[Application exploration of comparative effectiveness research in clinical efficacy optimization of abdominal acupuncture].
Zhongguo Zhen Jiu
PUBLISHED: 12-05-2013
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The concepts and characteristics of comparative effectiveness research (CER) are analyzed to explore its scientific research methodology in clinical efficacy optimization of abdominal acupuncture. The designs of CER focus on patients, which emphasize assessment of comprehensive efficacy in real medical environment instead of simple efficacy in randomized controlled trial (RCT). Its research strategy involves four categories and three subject, covering acquiring, saving and management, comparison and application of clinical evidence, which has practical application value in comprehensive comparison of advantages and efficacy rules of different acupuncture therapies and acupoint prescriptions. By establishing clinical registration system, oversized-sample data could be acquired from different centers to effectively overcome insufficient sample-induced sampling error. It has important value in system summary and optimization of clinical efficacy of abdominal acupuncture. The CER fully illustrates clinical reality of acupuncture-moxibustion and provides strong support of scientific data for optimization of curative effect. It embodies prescription standardization, manipulation normalization and methodization of syndrome differentiation in clinic of abdominal acupuncture, which is expected to achieve evidence-based optimization of treatment prescription and technique in abdominal acupuncture.
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Tetramethylpyrazine induces G0/G1 cell cycle arrest and stimulates mitochondrial-mediated and caspase-dependent apoptosis through modulating ERK/p53 signaling in hepatic stellate cells in vitro.
Apoptosis
PUBLISHED: 10-30-2013
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Activation of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) is a pivotal event in the pathogenesis of liver fibrosis. Pharmacological induction of HSC apoptosis could be a promising strategy for fibrosis regression. Natural product tetramethylpyrazine (TMP) exhibits potent antifibrotic activities in vivo. However, the molecular mechanisms remain to be defined. The present study aimed at investigating the anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic effects of TMP on HSCs and elucidating the underlying mechanisms. Our results demonstrated that TMP had no apparent cytotoxic effects on hepatocytes, but significantly inhibited HSC proliferation and induced cell cycle arrest at the G0/G1 checkpoint. These effects were associated with TMP regulation of cyclin D1, p21, p27 and p53. Furthermore, we found that TMP disrupted mitochondrial functions and led to activation of caspase cascades in HSCs. Mechanistic investigations revealed that TMP selectively blocked the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signaling and activated p53, which was required for TMP induction of caspase-dependent mitochondrial apoptosis in HSCs. Autodock simulations predicted that TMP could directly bind to ERK2 with two hydrogen bonds and low energy score, indicating that ERK2 could be a direct target molecule for TMP within HSCs. Moreover, TMP altered expression of some marker proteins relevant to HSC activation. These data collectively revealed that TMP modulation of ERK/p53 signaling led to mitochondrial-mediated and caspase-dependent apoptosis in HSCs in vitro. These studies provided mechanistic insights into the antifibrotic properties of TMP that may be exploited as a potential option for hepatic fibrosis.
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Hybrid distributed Raman amplification combining random fiber laser based 2nd-order and low-noise LD based 1st-order pumping.
Opt Express
PUBLISHED: 10-24-2013
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A configuration of hybrid distributed Raman amplification (H-DRA), that is formed by incorporating a random fiber laser (RFL) based 2nd-order pump and a low-noise laser-diode (LD) based 1st-order pump, is proposed in this paper. In comparison to conventional bi-directional 1st-order DRA, the effective noise figure (ENF) is found to be lower by amount of 0 to 4 dB due to the RFL-based 2nd-order pump, depending on the on-off gain, while the low-noise 1st-order Raman pump is used for compensating the worsened signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) in the vicinity towards the far end of the fiber and avoiding the potential nonlinear impact induced by excess injection of pump power and suppressing the pump-signal relative intensity noise (RIN) transfer. As a result, the gain distribution can be optimized along ultra-long fiber link, due to combination of the 2nd-order RFL and low-noise 1st-order pumping, making the transmission distance be extended significantly. We utilized such a configuration to achieve ultra-long-distance distributed sensing based on Brillouin optical time-domain analysis (BOTDA). A repeater-less sensing distance record of up to 154.4 km with 5 m spatial resolution and ~ ± 1.4 °C temperature uncertainty is successfully demonstrated.
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Effect of mesenteric lymph duct ligation on gene expression profiles of renal tissue in hemorrhagic shock rats with fluid resuscitation.
Ren Fail
PUBLISHED: 10-21-2013
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Abstract Background: Acute kidney injury (AKI), a common pathological process following hemorrhagic shock, can lead to an internal milieu disorder, which is an important factor of multiple organ failure (MOF). It has been shown that the mesenteric lymph return plays a deleterious effect on MOF induced by hemorrhagic shock. In this study, we investigated the effects of mesenteric lymph duct ligation (MLDL) on gene expression profiles of renal tissue following hemorrhagic shock with fluid resuscitation. Methods: After establishment of hemorrhagic shock model and fluid resuscitation in rats of shock and shock ligation groups, the MLDL was performed in shock ligation group, and only threading under the mesenteric lymph duct in the shock group. Then, the fixed position renal tissue was taken out for homogenate in two groups at 3?h after resuscitation, the total mRNA was extracted, reversely transcribed into cDNAs and marked with Cy3 and Cy5. The cDNAs were subjected for microarray scanning with 12,028 cDNA probes; the differentially expressed genes between two groups were analyzed. Results: In the 5812 valid dates of rat genomes transcription, there were 34 known differentially expressed genes between the two groups, of which 11 genes were up-regulated whereas 23 genes were down-regulated by MLDL. These different expressed genes encoding protein function were mainly involved in signal transduction, transcription regulation, metabolism, transport, cell growth, cell cycle, cell adhesion, cell movement, cellular component, and biological process. Conclusions: The mechanism of MLDL alleviating the AKI aftershock might be associated with up- or down-regulation of the above gene expressions.
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Functional Conservation of the Capacity for ent-Kaurene Biosynthesis and an Associated Operon in Certain Rhizobia.
J. Bacteriol.
PUBLISHED: 10-18-2013
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Bacterial interactions with plants are accompanied by complex signal exchange processes. Previously, the nitrogen-fixing symbiotic (rhizo)bacterium Bradyrhizobium japonicum was found to carry adjacent genes encoding two sequentially acting diterpene cyclases that together transform geranylgeranyl diphosphate to ent-kaurene, the olefin precursor to the gibberellin plant hormones. Species from the three other major genera of rhizobia were found to have homologous terpene synthase genes. Cloning and functional characterization of a representative set of these enzymes confirmed the capacity of each genus to produce ent-kaurene. Moreover, comparison of their genomic context revealed that these diterpene synthases are found in a conserved operon which includes an adjacent isoprenyl diphosphate synthase, shown here to produce the geranylgeranyl diphosphate precursor, providing a critical link to central metabolism. In addition, the rest of the operon consists of enzymatic genes that presumably lead to a more elaborated diterpenoid, although the production of gibberellins was not observed. Nevertheless, it has previously been shown that the operon is selectively expressed during nodulation, and the scattered distribution of the operon via independent horizontal gene transfer within the symbiotic plasmid or genomic island shown here suggests that such diterpenoid production may modulate the interaction of these particular symbionts with their host plants.
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Characterization of CYP76AH4 clarifies phenolic diterpenoid biosynthesis in the Lamiaceae.
Org. Biomol. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 10-10-2013
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Miltiradiene (1) is the precursor of phenolic diterpenoids such as ferruginol (2), requiring aromatization and hydroxylation. While this has been attributed to a single cytochrome P450 (CYP76AH1), characterization of the rosemary ortholog CYP76AH4 led to the discovery that these CYPs simply hydroxylate the facilely oxidized aromatic intermediate abietatriene (3).
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Distributed Raman amplification using ultra-long fiber laser with a ring cavity: characteristics and sensing application.
Opt Express
PUBLISHED: 10-10-2013
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Distributed Raman amplification (DRA) based on ultra-long fiber laser (UL-FL) pumping with a ring cavity is promising for repeaterless transmission and sensing. In this work, the characteristics (including gain, nonlinear impairment and noise figure) for forward and backward pumping of the ring-cavity based DRA scheme are fully investigated. Furthermore, as a typical application of the proposed configuration, ultra-long-distance distributed sensing with Brillouin optical time-domain analysis (BOTDA) over 142.2 km fiber with 5m spatial resolution and ± 1.5 °C temperature uncertainty is achieved, without any repeater. The key point for the significant performance improvement is the system could offer both of uniform gain distribution and considerably suppressed pump-probe relative intensity noise (RIN) transfer, by optimized design of system structure and parameters.
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