Although ghrelin has been demonstrated to stimulate energy intake and storage through a central mechanism, its effect on hepatic lipid metabolism remains largely uncharacterized. Ghrelin receptor antagonism or gene deletion significantly decreased obesity-associated hepatic steatosis by suppression of de novo lipogenesis, whereas exogenous ghrelin stimulated lipogenesis, leading to hepatic lipid accumulation in mice. The effects of ghrelin were mediated by direct activation of its receptor on hepatocytes. Cultured hepatocytes responded to ghrelin with increased lipid content and expression of lipogenesis-related genes. Ghrelin increased phosphorylation of S6, the downstream target of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling in cultured hepatocytes, whereas ghrelin receptor antagonism reduced hepatic phosphorylation of S6 in db/db mice. Inhibition of mTOR signaling by rapamycin markedly attenuated ghrelin-induced up-regulation of lipogenesis in hepatocytes, whereas activation of hepatic mTOR signaling by deletion of TSC1 increased hepatic lipogenesis. By interacting with peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-? (PPAR?), mTOR mediates the ghrelin-induced up-regulation of lipogenesis in hepatocytes. The stimulatory effect of ghrelin on hepatic lipogenesis was significantly attenuated by PPAR? antagonism in cultured hepatocytes and in PPAR? gene-deficient mice. Our study indicates that ghrelin activates its receptor on hepatocytes to promote lipogenesis via a mechanism involving the mTOR-PPAR? signaling pathway.
The aim of this study was to investigate the transport of two kinds of bile acids by organic anion transporting polypeptide 1B3 (OATP1B3) using first-trimester trophoblasts. The mechanisms of damage to fetuses with intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy were investigated, providing new potential strategies for targeted therapies aimed at reducing fetal risk.
Prior research indicated that occult blood screening can be used to detect early gastric cancer. Based on capsule endoscopy and occult blood detection theory, an automatic detection capsule system for gastric occult blood (GOB) was proposed. This paper designed the detecting sensor, image acquisition system and wireless transmitter module respectively based on collaurum immune theory, the image sensor and radio frequency chip. In vitro experiments were conducted to testify the system, and the detecting result image information was acquired by the image acquisition (IMAQ) system and transmitted to the outside of the body through the wireless transmitter module. The receiver module received and displayed the information on the computer, from which doctors could diagnose whether there was occult blood (OB) or not. Therefore, this paper provides a new idea for the screening of early-stage gastric cancer with reliability and simplicity.
In this work the adsorption features of activated carbon and the magnetic properties of iron oxides were combined in a composite to produce magnetic adsorbent. Batch experiments were conducted to study the adsorption behavior of arsenate onto the synthetic magnetic adsorbent. The effects of initial solution pH, contact time, adsorbent dosage and co-existing anionic component on the adsorption of arsenate were investigated. The results showed that the removal percentage of arsenate could be over 95% in the conditions of adsorbent dosage 5.0 g/L, initial solution pH 3.0-8.0, and contact time 1 h. Under the experimental conditions, phosphate and silicate caused greater decrease in arsenate removal percentage among the anions, and sulfate had almost no effect on the adsorption of arsenate. Kinetics study showed that the overall adsorption rate of arsenate was illustrated by the pseudo-second-order kinetic model. The applicability of the Langmuir and Freundlich models for the arsenate adsorption data was tested. Both the models adequately describe the experimental data. Moreover, the magnetic composite adsorbent could be easily recovered from the medium by an external magnetic field. It can therefore be potentially applied for the treatment of water contaminated by arsenate.
A highly selective sample cleanup procedure featuring molecularly imprinted solid-phase extraction (MISPE) was developed for the isolation and determination of sulfadiazine (SDZ) in seawater samples from Jiaozhou Bay, China. The molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) was prepared using SDZ as the template molecule and methacrylic acid as the functional monomer. The MIP was used as a selective sorbent for the solid-phase extraction of SDZ. An off-line MISPE method followed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with diode-array detection was established for the analysis of SDZ. Good linearity of the MISPE column for SDZ standard solutions was obtained within 0-200?gL(-1) (R(2)>0.99). The recoveries of spiked seawater samples were satisfactory as high as 88%. Finally, seven samples in Jiaozhou Bay were determined and there was no sulfadiazine found except #2 and #5 sample. The concentrations were respectively 0.33?gL(-1) and 0.28?gL(-1), and the relative standard deviations were 1.35% and 4.13% (n=3).
The clinicopathological characteristics of squamous cell/adenosquamous carcinoma (SC/ASC) are currently not well documented, and as the prevalence of SC/ASC is uncommon in gallbladder cancers, a prognostic marker has not yet been found. In the present study, the expression of tumor susceptibility gene (TSG) 101 and paternally expressed gene (PEG) 10 was assessed in 46 SC/ASCs and 80 adenocarcinomas (ACs) using immunohistochemistry, and the samples were further analyzed to examine correlations with the clinicopathological characteristics. It was demonstrated that positive TSG101 and PEG10 expression were significantly associated with large tumor size, high tumor-node-metastasis (TNM) stage, lymph node metastasis, invasion and no resection (only biopsy) of SC/ASC and AC. The univariate Kaplan-Meier analysis showed that positive TSG101 and PEG10 expression, and differentiation, tumor size, TNM stage, lymph node metastasis, invasion and surgical curability, is closely associated with a decreased overall survival in SC/ASC and AC patients (P<0.05 or P<0.001). The multivariate Cox regression analysis identified that positive TSG101 and PEG10 expression are independent factors for a poor-prognosis in SC/ASC and AC patients. The present study indicates that positive TSG101 and PEG10 expression are closely associated with the clinical, pathological and biological behaviors, and a poor prognosis in gallbladder cancer.
Embryos produced by assisted reproductive technologies are commonly associated with a high level of aneuploidy. Currently, 24-chromosome profiling of embryo biopsy samples by array-based methods is available to identify euploid embryos for transfer that have a higher potential for implantation and development to term. From a laboratory and patient perspective, there is a need to explore the feasibility of developing an alternative method for routine aneuploidy assessment of embryos that would be more comprehensive, cost-effective, and efficient. We speculated that aneuploidy could be readily assessed in test single-cell biopsy samples by first performing whole genome amplification followed by library generation, massively parallel shot-gun sequencing, and finally bioinformatics analysis to quantitatively compare the ratio of uniquely mapped reads to reference cells. Using Down syndrome as an example, the copy number change for chromosome 21 was consistently 1.5-fold higher in multiple cell and single-cell samples with a 47,XX,+21 karyotype. Applying the validated sequencing strategy to 10 sister blastomeres from a single human embryo, we showed that the aneuploidy status called by sequencing was consistent with short tandem repeat allelic profiling. These validation studies indicate that aneuploidy detection using sequencing-based methodology is feasible for further improving the practice of preimplantation genetic diagnosis.
Ghrelin, a gut hormone with pleiotropic effects, may act as a protective signal in parenchymal cells. We investigated the protective effects of ghrelin on hepatocytes after ischaemia/reperfusion (I/R).
Isopentenyl diphosphate (IDP) and its isomer dimethylallyl diphosphate (DMADP) are building units for all isoprenoids; thus, intracellular pool sizes of IDP and DMADP play important roles in living organisms. Several methods have been used to quantify the amount of DMADP or the combined amount of IDP plus DMADP, but measuring the DMADP/IDP ratio has been difficult. In this study, a method was developed to measure the ratio of DMADP/IDP. Catalyzed by a recombinant IDP isomerase (IDI) together with a recombinant isoprene synthase (IspS), IDP was converted to isoprene, which was then detected by chemiluminescence. With this method, the in vitro equilibrium ratio of DMADP/IDP was found to be 2.11:1. IDP and DMADP pools were significantly increased in Escherichia coli transformed with methylerythritol 4-phosphate pathway genes; the ratio of DMADP/IDP was 3.85. An E. coli strain transformed with IspS but no additional IDI had a lower DMADP level and a DMADP/IDP ratio of 1.05. Approximately 90% of the IDP and DMADP pools in light-adapted kudzu leaves were light dependent and so presumably were located in the chloroplasts; the DMADP/IDP ratios in chloroplasts and cytosol were the same as the in vitro ratio (2.04 in the light and 2.32 in the dark).
Funded by the National Institutes of Health (NIH), the aim of the Model Organism ENCyclopedia of DNA Elements (modENCODE) project is to provide the biological research community with a comprehensive encyclopedia of functional genomic elements for both model organisms C. elegans (worm) and D. melanogaster (fly). With a total size of just under 10 terabytes of data collected and released to the public, one of the challenges faced by researchers is to extract biologically meaningful knowledge from this large data set. While the basic quality control, pre-processing, and analysis of the data has already been performed by members of the modENCODE consortium, many researchers will wish to reinterpret the data set using modifications and enhancements of the original protocols, or combine modENCODE data with other data sets. Unfortunately this can be a time consuming and logistically challenging proposition.
The objective of this study was to quantify transport of Eu colloids in the vadose zone at the semiarid Hanford site. Eu-hydroxy-carbonate colloids, Eu(OH)(CO(3)), were applied to the surface of field lysimeters, and migration of the colloids through the sediments was monitored using wick samplers. The lysimeters were exposed to natural precipitation (145-231 mm/year) or artificial irrigation (124-348 mm/year). Wick outflow was analyzed for Eu concentrations, supplemented by electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray analysis. Small amounts of Eu colloids (<1%) were detected in the deepest wick sampler (2.14 m depth) 2.5 months after application and cumulative precipitation of only 20 mm. We observed rapid transport of Eu colloids under both natural precipitation and artificial irrigation; that is, the leading edge of the Eu colloids moved at a velocity of 3 cm/day within the first 2 months after application. Episodic infiltration (e.g., Chinook snowmelt events) caused peaks of Eu in the wick outflow. While a fraction of Eu moved consistent with long-term recharge estimates at the site, the main mass of Eu remained in the top 30 cm of the sediments. This study illustrates that, under field conditions, near-surface colloid mobilization and transport occurred in Hanford sediments.
A highly selective sample cleanup procedure combined with molecularly imprinted SPE was developed for the isolation of crystal violet from seawater and seafood samples. The molecularly imprinted polymer was prepared using crystal violet as the template molecule, methacrylic acid as the functional monomer, and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate as the cross-linker. The crystal violet-imprinted polymer was used as the selective sorbent for the SPE of crystal violet. An off-line molecularly imprinted SPE method followed by HPLC with diode-array detection for the analysis of crystal violet was also established. Good linearity on the molecularly imprinted SPE columns was obtained from 0 to 200 ?g/L (R(2) > 0.99). The result demonstrated that the proposed method can be used for the direct determination of crystal violet in seawater and seafood samples. Finally, five samples were analyzed and the following crystal violet concentrations were obtained: 0.92 and 0.52 ?g/L in two seawater samples, as well as 0.36 and 0.27 ?g/kg in two seafood samples. There is no crystal violet detected in the third seawater sample.
Originally identified in the hypothalamus as a satiety factor, recent studies provide evidence that nefatin-1/NUCB2 is a gutbrain peptide with a broader array of actions. Detection of abundant nesfatin-1/NUCB2 in gastric X/A like endocrine cells, which also produce the orexigenic hormone ghrelin, indicates that gastric mucosa may be one of the predominant sources of nesfatin-1/NUCB2. Functional studies have revealed significant effects of nefatin-1 on inhibition of feeding behavior and on glucose homeostasis. These metabolic functions make nesfatin-1/NUCB2 a novel candidate for treatment of obesity and diabetes. However, deficiencies in our understanding of nesfatin-1/NUCB2 receptor pose a significant hurdle for therapies that target its action. Defining novel pathways to alter the production of nesfatin-1/NUCB2 would shift therapeutic focus to gastric targets. A necessary precondition is improved understanding of the mechanisms by which nesfatin-1/NUCB2 is synthesized and secreted by gastric X/A like cells. Recent studies provide evidence that mTOR is a critical regulatory molecule in these endocrine cells and that its activity is linked to the production of ghrelin and nesfatin- 1/NUCB2. These findings suggest that gastric mTOR is involved in the regulation of food intake and overall energy metabolism through modulation of ghrelin and nesfatin-1/NUCB2. In this review, we first summarize current advances in the relationship between organism energy status and nesfatin-1/NUCB2 levels, and then discuss the novel finding on mTOR as the gastric fuel sensor and its role in the regulation of nesfatin-1/NUCB2 expression.
The ghrelin receptor, also known as growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHS-R), was identified in porcine and rat anterior pituitary membranes, where the synthetic secretagogue MK-0677 causes amplified pulsatile growth hormone (GH) release. In addition to its function in the stimulation of GH secretion, ghrelin, the natural ligand of ghrelin receptor is now recognized as a peptide hormone with fundamental influence on energy homeostasis. Despite the potential existence of multiple subtypes of ghrelin receptor, the effects of ghrelin on energy metabolism, obesity, and diabetes are mediated by its classical receptor GHS-R1a, whose activation requires the n-octanoylation of ghrelin. Here we review the current understanding of the role of the ghrelin receptor in the regulation of energy homeostasis. An overview of the ghrelin receptor is presented first, followed by the discussion on its effects on food intake, glucose homeostasis, and lipid metabolism. Finally, potential strategies for treating obesity and diabetes via manipulation of the ghrelin/ghrelin receptor axis are explored.
The actions of peripherally administered nesfatin-1 on glucose homeostasis remain controversial. The aim of this study was to characterize the mechanisms by which peripheral nesfatin-1 regulates glucose metabolism.
Isoprene emission from broadleaf trees is highly temperature dependent, accounts for much of the hydrocarbon emission from plants, and has a profound effect on atmospheric chemistry. We studied the temperature response of postillumination isoprene emission in oak (Quercus robur) and poplar (Populus deltoides) leaves in order to understand the regulation of isoprene emission. Upon darkening a leaf, isoprene emission fell nearly to zero but then increased for several minutes before falling back to nearly zero. Time of appearance of this burst of isoprene was highly temperature dependent, occurring sooner at higher temperatures. We hypothesize that this burst represents an intermediate pool of metabolites, probably early metabolites in the methylerythritol 4-phosphate pathway, accumulated upstream of dimethylallyl diphosphate (DMADP). The amount of this early metabolite(s) averaged 2.9 times the amount of plastidic DMADP. DMADP increased with temperature up to 35°C before starting to decrease; in contrast, the isoprene synthase rate constant increased up to 40°C, the highest temperature at which it could be assessed. During a rapid temperature switch from 30°C to 40°C, isoprene emission increased transiently. It was found that an increase in isoprene synthase activity is primarily responsible for this transient increase in emission levels, while DMADP level stayed constant during the switch. One hour after switching to 40°C, the amount of DMADP fell but the rate constant for isoprene synthase remained constant, indicating that the high temperature falloff in isoprene emission results from a reduction in the supply of DMADP rather than from changes in isoprene synthase activity.
The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), an evolutionarily conserved serine-threonine kinase, is an intracellular fuel sensor critical for cellular energy homeostasis. Gastrointestinal endocrine cells play a vital role in the regulation of energy balance by secreting hormones that inform the brain about energy supply. Here we showed the localization of mTOR signaling molecules in more than 90% of gastric ghrelin cells and 36±3% of gastrin cells, while no somatostatin-positive cell showed phospho-S6K1 immunoreactivity. Inhibition of mTOR significantly stimulated expression of gastric ghrelin mRNA and protein, and the concentration of plasma ghrelin (2.06±0.34 ng/ml vs. 12.53±3.9 ng/ml, p<0.05), inhibited gastrin synthesis and secretion (75.01±6.71 pg/ml vs. 54.04±3.65 pg/ml, p<0.05), but had no effect on somatostatin production (165.2±25.07 pg/ml vs. 178.9±29.14 pg/ml, p=0.73). Gastric mTOR is a gastric sensor whose activity is linked to the differential regulation of gastric hormone production and release.
A sensitive method was developed and validated for the quantitation of trenbolone residues in bovine liver. Target analytes were extracted from liver homogenate using solid phase cartridges, separated on a Phenyl column and detected using an electrospray ionization mass spectrometer operating in positive ion mode. The mean recovery of the analytes was between 62% and 69%. The method provided detection capabilities of 1 microg/kg for trenbolone. The method is suitable for application in veterinary drug residue in surveillance programme.
A simple method using high-performance liquid chromatography and fluorescence detection is presented for the simultaneous determination of the antiparasitic agents avermectins (abamectin, ivermectin and doramectin) in bovine liver. Samples were extracted using acetonitrile and cleaned up on an alumina SPE column and derivatized with trifluoroacetic anhydride. The derivatives were detected using fluorescence detector set at 365 nm excitation and 475 nm emission wavelengths. As the results, the limit of quantification for three avermectins was about 1 microg/kg. Inter-assay showed the mean recoveries of avermectins in bovine liver ranged from 72% to 81%, with RSD less than 9.9%.
Dimethylallyl diphosphate (DMADP) is a central metabolite in isoprenoid metabolism, but it is difficult to measure. Three different methods for measuring DMADP are compared, and a new method based on the conversion of DMADP to isoprene using recombinant isoprene synthase is introduced. Mass spectrometry is reliable but does not distinguish between DMADP and isopentenyl diphosphate. Acid hydrolysis is reliable for measuring DMADP in bacterial extracts but overestimates DMADP in plant samples. To measure the DMADP in chloroplasts, light minus dark measurements are normally used. Chloroplast DMADP amounts measured using acid hydrolysis and a mass spectrometric method were comparable in this assay. Post-illumination isoprene emission tended to slightly overestimate chloroplast DMADP concentration. The DMADP pool size in bacteria is highly regulated, consistent with previous observations made with plants. DMADP is a very labile metabolite, but four methods described here allow measurements of samples from plants and bacteria. The use of recombinant isoprene synthase can greatly simplify the analysis. The various techniques tested here have advantages and disadvantages, and it is useful to have more than one method available when studying biological isoprene production.
Tuberous sclerosis complex 1 (TSC1) forms a heterodimmer with tuberous sclerosis complex 2, to inhibit signalling by the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) complex 1 (mTORC1). The mTORC1 stimulates cell growth by promoting anabolic cellular processes, such as gene transcription and protein translation, in response to growth factors and nutrient signals. Originally designed to test the role of TSC1 in adipocyte function, mice in which the gene for TSC1 was specifically deleted by the fatty acid binding protein 4 (FABP4)-Cre (Fabp4-Tsc1cKO mice) died prematurely within 48 h after birth. The Fabp4-Tsc1cKO mouse revealed a much smaller phenotype relative to the wild-type littermates. Maternal administration of rapamycin, a classical mTOR inhibitor, significantly increased the survival time of Fabp4-Tsc1cKO mice for up to 23 days. Both macroscopic and microscopic haemorrhages were observed in the lungs of Fabp4-Tsc1cKO mice, while other tissues showed no significant changes. Levels of surfactant proteins A and B demonstrated a significant decrease in the Fabp4-Tsc1cKO mice, which was rescued by maternal injection of rapamycin. Co-localization of FABP4 or TSC1 with surfactant protein B was also detected in neonatal pulmonary tissues. Our study suggests that TSC1-mTORC1 may be critical for the synthesis of surfactant proteins A and B.
In this paper, a highly selective sample cleanup procedure combining molecular imprinting technique (MIT) and solid-phase extraction (SPE) was developed for the isolation of malachite green in seawater and seafood samples. The molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) was prepared using malachite green as the template molecule, methacrylic acid as the functional monomer and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate as the cross-linking monomer. The imprinted polymer and non-imprinted polymer were characterized by scanning electron microscope and static adsorption experiments. The MIP showed a high adsorption capacity and was used as selective sorbent for the SPE of malachite green. An off-line molecularly imprinted solid-phase extraction (MISPE) method followed by high-performance liquid chromatography with diodearray detection for the analysis of malachite green in seawater and seafood samples was also established. Finally, five samples were determined. The results showed that malachite green concentration in one seawater sample was at 1.30 ?g L?¹ and the RSD (n=3) was 4.15%.
The methylerythritol phosphate (MEP) pathway in plants produces the prenyl precursors for all plastidic isoprenoids, including carotenoids and quinones. The MEP pathway is also responsible for synthesis of approximately 600 Tg of isoprene per year, the largest non-methane hydrocarbon flux into the atmosphere. There have been few studies of the regulation of the MEP pathway in plants under physiological conditions. In this study, we combined gas exchange techniques and high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS-MS) and measured the profile of MEP pathway metabolites under different conditions. We report that in the MEP pathway, metabolites immediately preceding steps requiring reducing power were in high concentration. Inhibition of the MEP pathway by fosmidomycin caused deoxyxylulose phosphate accumulation in leaves as expected. Evidence is presented that accumulation of MEP pathway intermediates, primarily methylerythritol cyclodiphosphate, is responsible for the post-illumination isoprene burst phenomenon. Pools of intermediate metabolites stayed at approximately the same level 10 min after light was turned off, but declined eventually under prolonged darkness. In contrast, a strong inhibition of the second-to-last step of the MEP pathway caused suppression of isoprene emission in pure N(2). Our study suggests that reducing equivalents may be a key regulator of the MEP pathway and therefore isoprene emission from leaves.
Nesfatin-1, an 82 amino acid peptide derived from the prohormone nucleobindin-2 (NUCB2), is a novel satiety hormone acting through a leptin-independent mechanism in the hypothalamus. The mechanisms by which production of nesfatin-1/NUCB2 is regulated remain unknown.
Vascular plants use two pathways to synthesize galactolipids, the predominant lipid species in chloroplasts-a prokaryotic pathway that resides entirely in the chloroplast, and a eukaryotic pathway that involves assembly in the endoplasmic reticulum. Mutants deficient in the endoplasmic reticulum pathway, trigalactosyldiacylglycerol (tgd1-1 and tgd2-1) mutants, had been previously identified with reduced contents of monogalactosyldiacylglycerol and digalactosyldiacylglycerol, and altered lipid molecular species composition. Here, we report that the altered lipid composition affected photosynthesis in lipid trafficking mutants. It was found that proton motive force as measured by electrochromic shift was reduced by ~40% in both tgd mutants. This effect was accompanied by an increase in thylakoid conductance attributable to ATPase activity and so the rate of ATP synthesis was nearly unchanged. Thylakoid conductance to ions also increased in tgd mutants. However, gross carbon assimilation in tgd mutants as measured by gas exchange was only marginally affected. Rubisco activity, electron transport rate, and photosystem I and II oxidation status were not altered. Despite the large differences in proton motive force, responses to heat and high light stress were similar between tgd mutants and the wild type.
A new understanding of leaf starch degradation has emerged in the last 10 years. It has been shown that starch phosphorylation and dephosphorylation are critical components of this process. Glucan, water dikinase (GWD) (and phosphoglucan, water dikinase) adds phosphate to starch, and phosphoglucan phosphatase (SEX4) removes these phosphates. To explore the use of this metabolism to manipulate starch accumulation, Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) plants were engineered by introducing RNAi constructs designed to reduce expression of AtGWD and AtSEX4. The timing of starch build-up was altered with ethanol-inducible and senescence-induced gene promoters. Ethanol induction of RNAi lines reduced transcript for AtGWD and AtSEX4 by 50%. The transgenic lines had seven times more starch than wild type at the end of the dark period but similar growth rates and total biomass. Elevated leaf starch content in maize leaves was engineered by making an RNAi construct against a gene in maize that appeared to be homologous to AtGWD. The RNAi construct was expressed using the constitutive ubiquitin promoter. Leaf starch content at the end of a night period in engineered maize plants was 20-fold higher than in untransformed plants with no impact on total plant biomass. We conclude that plants can be engineered to accumulate starch in the leaves with little impact on vegetative biomass.
Squamous cell/adenosquamous carcinomas (SC/ASC) are rare subtypes of gallbladder cancers (GBCs). Clinical characteristics of SC/ASC have not been well documented and no biological markers to identify GBC carcinogenesis, progression, and prognosis are available.
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