Employees often assess whether the social context is favorable for them to speak out, yet little research has investigated how the target's mood might influence the actor's voice behavior. From an affect-as-social-information perspective, we explored such potential effects of the target's mood on the actor's promotive voice in 2 empirical studies. In a scenario-based study with 142 MBA students (Study 1), the target's positive mood was positively associated with the actor's intentions to engage in promotive voice toward that target, mediated by the actor's perceived psychological safety. This mediated relationship was stronger when (a) the quality of the relationship between the actor and the target was poor or (b) the actor had a lower social status than the target. We replicated these results in Study 2, a correlational field study with 572 dyads nested within 142 members of 30 teams, where the actor's promotive voice behaviors (rather than intentions) were measured. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).
Temperature-dependent photoluminescence (TDPL), one of the most effective and powerful optical characterisation methods, is widely used to investigate carrier transport and localized states in semiconductor materials. Resonant excitation and non-resonant excitation are the two primary methods of researching this issue. In this study, the application ranges of the different excitation modes are confirmed by analysing the TDPL characteristics of GaN-based light-emitting diodes. For resonant excitation, the carriers are generated only in the quantum wells, and the TDPL features effectively reflect the intrinsic photoluminescence characteristics within the wells and offer certain advantages in characterising localized states and the quality of the wells. For non-resonant excitation, both the wells and barriers are excited, and the carriers that drift from the barriers can contribute to the luminescence under the driving force of the built-in field, which causes the existing equations to become inapplicable. Thus, non-resonant excitation is more suitable than resonant excitation for studying carrier transport dynamics and evaluating the internal quantum efficiency. The experimental technique described herein provides fundamental new insights into the selection of the most appropriate excitation mode for the experimental analysis of carrier transport and localized states in p-n junction devices.
Pre-eclampsia/eclampsia are leading causes of maternal mortality and morbidity, particularly in low- and middle- income countries (LMICs). We developed the miniPIERS risk prediction model to provide a simple, evidence-based tool to identify pregnant women in LMICs at increased risk of death or major hypertensive-related complications.
The pursuit of high internal quantum efficiency (IQE) for green emission spectral regime is referred as "green gap" challenge. Now researchers place their hope on the InGaN-based materials to develop high-brightness green light-emitting diodes. However, IQE drops fast when emission wavelength of InGaN LED increases by changing growth temperature or well thickness. In this paper, a new wavelength-adjusting method is proposed and the optical properties of LED are investigated. By additional process of indium pre-deposition before InGaN well layer growth, the indium distribution along growth direction becomes more uniform, which leads to the increase of average indium content in InGaN well layer and results in a redshift of peak-wavelength. We also find that the IQE of LED with indium pre-deposition increases with the wavelength redshift. Such dependence is opposite to the IQE-wavelength behavior in conventional InGaN LEDs. The relations among the IQE, wavelength and the indium pre-deposition process are discussed.
Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) are entities with a repertoire of dynamic functions. With a simple touch of salts, smooth crystals of MOFs can be turned into hairy ones, dramatically enhancing chemisorption of large molecules, i.e., by 120 times. When this process is followed by another round of etching, sequential binding of different proteins is possible.
Filling crystalline gaps with small molecules can drive interfacial healing between anisotropic solids. Sufficient mobility from these fillers allows the process to happen at a low temperature of -56 °C. Mended bulk crystals show modulus leap from 4 to 12 GPa and hardness from 400 to 1000 MPa.
Oxy-fuel or O2/CO2 combustion technology was used to investigate the combustion of Chlorella vulgaris by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). Oxy-fuel combustion occurs in an O2/CO2 atmosphere instead of an O2/N2 atmosphere and offers an alternative method of C. vulgaris preparation for biofuels processing. Our results show that three stages were observed during C. vulgaris combustion and the main combustion process occurred at the second stage. Compared with a 20%O2/80%N2 atmosphere, the mass loss rate at the DTG peaks (Rp) and the average reaction rate (Rv) in a 20%O2/80%CO2 atmosphere was lower, while the ignition temperature (TI) was higher. As oxygen concentration increases in an O2/CO2 atmosphere, Rp, Rv and the apparent activation energy (E) increases, while TI, the final temperature detected as mass stabilization (Tf) and the residue mass (Mr) decreases; As the heating rate (?) increases, TI, Tf and Rp increase, while Mr decreases.
Fast colloidal motions driven by surface tension gradient are created in a thin water layer. Unlike using solid boundaries to limit the colloidal flow, our work relaxes this condition by directly placing bulk fluid next to an open air environment. When the colloidal flow along the air/water interface is interfered with stationary objects, repetitive semicircular motions, that is, micro eddy, are frequently observed in domains as small as 2 ?m. We assign the capillary convection between the liquid next to the air and that from the bulk as the driving force for the observed motions. Relationships among the maximum speed, temperature gradient, and thickness of the liquid layer are experimentally investigated and numerically analyzed. Our results could inspire future designs of micromechanical motors or fluidic mixing in a miniature device.
Sorting of integral membrane proteins plays crucial roles in establishing and maintaining the polarized structures of epithelial cells and neurons. However, little is known about the sorting mechanisms of newly synthesized membrane proteins at the trans-Golgi network (TGN). To identify which genes are essential for these sorting mechanisms, we screened mutants in which the transport of Rhodopsin 1 (Rh1), an apical integral membrane protein in Drosophila photoreceptors, was affected. We found that deficiencies in glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) synthesis and attachment processes cause loss of the apical transport of Rh1 from the TGN and mis-sorting to the endolysosomal system. Moreover, Na(+)K(+)-ATPase, a basolateral membrane protein, and Crumbs (Crb), a stalk membrane protein, were mistransported to the apical rhabdomeric microvilli in GPI-deficient photoreceptors. These results indicate that polarized sorting of integral membrane proteins at the TGN requires the synthesis and anchoring of GPI-anchored proteins. Little is known about the cellular biological consequences of GPI deficiency in animals in vivo. Our results provide new insights into the importance of GPI synthesis and aid the understanding of pathologies involving GPI deficiency.
The construction of "smart" materials able to perform specific functions at the molecular scale through the application of various stimuli is highly attractive but still challenging. The most recent applications indicate that the outstanding flexibility of self-assembled architectures can be employed as a powerful tool for the development of innovative molecular devices, functional surfaces and smart nanomaterials. Structural flexibility of these materials is known to be conferred by weak intermolecular forces involved in self-assembly strategies. However, some fundamental mechanisms responsible for conformational lability remain unexplored. Furthermore, the role played by stronger bonds, such as coordination, ionic and covalent bonding, is sometimes neglected while they can be employed readily to produce mechanically robust but also chemically reversible structures. In this review, recent applications of structural flexibility and molecular motions in self-assembled nanostructures are discussed. Special focus is given to advanced materials exhibiting significant performance changes after an external stimulus is applied, such as light exposure, pH variation, heat treatment or electromagnetic field. The crucial role played by strong intra- and weak intermolecular interactions on structural lability and responsiveness is highlighted.
Studies in Xenopus have shown that the C-terminal domain phosphatase-like domain (CPD) phosphatase Dullard is essential for proper neural development via inhibition of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling receptors. In contrast, the orthologous budding yeast Nem1 and human Dullard have been shown to dephosphorylate the phosphatidate phosphatases yeast Smp2/Pah1 and human Lipin, and the relationship between phospholipid metabolism and BMP signaling remain unsolved. Here we report evidence that the Dullard-Lipin phosphatase cascade in Drosophila can regulate BMP signaling, most likely by affecting the function of the nuclear envelope. Manipulating expression levels of either the Drosophila Dullard gene, d-dullard (ddd) or the Lipin gene, DmLpin affected wing vein formation in a manner suggesting a negative effect on BMP signaling. Furthermore, both genes exhibit genetic interaction with BMP signaling pathway components, and can affect the levels of phosphorylated-Mothers against dpp (p-Mad). Although changing ddd expression levels did not have an obvious effect on overall nuclear envelope morphology as has been shown for yeast nem1, the nuclear import machinery components Importin-? and RanGAP were mislocalized and membrane lipid staining was altered in cells overexpressing ddd. Considering the known genetic interaction between Nup84 complex nucleoporins and nem1 in yeast, and the recently reported requirement for components from the orthologous nucleoporin complex in the nuclear translocation of Drosophila Mad (Chen & Xu 2010), it is likely that the role of Drosophila Dullard in regulating membrane lipid homeostasis is conserved and is critical for normal BMP signaling.
Recent research has revealed that the maternal non-coding RNA genes (Gtl2, Rian and Mirg) from the Dlk1-Dio3 imprinted cluster are closely related to the full development potential of the induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). Transcriptional silencing of these genes failed to generate all-iPSC mice, indicating their significant contribution to embryogenesis. However, except for Gtl2, little information regarding these genes has been acquired in this cluster. In the present study, we analyzed the spatiotemporal expression patterns of Mirg during mouse embryogenesis. Using in situ hybridization and quantitative PCR, we demonstrated that Mirg non-coding RNA exhibited sustained expression throughout mouse embryogenesis from E8.5 to E18.5. Strong expression was detected in the central nervous system (E9.5-E15.5) and various skeletal muscles (E13.5 and E15.5), and the subcellular localization appeared to be in the nuclei. The pituitary and adrenal gland also showed high expression of Mirg, but, unlike the skeletal muscles and the neural circuitry, the signals were not concentrated in the nuclei. In the major internal organs, Mirg maintained low expression during embryogenesis (E12.5-E18.5) whereas in the liver and the developing lung, Mirg was expressed with a gradually decreasing trend and a gradually raising trend, respectively. These findings indicate that temporal regulation of Mirg expression may be required during specific stages and in specific tissues during embryonic development.
Receptor-like kinase involves self-incompatibility, male sterility, stress responses, and disease resistance. To better understand the physiological function and biological characteristics of rice receptor-like kinase, we cloned five predicted epitope fragments of rice receptor-like kinase. The purified fusion protein was used as antigen to immunize rabbit to get specific polyclonal antibodies. Western blotting analysis shows that the five receptor-like kinases were expressed in rice leaves.
The packing of electronic molecules into planar structures and an ensured pi-pi interaction within the plane are preferred for efficient organic transistors. Thin films of organic electronics are exemplar, but the widely adopted molecular design and associated fabrication lead to limited ordering in multistack construction motifs. Here we demonstrate self-assembled nanolayers of organic molecules having potential electronic utility using an amphiphilic silane as a building block. Unlike a cross-linked (tetrahedral) configuration found in conventional siloxane networks, a linear polymer chain is produced following silane polycondensation. As a result, hydrophobic branches plus a noncovalent pi-pi interlocking between the molecules promote planar packing and continuous stacking along the surface normal. In contrast to conventional pi-pi stacking or hydrogen bonding pathways in a fibrous construct, multistacked nanolayers with coexisting pi-pi and herringbone interlocking can provide unmatched properties and processing convenience in molecular electronics.
Suspension bioreactors are an attractive alternative to static culture of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) for the generation of clinically relevant cell numbers in a controlled system. In this study, we have developed a scalable suspension culture system using serum-free defined media with spinner flasks for hESC expansion as cell aggregates. With optimized cell seeding density and splitting interval, we demonstrate prolonged passaging and expansion of several hESC lines with overall expansion, yield, viability and maintenance of pluripotency equivalent to adherent culture. Human ESCs maintained in suspension as aggregates can be passaged at least 20 times to achieve over 1×10(13) fold calculated expansion with high undifferentiation rate and normal karyotype. Furthermore, the aggregates are able to differentiate to cardiomyocytes in a directed fashion. Finally, we show that the cells can be cryopreserved in serum-free medium and thawed into adherent or suspension cultures to continue passaging and expansion. We have successfully used this method under cGMP or cGMP-equivalent conditions to generate cell banks of several hESC lines. Taken together, our suspension culture system provides a powerful approach for scale-up expansion of hESCs under defined and serum-free conditions for clinical and research applications.
GaN-based high-electron mobility transistors (HEMTs) with AlN/GaN super-lattices (SLs) (4 to 10 periods) as barriers were prepared on (0001) sapphire substrates. An innovative method of calculating the concentration of two-dimensional electron gas (2-DEG) was brought up when AlN/GaN SLs were used as barriers. With this method, the energy band structure of AlN/GaN SLs was analyzed, and it was found that the concentration of 2-DEG is related to the thickness of AlN barrier and the thickness of the period; however, it is independent of the total thickness of the AlN/GaN SLs. In addition, we consider that the sheet carrier concentration in every SL period is equivalent and the 2-DEG concentration measured by Hall effect is the average value in one SL period. The calculation result fitted well with the experimental data. So, we proposed that our method can be conveniently applied to calculate the 2-DEG concentration of HEMT with the AlN/GaN SL barrier.
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