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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Role of Air Bubbles Overlooked in the Adsorption of Perfluorooctanesulfonate on Hydrophobic Carbonaceous Adsorbents.
Environ. Sci. Technol.
PUBLISHED: 11-04-2014
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Hydrophobic interaction has been considered to be responsible for adsorption of perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) on the surface of hydrophobic adsorbents, but the long C-F chain in PFOS is not only hydrophobic but also oleophobic. In this study, for the first time we propose that air bubbles on the surface of hydrophobic carbonaceous adsorbents play an important role in the adsorption of PFOS. The level of adsorption of PFOS on carbon nanotubes (CNTs), graphite (GI), graphene (GE), and powdered activated carbon (PAC) decreases after vacuum degassing. Vacuum degassing time and pressure significantly affect the removal of PFOS by these adsorbents. After vacuum degassing at 0.01 atm for 36 h, the extent of removal of PFOS by the pristine CNTs and GI decreases 79% and 74%, respectively, indicating the main contribution of air bubbles to PFOS adsorption. When the degassed solution is recontacted with air during the adsorption process, the removal of PFOS recovers to the value obtained without vacuum degassing, further verifying the key role of air bubbles in PFOS adsorption. By theoretical calculation, the distribution of PFOS in air bubbles on the adsorbent surfaces is discussed, and a new schematic sorption model of PFOS on carbonaceous adsorbents in the presence of air bubbles is proposed. The accumulation of PFOS at the interface of air bubbles on the adsorbents is primarily responsible for its adsorption, providing a new mechanistic insight into the transport, fate, and removal of PFOS.
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TRANSCRIPTOME ANALYSIS OF AN ENDOPARASITOID WASP Cotesia chilonis (HYMENOPTERA: BRACONIDAE) REVEALS GENES INVOLVED IN SUCCESSFUL PARASITISM.
Arch. Insect Biochem. Physiol.
PUBLISHED: 10-23-2014
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For successful parasitization, parasitiods usually depend on the chemosensory cues for the selection of hosts, as well as a variety of virulence factors introduced into their hosts to overcome host immunity and prevent rejection of progeny development. In bracovirus-carrying wasps, the symbiotic polydnaviruses act in manipulating development and immunity of hosts. The endoparasitoid Cotesia chilonis carrying bracovirus as a key host immunosuppressive factor is a superior endoparasitoid of rice stem borer, Chilo suppressalis. So far, genomic information for C. chilonis is not available and transcriptomic data may provide valuable resources for global studying on physiological processes of C. chilonis, including chemosensation and parasitism at molecular level. Here, we performed RNA-seq to characterize the transcriptome of C. chilonis adults. We obtained 27,717,892 reads, assembled into 38,318 unigenes with a mean size of 690 bp. Approximately, 62.1% of the unigenes were annotated using NCBI databases. A large number of chemoreception-related genes encoding proteins including odorant receptors, gustatory receptors, odorant-binding proteins, chemosensory proteins, transient receptor potential ion channels, and sensory neuron membrane proteins were identified in silico. Totally, 72 transcripts possessing high identities with the bracovirus-related genes were identified. We investigated the mRNA expression levels of several transcripts at different developmental stages (including egg, larva, pupae, and adult) by quantitative real-time PCR analysis. The results revealed that some genes had adult-specific expression, indicating their potential significance for mating and parasitism. Overall, these results provide comprehensive insights into transcriptomic data of a polydnavirus-carrying parasitoid of a rice pest.
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[Development of ultrasonic power meter].
Zhongguo Yi Liao Qi Xie Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 10-22-2014
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This article describes the design and development of an ultrasonic power meter which is consist of an electronic balance, a practice target, an acoustic enclosures and a blocking. The electronic balance mounted on the blocking is linked with the practice target by connecting rod. By adjusting the blocking makes the practice target suspended above ultrasound probe, and then the ultrasonic power can be measured. After initial tests, the ultrasonic power meter performanced with good stability and high precision.
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D and E Rings May Not Be Indispensable for Antofine: Discovery of Phenanthrene and Alkylamine Chain Containing Antofine Derivatives as Novel Antiviral Agents against Tobacco Mosaic Virus (TMV) Based on Interaction of Antofine and TMV RNA.
J. Agric. Food Chem.
PUBLISHED: 10-17-2014
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On the basis of the interaction of antofine and tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) RNA, a series of phenanthrene and alkylamine chain containing antofine derivatives 1-41 were designed, synthesized, and systematically evaluated for their antiviral activity against TMV. The results showed that most of these compounds exhibited good to excellent anti-TMV activity, which indicated that the D and E rings of antofine may not be indispensable. Phenanthrene is important for these compounds, but not the more the better. Phenanthrene, benzene rings, and alkylamine chain containing compounds exhibited good antiviral activity. The optimum compounds, 10, 18, and 19, displayed higher activity than precursor antofine and commercial ribavirin, thus emerging as new lead compounds. The novel concise structure provides another new template for antiviral studies.
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Cortical thickness and surface area in neonates at high risk for schizophrenia.
Brain Struct Funct
PUBLISHED: 10-15-2014
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Schizophrenia is a neurodevelopmental disorder associated with subtle abnormal cortical thickness and cortical surface area. However, it is unclear whether these abnormalities exist in neonates associated with genetic risk for schizophrenia. To this end, this preliminary study was conducted to identify possible abnormalities of cortical thickness and surface area in the high-genetic-risk neonates. Structural magnetic resonance images were acquired from offspring of mothers (N = 21) who had schizophrenia (N = 12) or schizoaffective disorder (N = 9), and also matched healthy neonates of mothers who were free of psychiatric illness (N = 26). Neonatal cortical surfaces were reconstructed and parcellated as regions of interest (ROIs), and cortical thickness for each vertex was computed as the shortest distance between the inner and outer surfaces. Comparisons were made for the average cortical thickness and total surface area in each of 68 cortical ROIs. After false discovery rate (FDR) correction, it was found that the female high-genetic-risk neonates had significantly thinner cortical thickness in the right lateral occipital cortex than the female control neonates. Before FDR correction, the high-genetic-risk neonates had significantly thinner cortex in the left transverse temporal gyrus, left banks of superior temporal sulcus, left lingual gyrus, right paracentral cortex, right posterior cingulate cortex, right temporal pole, and right lateral occipital cortex, compared with the control neonates. Before FDR correction, in comparison with control neonates, male high-risk neonates had significantly thicker cortex in the left frontal pole, left cuneus cortex, and left lateral occipital cortex; while female high-risk neonates had significantly thinner cortex in the bilateral paracentral, bilateral lateral occipital, left transverse temporal, left pars opercularis, right cuneus, and right posterior cingulate cortices. The high-risk neonates also had significantly smaller cortical surface area in the right pars triangularis (before FDR correction), compared with control neonates. This preliminary study provides the first evidence that early development of cortical thickness and surface area might be abnormal in the neonates at genetic risk for schizophrenia.
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Functional Gold Nanoparticles as Potent Antimicrobial Agents against Multi-Drug-Resistant Bacteria.
ACS Nano
PUBLISHED: 09-22-2014
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We present the use of functionalized gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) to combat multi-drug-resistant pathogenic bacteria. Tuning of the functional groups on the nanoparticle surface provided gold nanoparticles that were effective against both Gram-negative and Gram-positive uropathogens, including multi-drug-resistant pathogens. These AuNPs exhibited low toxicity to mammalian cells, and bacterial resistance was not observed after 20 generations. A strong structure-activity relationship was observed as a function of AuNP functionality, providing guidance to activity prediction and rational design of effective antimicrobial nanoparticles.
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Direct Cytosolic Delivery of siRNA Using Nanoparticle-Stabilized Nanocapsules.
Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl.
PUBLISHED: 09-16-2014
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The use of nanoparticle-stabilized nanocapsules (NPSCs) for the direct cytosolic delivery of siRNA is reported. In this approach, siRNA is complexed with cationic arginine-functionalized gold nanoparticles by electrostatic interactions, with the resulting ensemble self-assembled onto the surface of fatty acid nanodroplets to form a NPSC/siRNA nanocomplex. The complex rapidly delivers siRNA into the cytosol through membrane fusion, a mechanism supported by cellular uptake studies. Using destabilized green fluorescent protein (deGFP) as a target, 90?% knockdown was observed in HEK293 cells. Moreover, the delivery of siRNA targeting polo-like kinase 1 (siPLK1) efficiently silenced PLK1 expression in cancer cells with concomitant cytotoxicity.
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Synthesis of novel tylophorine derivatives and evaluation of their anti-inflammatory activity.
ACS Med Chem Lett
PUBLISHED: 09-11-2014
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We have previously demonstrated that DCB-3503, a tylophorine analogue, has an anti-inflammatory property in murine models for autoimmune diseases. However, its mechanism remains unknown. Here, we have synthesized 34 derivatives of DCB-3503 and investigated their effects on T cells differentiation and TNF-? production. Six derivatives (4, 9, 13, 19, 31, and 32) could significantly promote the expression of Foxp3. Among these, the IC50 of 31 and 32 was about 500 ?M. Eight analogues (1, 2, 4, 9, 12, 18, 19, and 21) showed anti-TNF-? effect in Raw 264.7 cells and murine splenocytes, of which 18 and 19 were most significant. Moreover, 31 and 18 showed a better activity and cell survival ratio when compared with DCB-3503 at various concentrations. In summary, we have demonstrated the anti-inflammatory characteristics of 34 novel tylophorine derivatives and discussed their structure-activity relationship in order to explore their therapeutic potentials for inflammatory diseases.
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Analysis of lymph node metastasis correlation with prognosis in patients with T2 gastric cancer.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 08-19-2014
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To investigate the correlated factors for lymph node metastasis and prognosis for patients with T2 gastric cancer.
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Phytochemical profiles and antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of the leaves of Zanthoxylum bungeanum.
ScientificWorldJournal
PUBLISHED: 07-24-2014
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The ethanol crude extracts (ECE) and their subfractions from Zanthoxylum bungeanum leaves were prepared and their phytochemical profiles and antioxidant and antimicrobial activities were investigated. Moreover, the effective HPLC procedure for simultaneous quantification of twelve compounds in Z. bungeanum leaves was established. The correlation between the phytochemicals and antioxidant activity was also discussed. The ethyl acetate fraction (EAF) had the highest total phenolic (97.29 mmol GAE/100 g) and flavonoid content (67.93 mmol QE/100 g), while the greatest total alkaloid content (4.39 mmol GAE/100 g) was observed in the chloroform fraction (CF). Twelve compounds were quantified by RP-HPLC assay. EAF exhibited the highest content of quercitrin, kaempferol-3-rhamnoside, quercetin, sesamin, and nitidine chloride (125.21, 54.95, 24.36, 26.24, and 0.20 mg/g); acetone fraction (AF) contained the highest content of chlorogenic acid, rutin, hyperoside, and trifolin (5.87, 29.94, 98.33, and 31.24 mg/g), while kaempferol-3-rhamnoside, xanthyletin, and sesamin were rich in CF. EAF and AF exhibited significant DPPH, ABTS radical scavenging abilities and reducing power (FRAP), whereas CF exhibited significant antifungal activity. Moreover, EAF also showed stronger antibacterial activity. In conclusion, Z. bungeanum leaves have health benefits when consumed and could be served as an accessible source for production of functional food ingredients and medicinal exploration.
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[Effect of glycolytic inhibitor 3-BrPA on the proliferation and apoptosis of mouse splenic lymphocytes in mixed lymphocytes culture].
Zhonghua Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 07-24-2014
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To study the effect of glycolytic inhibitor 3-Bromopyruvate (3-BrPA) on the proliferation and apoptosis of mouse spleen lymphocytes and explore its mechanism.
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Heterogeneous associations of insoluble dietary fibre intake with subsequent glycosylated Hb levels among Chinese adults with type 2 diabetes: a quantile regression approach.
Br. J. Nutr.
PUBLISHED: 07-09-2014
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Dietary fibre intake has been suggested to reduce blood glucose levels in diabetic patients, particularly when glycosylated Hb (HbA1c) levels are high. In the present study, we used a quantile regression (QR) approach to characterise the possible heterogeneous associations of dietary fibre intake with HbA1c levels in Chinese diabetic patients. A total of 497 diabetic patients participated in the baseline survey in 2006 and in the follow-up survey in 2011, both of which were conducted in Pudong New Area of Shanghai, China. Structured in-person interviews were conducted to collect information on demographic characteristics and lifestyle factors. Dietary intake was assessed using a validated FFQ. Blood samples were collected during the interviews for biochemical assays. QR models were used to examine the heterogeneous associations of dietary factors with HbA1c levels. A significant marginal association of insoluble dietary fibre intake with subsequent HbA1c levels was observed only when the HbA1c level was over 6·8%. The associations appeared to be greater when the quantile levels of HbA1c were higher. The coefficient estimates were -0·174 (95% CI -0·433, -0·025) at the quantile of 0·60, -0·200 (95% CI -0·306, -0·008) at 0·70, -0·221 (95% CI -0·426, -0·117) at 0·80, and -0·389 (95% CI -0·516, -0·018) at 0·90. A similar pattern was observed for the associations of dietary glycaemic index (GI) value with HbA1c levels. In conclusion, the present results indicate that the associations of insoluble dietary fibre intake and GI value with subsequent HbA1c levels depend on glycaemic control status in Chinese diabetic patients. More studies are required to confirm our findings.
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Novonestmycins A and B, two new 32-membered bioactive macrolides from Streptomyces phytohabitans HBERC-20821.
J. Antibiot.
PUBLISHED: 06-26-2014
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Two new 32-membered macrolide compounds, named Novonestmycins A (1) and B (2), were isolated from the soil strain Streptomyces phytohabitans HBERC-20821. Their structures were elucidated by using spectroscopic methods, including 1D, 2D-NMR and MS spectrometry. The two compounds showed strong activities against the phytophathogenic fungi Corynespora cassiicola, Rhizoctonia solani and Septoria nodorum, with MIC values of 0.78, 0.39 and 0.78??g?ml(-1), respectively. In addition, the two compounds exhibited potent inhibitory activities against four different human tumor cell lines as well as one 5-FU-resistant human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line, with IC50 of 0.15-0.48??g?ml(-1) and 0.24-1.34??g?ml(-1), respectively.The Journal of Antibiotics advance online publication, 10 September 2014; doi:10.1038/ja.2014.123.
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Full-scale blending treatment of fresh MSWI leachate with municipal wastewater in a wastewater treatment plant.
Waste Manag
PUBLISHED: 05-26-2014
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Fresh leachate, generated in municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) plants, contains various pollutants with extremely high strength organics, which usually requires expensive and complex treatment processes. This study investigated the feasibility of blending treatment of MSWI leachate with municipal wastewater. Fresh MSWI leachate was pretreated by coagulation-flocculation with FeCl3 2 g/L and CaO 25 g/L, plate-and-frame filter press, followed by ammonia stripping at pH above 12. After that, blending treatment was carried out in a full-scale municipal wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) for approximately 3 months. Different operational modes consisting of different pretreated leachate and methanol addition levels were tested, and their performances were evaluated. Results showed that throughout the experimental period, monitored parameters in the WWTP effluent, including COD (<60 mg/L), BOD5 (<20 mg/L), ammonium (<8 mg/L), phosphorus (<1.5 mg/L) and heavy metals, generally complied with the Chinese sewage discharged standard. Under the experimental conditions, a certain amount of methanol was needed to fulfill TN removal. An estimation of the operation cost revealed that the expenditure of blending treatment was much lower than the total costs of respective treatment of MSWI leachate and municipal wastewater. The outcomes indicated that blending treatment could not only improve the treatability of the MSWI leachate, but also reduce the treatment cost of the two different wastewaters.
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Draft Genome Sequence of Bacillus thuringiensis NBIN-866 with High Nematocidal Activity.
Genome Announc
PUBLISHED: 05-24-2014
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Bacillus thuringiensis NBIN-866, a Gram-positive bacterium, was isolated from soil in China. We announce here the draft genome sequence of strain B. thuringiensis NBIN-866, which possesses highly nematocidal factors, such as proteins and small molecular peptides.
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Phenotypic characterization of craniofacial bone marrow stromal cells: unique properties of enhanced osteogenesis, cell recruitment, autophagy, and apoptosis resistance.
Cell Tissue Res.
PUBLISHED: 05-15-2014
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Previous studies have shown that craniofacial bone marrow stromal cells (MSCs) have greater osteogenic potential than appendicular bone MSCs. However, detailed phenotypic characterization of MSCs from bone marrow in the different sites remains unclear. To investigate bone repair and regeneration of craniofacial MSCs and the regulatory mechanisms underlying their unique properties, we compared osteogenesis, cell recruitment, autophagy, and apoptosis resistance of MSCs from the mandible (M-MSCs) to those from tibia (T-MSCs) in vitro and in vivo. Compared with T-MSCs, M-MSCs formed more colonies, possessed stronger proliferation activity, exhibited higher expression of pluripotency genes such as Oct4 and Nanog, and held stronger osteogenic differentiation in osteogenic medium. Moreover, M-MSCs had greater autophagy and anti-apoptotic capacities than T-MSCs under hypoxia and serum deprivation conditions. M-MSCs were found to be more capable of recruiting more MSCs than T-MSCs. When these MSCs were transplanted into mandible critical-sized defects, more bone formed in the M-MSC-treated animals than in their T-MSC counterparts. Collectively, these findings reveal that MSCs have unique characteristics and bone-repairing properties from the mandible as compared with those from tibia, presumably by enhanced osteogenic potential, cell recruitment, autophagy and apoptosis resistance.
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Cationic Poly-L-Lysine-Fe2O3/SiO2 nanoparticles loaded with small interference RNA: Application to silencing gene expression in primary rat neurons.
J Nanosci Nanotechnol
PUBLISHED: 04-17-2014
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The cationic PLL-Fe2o3/SiO2-siRNA nanoparticles with an average crystallite size of about 20 nm were prepared and delivered into primary rat neurons for knockdown of gene expression. Primary rat fetal neurons were scratched to simulate the injury of central nervous system and then were transfected with PLL-Fe2O3/SiO2-siRNA nanoparticles. Optical microscopy, fluorescence microscopy, Western blotting, immunofluorescence, and MTT assays were employed to test the cytotoxicity, the efficiency of encapsulation and targeted gene silencing. The results indicated that the PLL-Fe2O3/SiO2-siRNA nanoparticles have a remarkable efficiency of encapsulation and targeted gene silencing with negligible cytotoxicity. It could be concluded that the PLL-Fe2O3/SiO2 nanoparticles are a promising delivery carrier of siRNA.
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Discovery of gramine derivatives that inhibit the early stage of EV71 replication in vitro.
Molecules
PUBLISHED: 04-14-2014
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Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is a notable causative agent of hand, foot, and mouth disease in children, which is associated with an increased incidence of severe neurological disease and death, yet there is no specific treatment or vaccine for EV71 infections. In this study, the antiviral activity of gramine and 21 gramine derivatives against EV71 was investigated in cell-based assays. Eighteen derivatives displayed some degree of inhibitory effects against EV71, in that they could effectively inhibit virus-induced cytopathic effects (CPEs), but the anti-EV71 activity of the lead compound gramine was not observed. Studies on the preliminary modes of action showed that these compounds functioned by targeting the early stage of the EV71 lifecycle after viral entry, rather than inactivating the virus directly, inhibiting virus adsorption or affecting viral release from the cells. Among these derivatives, one (compound 4s) containing pyridine and benzothiazole units showed the most potency against EV71. Further studies demonstrated that derivative 4s could profoundly inhibit viral RNA replication, protein synthesis, and virus-induced apoptosis in RD cells. These results indicate that derivative 4s might be a feasible therapeutic agent against EV71 infection and that these gramine derivatives may provide promising lead scaffolds for the further design and synthesis of potential antiviral agents.
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Adsorption of perfluorooctane sulfonate on carbon nanotubes: influence of pH and competitive ions.
Water Sci. Technol.
PUBLISHED: 04-11-2014
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Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) is one of the persistent organic pollutants that has aroused global concern. Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have drawn much research attention due to their unique properties. This study was aimed to investigate the adsorption behaviour of PFOS with relation to CNTs and clarify their interactions. Electrostatic repulsion suppressed the sorption of PFOS to multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs), resulting in low sorption at high pH. With the increase of anion concentration, the removal of PFOS decreased by 20 to 30% because ionic strength changed the aggregation of the MWCNTs. Unlike inorganic anions, cationic metals including Cu(II) and Pb(II) had a significant impact on the sorption of PFOS onto the MWCNTs. At low concentrations of Cu(II) and Pb(II), PFOS removal decreased due to the suppressive effect of ionic strength, while the removal of PFOS increased rapidly with increasing metal concentrations, especially for functionalized MWCNTs. The enhanced adsorption of PFOS at high Cu(II) and Pb(II) concentrations was attributed to the adsorbed cationic metals which might further adsorb PFOS.
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Molecularly targeting the PI3K-Akt-mTOR pathway can sensitize cancer cells to radiotherapy and chemotherapy.
Cell. Mol. Biol. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 03-28-2014
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Radiotherapy and chemotherapeutic agents that damage DNA are the current major non-surgical means of treating cancer. However, many patients develop resistances to chemotherapy drugs in their later lives. The PI3K and Ras signaling pathways are deregulated in most cancers, so molecularly targeting PI3K-Akt or Ras-MAPK signaling sensitizes many cancer types to radiotherapy and chemotherapy, but the underlying molecular mechanisms have yet to be determined. During the multi-step processes of tumorigenesis, cancer cells gain the capability to disrupt the cell cycle checkpoint and increase the activity of CDK4/6 by disrupting the PI3K, Ras, p53, and Rb signaling circuits. Recent advances have demonstrated that PI3K-Akt-mTOR signaling controls FANCD2 and ribonucleotide reductase (RNR). FANCD2 plays an important role in the resistance of cells to DNA damage agents and the activation of DNA damage checkpoints, while RNR is critical for the completion of DNA replication and repair in response to DNA damage and replication stress. Regulation of FANCD2 and RNR suggests that cancer cells depend on PI3K-Akt-mTOR signaling for survival in response to DNA damage, indicating that the PI3K-AktmTOR pathway promotes resistance to chemotherapy and radiotherapy by enhancing DNA damage repair.
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Polarization singularities and orbital angular momentum sidebands from rotational symmetry broken by the Pockels effect.
Sci Rep
PUBLISHED: 03-27-2014
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The law of angular momentum conservation is naturally linked to the rotational symmetry of the involved system. Here we demonstrate theoretically how to break the rotational symmetry of a uniaxial crystal via the electro-optic Pockels effect. By numerical method based on asymptotic expansion, we discover the 3D structure of polarization singularities in terms of C lines and L surfaces embedded in the emerging light. We visualize the controllable dynamics evolution of polarization singularities when undergoing the Pockels effect, which behaves just like the binary fission of a prokaryotic cell, i.e., the splitting of C points and fission of L lines are animated in analogy with the cleavage of nucleus and division of cytoplasm. We reveal the connection of polarization singularity dynamics with the accompanying generation of orbital angular momentum sidebands. It is unexpected that although the total angular momentum of light is not conserved, the total topological index of C points is conserved.
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Effect of osteopontin in regulating bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell treatment of skin wounds in diabetic mice.
Diabetes Metab. Res. Rev.
PUBLISHED: 03-19-2014
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We aimed to investigate the role of osteopontin in regulating mesenchymal stem cells transplanted to promote wound healing in diabetic mice.
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Altered brain network modules induce helplessness in major depressive disorder.
J Affect Disord
PUBLISHED: 03-17-2014
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The abnormal brain functional connectivity (FC) has been assumed to be a pathophysiological aspect of major depressive disorder (MDD). However, it is poorly understood, regarding the underlying patterns of global FC network and their relationships with the clinical characteristics of MDD.
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Design, Synthesis, Anti-Tobacco Mosaic Virus (TMV) Activity, and SARs of 7-Methoxycryptopleurine Derivatives.
Chem Biol Drug Des
PUBLISHED: 03-13-2014
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A series of 7-methoxycryptopleurine derivatives 2-23 were prepared and evaluated for their antiviral activity against tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) for the first time. The bioassay results showed that most of these compounds exhibited excellent in vivo anti-TMV activity, of which 7-methoxycryptopleurine salt derivatives 16, 19, and 23 displayed significantly higher activity than 7-methoxycryptopleurine (1) and commercial ribavirin and ningnanmycin. Salification, the most commonly employed method for modifying physical-chemical properties, did significantly increase antiviral activity, and different salt forms displayed different antiviral effect. This study provides fundamental support for development and optimization of phenanthroquinolizidine alkaloids as potential inhibitors of plant virus.
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Enhanced adsorption of perfluorooctane sulfonate and perfluorooctanoate by bamboo-derived granular activated carbon.
J. Hazard. Mater.
PUBLISHED: 03-11-2014
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A bamboo-derived granular activated carbon with large pores was successfully prepared by KOH activation, and used to remove perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) from aqueous solution. The granular activated carbon prepared at the KOH/C mass ratio of 4 and activation temperature of 900°C had fast and high adsorption for PFOS and PFOA. Their adsorption equilibrium was achieved within 24h, which was attributed to their fast diffusion in the micron-sized pores of activated carbon. This granular activated carbon exhibited the maximum adsorbed amount of 2.32mmol/g for PFOS and 1.15mmol/g for PFOA at pH 5.0, much higher than other granular and powdered activated carbons reported. The activated carbon prepared under the severe activation condition contained many enlarged pores, favorable for the adsorption of PFOS and PFOA. In addition, the spent activated carbon was hardly regenerated in NaOH/NaCl solution, while the regeneration efficiency was significantly enhanced in hot water and methanol/ethanol solution, indicating that hydrophobic interaction was mainly responsible for the adsorption. The regeneration percent was up to 98% using 50% ethanol solution at 45°C.
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Sparse multivariate autoregressive modeling for mild cognitive impairment classification.
Neuroinformatics
PUBLISHED: 03-06-2014
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Brain connectivity network derived from functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is becoming increasingly prevalent in the researches related to cognitive and perceptual processes. The capability to detect causal or effective connectivity is highly desirable for understanding the cooperative nature of brain network, particularly when the ultimate goal is to obtain good performance of control-patient classification with biological meaningful interpretations. Understanding directed functional interactions between brain regions via brain connectivity network is a challenging task. Since many genetic and biomedical networks are intrinsically sparse, incorporating sparsity property into connectivity modeling can make the derived models more biologically plausible. Accordingly, we propose an effective connectivity modeling of resting-state fMRI data based on the multivariate autoregressive (MAR) modeling technique, which is widely used to characterize temporal information of dynamic systems. This MAR modeling technique allows for the identification of effective connectivity using the Granger causality concept and reducing the spurious causality connectivity in assessment of directed functional interaction from fMRI data. A forward orthogonal least squares (OLS) regression algorithm is further used to construct a sparse MAR model. By applying the proposed modeling to mild cognitive impairment (MCI) classification, we identify several most discriminative regions, including middle cingulate gyrus, posterior cingulate gyrus, lingual gyrus and caudate regions, in line with results reported in previous findings. A relatively high classification accuracy of 91.89 % is also achieved, with an increment of 5.4 % compared to the fully-connected, non-directional Pearson-correlation-based functional connectivity approach.
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Epigenetic upregulation of PSD-95 contributes to the rewarding behavior by morphine conditioning.
Eur. J. Pharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 03-04-2014
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Abuse of opiates, including morphine, induced remarkable synaptic adaptation in several brain regions including ventral tegmental area (VTA), which underlay the induction and maintenance of opioid dependence and addiction. Scaffolding protein postsynaptic density protein 95 (PSD-95) is critically involved in the glutamatergic synaptic maturation and plasticity in the central neurons. The present study revealed a significantly increased mRNA and protein expression of PSD-95 in the VTA of the rats conditioned with morphine. The further chromatin immunoprecipitation study found an increased histone H3 acetylation in the promoter region of Dlg4. An upregulation of expression of phosphorylated cAMP response element-binding protein (pCREB) and the occupancy of pCREB in the Dlg4 promoter region were shown in the VTA of the morphine-conditioned rats. Inhibition of pCREB activity significantly decreased the histone H3 acetylation in Dlg4 promoter region, PSD-95 upregulation, enhancement of glutamatergic strength and the preference to morphine-paired chamber in the rats with morphine conditioning. These results suggested that CREB-mediated epigenetic upregulation of PSD-95 critically contributed to the enhanced glutamatergic transmission and rewarding behavior induced by morphine conditioning.
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Discontinuous mixed covolume methods for parabolic problems.
ScientificWorldJournal
PUBLISHED: 02-24-2014
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We present the semidiscrete and the backward Euler fully discrete discontinuous mixed covolume schemes for parabolic problems on triangular meshes. We give the error analysis of the discontinuous mixed covolume schemes and obtain optimal order error estimates in discontinuous H(div) and first-order error estimate in L(2).
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Rapid coating of surfaces with functionalized nanoparticles for regulation of cell behavior.
Adv. Mater. Weinheim
PUBLISHED: 02-21-2014
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A robust monolayer of nanoparticles is formed via dip-coating of cell culture plates. These surfaces provide cell type-specific modulation of growth behavior without the uptake of nanoparticles.
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Gold nanoparticles for nucleic acid delivery.
Mol. Ther.
PUBLISHED: 02-21-2014
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Gold nanoparticles provide an attractive and applicable scaffold for delivery of nucleic acids. In this review, we focus on the use of covalent and noncovalent gold nanoparticle conjugates for applications in gene delivery and RNA-interference technologies. We also discuss challenges in nucleic acid delivery, including endosomal entrapment/escape and active delivery/presentation of nucleic acids in the cell.
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Identifying polyvinylidene fluoride ultrafiltration membrane fouling behavior of different effluent organic matter fractions using colloidal probes.
Water Res.
PUBLISHED: 02-18-2014
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The interaction forces between effluent organic matter (EfOM) fractions and membrane were measured by atomic force microscopy in conjunction with self-made membrane material colloidal probes. The inter-EfOM-fraction and intra-EfOM-fraction interactions were investigated using corresponding EfOM-fraction-coated colloidal probe. We combined this analysis with corresponding fouling experiments to identify the EfOM fractions responsible for polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) ultrafiltration membrane fouling. Results show that hydrophilic and hydrophobic fractions were the dominant fractions responsible for membrane fouling and flux decline in the initial and later filtration stages, respectively, which was mainly attributed to the stronger PVDF-hydrophilic fraction and intra-hydrophobic-fraction interaction forces. This phenomenon, in conjunction with the fact that each interaction force of PVDF-EfOM fraction was stronger than corresponding intra-EfOM-fraction force, suggests that the elimination of the PVDF-hydrophilic fraction interaction force is the best strategy for controlling EfOM fouling. Moreover, the inter-EfOM-fraction interaction force was mainly controlled by the corresponding intra-EfOM-fraction interaction forces. And, while the membrane-EfOM fraction and intra-EfOM-fraction interactions for each type of EfOM fraction are equivalent, the EfOM fractions with the molecular weight smaller than the molecular weight cutoff of the membranes used were mainly responsible for membrane fouling rather than the relatively high-molecular-weight fractions.
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Transcutaneous oxygen pressure (TcPO?): a novel diagnostic tool for peripheral neuropathy in type 2 diabetes patients.
Diabetes Res. Clin. Pract.
PUBLISHED: 02-12-2014
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The assessment of transcutaneous oxygen pressure (TcPO2) may serve as a non-invasive and lower-cost alternative to nerve conduction studies (NCSs) for the diagnosis of diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN). The aim of this study was to determine whether the measurement of TcPO2 is useful for evaluating DPN.
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Yeast-based assays for the high-throughput screening of inhibitors of coronavirus RNA cap guanine-N7-methyltransferase.
Antiviral Res.
PUBLISHED: 01-29-2014
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The 5'-cap structure is a distinct feature of eukaryotic mRNAs and is important for RNA stability and protein translation by providing a molecular signature for the distinction of self or non-self mRNA. Eukaryotic viruses generally modify the 5'-end of their RNAs to mimic the cellular mRNA structure, thereby facilitating viral replication in host cells. However, the molecular organization and biochemical mechanisms of the viral capping apparatus typically differ from its cellular counterpart, which makes viral capping enzymes attractive targets for drug discovery. Our previous work showed that SARS coronavirus (SARS-CoV) non-structural protein 14 represents a structurally novel and unique guanine-N7-methyltransferase (N7-MTase) that is able to functionally complement yeast cellular N7-MTase. In the present study, we developed a yeast-based system for identifying and screening inhibitors against coronavirus N7-MTase using both 96-well and 384-well microtiter plates. The MTase inhibitors previously identified by in vitro biochemical assays were tested, and some, such as sinefungin, effectively suppressed N7-MTase in the yeast system. However, other compounds, such as ATA and AdoHcy, did not exert an inhibitory effect within a cellular context. These results validated the yeast assay system for inhibitor screening yet also demonstrated the difference between cell-based and in vitro biochemical assays. The yeast system was applied to the screening of 3000 natural product extracts, and three were observed to more potently inhibit the activity of coronavirus than human N7-MTase.
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Characterization of an extremely thermostable but cold-adaptive ?-galactosidase from the hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrococcus furiosus for use as a recombinant aggregation for batch lactose degradation at high temperature.
J. Biosci. Bioeng.
PUBLISHED: 01-24-2014
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?-Galactosidase (lactase), which catalyzes the hydrolysis of lactose into glucose and galactose, is one of the most important enzymes used in dairy processing. In this study, a gene that encoded an extremely thermostable ?-galactosidase from Pyrococcus furiosus (Pflactase) was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli BL21. The recombinant enzyme was purified by heat treatment and Ni-NTA affinity chromatography. The enzyme displayed optimal activity at 90°C and pH 7.0 in phosphate buffer. The specific activity of the recombinant enzyme on o-nitrophenyl-?-d-galactopyranoside was 10.2 U/mg at 0°C and 130.0dU/mg at 90°C. The half-lives of the enzyme were 31423.4, 8168.3, 4017.7, 547.4, 309.6, and 203.5 min at 70°C, 80°C, 85°C, 90°C, 95°C, and 100°C, respectively. The recombinant enzyme exhibited both ?-galactosidase and ?-glucosidase activity. The active inclusion bodies of ?-galactosidase were easily isolated by nonionic detergent treatment and directly used for lactose conversion in a repetitive batch mode. More than 54% (90°C) or 88% (10°C) of the original enzyme activity was retained after 10 conversion cycles under optimum conditions. These results suggest that the recombinant thermostable ?-galactosidase may be suitable for the hydrolysis of lactose in milk processing.
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Multisubstituted indole-acrylonitrile hybrids as potential cytotoxic agents.
Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 01-16-2014
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A series of multisubstituted indole-acrylonitrile hybrids were designed, synthesized and evaluated for their potential cytotoxic activities. The bio-evaluation results indicated that some of the target compounds (such as 3a, 3f, 3k, 3n) exhibited good to moderate cytotoxic effect on HepG2, BCG-823, BEL-7402, and HL-7702 cell lines. Especially, the compounds 3a and 3k also exhibited high cytotoxic activities (3a, 19.38±3.38 ?M; 3k, 15.43±3.54 ?M) against the BEL-7402 cell line resistant to Taxol (>25?M) and 5-FU (>500 ?M), which might be developed as novel lead scaffold for potential anticancer agents.
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Potential enhancement of intravenous nano-hydroxyapatite in high-intensity focused ultrasound ablation for treating hepatocellular carcinoma in a rabbit model.
Oncol Lett
PUBLISHED: 01-15-2014
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The aim of the present study was to evaluate the safety and efficiency of an intravenously delivered nano-hydroxyapatite (Nano-HA) solution into a rabbit model (Oryctolagus cuniculus) to determine the potential enhancement of high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) for the ablation of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in liver tissue. The present study clearly indicated that the intravenous delivery of large quantities of Nano-HA into the body of the rabbit model over relatively short periods of time may be absorbed by the hepatic reticuloendothelial system. Subsequent HIFU treatment for HCC, as well as intravenous Nano-HA, produced a rapid increase in temperature and an enlargement of the coagulated necrotic area during ablation in the in vivo and ex vivo environments. In addition, it was found that the therapeutic doses of Nano-HA produced mild and transient abnormalities in the normal renal function and hepatic enzymes during the first 24 h following administration. The results of the current study indicated that the combination of Nano-HA and HIFU may provide a safe and effective alternative to conventional surgical procedures.
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Adsorption behavior and mechanism of perfluorinated compounds on various adsorbents--a review.
J. Hazard. Mater.
PUBLISHED: 01-04-2014
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Perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) have drawn great attention recently due to their wide distribution in aquatic environments and potential toxic to animals and human beings. Adsorption not only is an effective technology to remove PFCs from water or wastewater, but also affects PFC distribution at solid-liquid interfaces and their fate in aquatic environments. This article reviews the adsorption behavior of different PFCs (mainly perfluorooctane sulfonate and perfluorooctanoate) on various adsorptive materials. Some effective adsorbents are introduced in detail in terms of their preparation, characteristics, effects of solution chemistry and PFC properties on adsorption. Adsorption mechanisms of PFCs on different adsorbents are summarized, and various interactions including electrostatic interaction, hydrophobic interaction, ligand exchange, and hydrogen bond are fully reviewed. The adsorbents with amine groups generally have high adsorption capacity for PFCs, and formation of micelles/hemi-micelles plays an important role in achieving high adsorption capacity of perfluorinated surfactants on some porous adsorbents. Hydrophobic interaction is mainly responsible for PFC adsorption, but the difference between PFCs and traditional hydrocarbons has not clearly clarified. This review paper would be helpful for the preparation of effective adsorbents for PFC removal and understanding interfacial process of PFCs during their transport and fate in aquatic environments.
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Serum retinol-binding protein 4 levels are elevated but do not contribute to insulin resistance in newly diagnosed Chinese hypertensive patients.
Diabetol Metab Syndr
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Insulin resistance (IR) is closely correlated with cardiovascular disease (CVD). Retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4) is a novel adipokine that modulates the action of insulin in various diseases. This study addressed the relationship between RBP4 and IR in newly diagnosed essential hypertension.
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Structural and diffusion property alterations in unaffected siblings of patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Disrupted white matter integrity and abnormal cortical thickness are widely reported in the pathophysiology of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). However, the relationship between alterations in white matter connectivity and cortical thickness in OCD is unclear. In addition, the heritability of this relationship is poorly understood. To investigate the relationship of white matter microstructure with cortical thickness, we measure fractional anisotropy (FA) of white matter in 30 OCD patients, 19 unaffected siblings and 30 matched healthy controls. Then, we take those regions of significantly altered FA in OCD patients compared with healthy controls to perform fiber tracking. Next, we calculate the fiber quantity in the same tracts. Lastly, we compare cortical thickness in the target regions of those tracts. Patients with OCD exhibited decreased FA in cingulum, arcuate fibers near the superior parietal lobule, inferior longitudinal fasciculus near the right superior temporal gyrus and uncinate fasciculus. Siblings showed reduced FA in arcuate fibers near the superior parietal lobule and anterior limb of internal capsule. Significant reductions in both fiber quantities and cortical thickness in OCD patients and their unaffected siblings were also observed in the projected brain areas when using the arcuate fibers near the left superior parietal lobule as the starting points. Reduced FA in the left superior parietal lobule was observed not only in patients with OCD but also in their unaffected siblings. Originated from the superior parietal lobule, the number of fibers was also found to be decreased and the corresponding cortical regions were thinner relative to controls. The linkage between disrupted white matter integrity and the abnormal cortical thickness may be a vulnerability marker for OCD.
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?-Smooth muscle actin-positive myofibroblasts, in association with epithelial-mesenchymal transition and lymphogenesis, is a critical prognostic parameter in patients with oral tongue squamous cell carcinoma.
J. Oral Pathol. Med.
PUBLISHED: 11-14-2013
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?-Smooth muscle actin (?-SMA)-positive myofibroblasts play a pivotal role in progression and metastasis of solid carcinomas. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) of cancer cells and lymphogenesis of tumor microenvironment are the important events in tumor metastasis. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between the expression of myofibroblasts marker, ?-SMA, and clinicopathological features, EMT, lymphogenesis, and prognostic status in oral tongue squamous cell carcinoma (OTSCC).
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Fabrication of Wafer-Size Monolayer Close-Packed Colloidal Crystals via Slope Self-Assembly and Thermal Treatment.
Langmuir
PUBLISHED: 11-05-2013
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We developed a simple and general approach for constructing a wafer-scale monolayer, close-packed polystyrene (PS), and SiO2 sphere arrays, namely colloidal crystals, which have significant potential in various applications. The method combines slope self-assembly and thermal treatment to achieve large-area and high-quality colloidal crystal with a proper slant angle (?) and latex concentration (volume fraction, ?). The dependence of the structures of colloidal crystals on a dispersion system was also investigated. Moreover, a theoretical analysis of the slope self-assembly method was proposed. In addition, we applied the method to assemble PS spheres on different kinds of substrates, which indicates that the method is a versatile and reliable way to fabricate monolayer colloidal crystals.
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Stent-based delivery of decoy oligodeoxynucleotides against activator protein-1 binding site decreased restenosis in rabbits.
Pharmazie
PUBLISHED: 09-12-2013
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The application of drug eluting stents (DES) significantly reduced the rate of restenosis but is associated with increased risk of late stage thrombosis. Thus, development of more effective and safer drugs for in stent delivery to inhibit restenosis is of great clinical interest. Decoy oligodeoxynucleotides against activator protein-1 (AP-1) binding site (dec-ODN) delivered with one time infusion or transfer have been shown to effectively inhibit neointimal proliferation and thickening. In this study, we delivered dec-ODN against AP-1 in-stent and examined the inhibitory effects on restenosis. Synthetic dec-ODN targeting consensus AP-1 binding site was coated onto DESs. Thirty male rabbits were randomly divided into three groups: Control stent (CS), scrambled oligodeoxynucleotides (scr-ODN) stent and dec-ODN stent groups with 10 rabbits in each group. All stents were implanted in the abdominal aorta of rabbits. Eight weeks after stent implantation, the neointimal hyperplasia and re-endothelialization in the abdominal aortas of implanted segments were examined as well as the expression of TGF-beta1 and TGF-beta1 target gene connective tissue growth factor (CTGF). Dec-ODN delivered in-stent significantly inhibited the mRNA and protein expression of TGF-beta1 and CTGF, as well as neointimal thickening and restenosis in abdominal aortas as compared to control (CS) and scr-ODN. Re-endothelialization was not evidently affected by the delivery of Scr-ODN and dec-ODN. Our data demonstrate that in-stent delivery of dec-ODN against AP-1 effectively inhibited neointimal hyperplasia and support further investigation of DES/dec-ODN against AP-1 as a potential long-term therapeutic agent against in-stent restenosis.
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Design, synthesis, and anti-tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) activity of glycoconjugates of phenanthroindolizidines alkaloids.
Mol. Divers.
PUBLISHED: 07-23-2013
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Glycoconjugates of phenanthroindolizidine alkaloids targeting tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) RNA were designed, synthesized, and evaluated for their antiviral activity against TMV for the first time. The glycoconjugation of [Formula: see text]-6-O-desmethylantofine (2) and 14-hydroxyltylophorines (3-6) was accomplished in three ways (O-glycosylation manner, using carbamoyloxy as linker arm, and using 1,2,3-triazole as linker arm) with three different sugar units (glucose, galactose, and mannose). The glycoconjugates showed improved water solubility and molecule polarity compared with phenanthroindolizidine alkaloids. The bioassay results showed that C6 was a suitable position for glycoconjugation and O-glycosylation can increase the antiviral activity of phenanthroindolizidine alkaloids indicating that the introduction of sugar units can improve the antiviral activity profile of glycoconjugates. Two O-glycosides of [Formula: see text]-6-O-desmethylantofine, (13aS)-6-O-[Formula: see text]-D-galactopyranosyl-2,3-dimethoxyphenanthro [9,10-b]-11-indolizidinone (10) and (13aS)-6-O-[Formula: see text]-D-mannopyranosyl-2,3-dimethoxyphenanthro [9,10-b]-11-indolizidinone (11) displayed significant higher activity than commercial ningnanmycin, and thus could be considered for novel therapy against plant virus infection.
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3D printed bionic ears.
Nano Lett.
PUBLISHED: 05-03-2013
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The ability to three-dimensionally interweave biological tissue with functional electronics could enable the creation of bionic organs possessing enhanced functionalities over their human counterparts. Conventional electronic devices are inherently two-dimensional, preventing seamless multidimensional integration with synthetic biology, as the processes and materials are very different. Here, we present a novel strategy for overcoming these difficulties via additive manufacturing of biological cells with structural and nanoparticle derived electronic elements. As a proof of concept, we generated a bionic ear via 3D printing of a cell-seeded hydrogel matrix in the anatomic geometry of a human ear, along with an intertwined conducting polymer consisting of infused silver nanoparticles. This allowed for in vitro culturing of cartilage tissue around an inductive coil antenna in the ear, which subsequently enables readout of inductively-coupled signals from cochlea-shaped electrodes. The printed ear exhibits enhanced auditory sensing for radio frequency reception, and complementary left and right ears can listen to stereo audio music. Overall, our approach suggests a means to intricately merge biologic and nanoelectronic functionalities via 3D printing.
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Novel cycloalkylthiophene-imine derivatives bearing benzothiazole scaffold: synthesis, characterization and antiviral activity evaluation.
Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 05-02-2013
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A series of novel cycloalkylthiophene-imine derivatives containing benzothiazole unit were designed, synthesized and evaluated for their anti-viral activities. The bio-evaluation results indicated that some of the target compounds (such as 5g, 5i, 5u) exhibited good to moderate antiviral effect on CVB5, ADV7 and EV71 viruses, however, these compounds did not have inhibition activity against H1N1 virus. Especially, the compounds 4c and 4d also exhibited high antiviral activities, which provide a new and efficient approach to evolve novel multi-functional antiviral agents by rational integration of active pharmacophores.
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Renal collecting duct carcinoma with extensive coagulative necrosis mimicking anemic infarct: report of a case and the literature review.
Diagn Pathol
PUBLISHED: 04-22-2013
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: Collecting duct carcinoma (CDC) with a mass of coagulative necrosis is very rare. We report here a case of CDC with extensive geographic coagulative necrosis mimicking anemic infarct with tumor cells embedded around the necrotic foci in a 73-years-old man. Histopathological examination showed that tumor nests near the necrotic foci were arranged as angulated tubules, tubulopapillary and glandular structures. Neoplastic cells had moderate to abundant eosinophilic cytoplasm and large hyperchromatic nuclei with prominent nucleoli as Fuhrman nuclear grade 3 or 4. The tumor cells were positive for pan-Cytokeratin, Vimentin, E-cadherin, CD10, and CK7, confirming the diagnosis as CDC. The patient is still alive 6 months later from nephrectomy, a long time following up is needed to learn the prognosis. Conclusively, morphology from different portions of the lesion, immunohistochemical stain and the combination analysis of the radiological features is essential to make a precise pathological diagnosis of CDC. And CDC should also be distinguished from renal clear cell renal cell carcinoma, renal medullary carcinoma, urothelial carcinoma with glandular differentiation, renal neuroendocrine tumor, renal epithelioid angiomyolipoma, renal pigmented paraganglioma and renal mesenchymal chondrosarcoma etc.Virtual Slides: The virtual slide(s) for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/1264270525975030.
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Fouling behavior of typical organic foulants in polyvinylidene fluoride ultrafiltration membranes: characterization from microforces.
Environ. Sci. Technol.
PUBLISHED: 04-01-2013
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To further unravel the organic fouling behavior of polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) ultrafiltration (UF) membranes, the adhesion forces of membrane-foulant and foulant-foulant were investigated by atomic force microscopy (AFM) in conjunction with self-made PVDF colloidal probe and foulant-coated colloidal probe, respectively. Fouling experiments with bovine serum albumin, sodium alginate, humic acid, and secondary wastewater effluent organic matter (EfOM) were carried out with PVDF UF membrane. Results showed a positive correlation between the membrane-foulant adhesion force and the flux decline rate and extent in the initial filtration stage, whereas the foulant-foulant interaction force was closely related to the pseudostable flux and the cake layer structure in the later filtration stage. For each type of foulant used, the membrane-foulant adhesion force was much stronger than the foulant-foulant interaction force, and membrane flux decline mainly occurred in the earlier filtration stage indicating that elimination of the membrane-foulant interaction force is important for the control of membrane fouling. Upon considering the foulant-foulant interaction force and the membrane flux recovery rate of fouled membranes, it was evident that the main contributor to physically irreversible fouling is the foulant-foulant interaction force.
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Synthesis of novel steroid derivatives derived from dehydroepiandrosterone as potential anticancer agents.
Anticancer Agents Med Chem
PUBLISHED: 02-26-2013
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A series of dehydroepiandrosterone derivatives containing dihydrazone unit was synthesized via a convenient condensation procedure, and which were evaluated for their potential anticancer activities. The preliminary assays indicated that some of the newly synthesized compounds exhibited good antitumor activities against human hepatocellular liver carcinoma (HepG2), heptoma (Huh-7), gastric cancer (BGC-823) and breast adenocarcinoma (MCF-7) cell lines compared with 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), which might be considered as promising lead scaffold for further design and synthesis of potential anticancer agents.
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Effect of laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery on type 2 diabetes mellitus with hypertension: A randomized controlled trial.
Diabetes Res. Clin. Pract.
PUBLISHED: 01-31-2013
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AIMS: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery compared with usual care with and without Exenatide therapy in obese people with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and hypertension. METHODS: 108 obese T2DM with hypertension were enrolled and randomly allocated to usual care (group A), usual care plus Exenatide (group B), and RYGB surgery (group C). Demographic characteristics, metabolic parameters and cardiac structure/function along with inflammatory cytokines were measured and compared before and after 12 months. RESULTS: At 12 months, diabetes remission had occurred in no patients in groups A and B versus 90% in group C, and there was a significant decrease in requirement of antihypertensive drugs in group C compared with groups A and B (P<0.05). Other parameters (body mass index, hemoglobin A1c, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance, lipids), inflammation index (high sensitivity C-reactive protein, tumor necrosis factor-?, high molecular weight adiponectin) and cardiac structure (left ventricular mass index) were significantly improved in groups B and C, but patients in group C had the greatest degree of improvement (P<0.05). CONCLUSION: RYGB surgery improves a number of parameters including cardiovascular function in obese hypertensive people with T2DM. This is likely to be due to, at least in part, an improvement in the abnormal metabolic panel and to reduced inflammation.
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Gli3 is required in Emx1+ progenitors for the development of the corpus callosum.
Dev. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 01-29-2013
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The corpus callosum (CC) is the largest commissure in the forebrain and mediates the transfer of sensory, motor and cognitive information between the cerebral hemispheres. During CC development, a number of strategically located glial and neuronal guidepost structures serve to guide callosal axons across the midline at the corticoseptal boundary (CSB). Correct positioning of these guideposts requires the Gli3 gene, mutations of which result in callosal defects in humans and mice. However, as Gli3 is widely expressed during critical stages of forebrain development, the precise temporal and spatial requirements for Gli3 function in callosal development remain unclear. Here, we used a conditional mouse mutant approach to inactivate Gli3 in specific regions of the developing telencephalon in order to delineate the domain(s) in which Gli3 is required for normal development of the corpus callosum. Inactivation of Gli3 in the septum or in the medial ganglionic eminence had no effect on CC formation, however Gli3 inactivation in the developing cerebral cortex led to the formation of a severely hypoplastic CC at E18.5 due to a severe disorganization of midline guideposts. Glial wedge cells translocate prematurely and Slit1/2 are ectopically expressed in the septum. These changes coincide with altered Fgf and Wnt/?-catenin signalling during CSB formation. Collectively, these data demonstrate a crucial role for Gli3 in cortical progenitors to control CC formation and indicate how defects in CSB formation affect the positioning of callosal guidepost cells.
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Synthesis and antiviral activities of antofine analogues with different C-6 substituent groups.
J. Agric. Food Chem.
PUBLISHED: 01-24-2013
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On the basis of previous structure-activity relationship (SAR) and antiviral mechanism studies, antofine analogues with different substituent groups at the C-6 position targeting tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) RNA were synthesized for the first time. The antofine analogues 1a-8a and 1b-9b were evaluated for their antiviral activity against TMV. The SAR study of antofine analogues is discussed. Most of the compounds were found to exhibit higher antiviral activity than commercial Ningnanmycin in vitro and in vivo. The groups with hydrogen donor or electron-withdrawing groups at the C-6 position were found to be favorable for antiviral activity.
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Estimating DNA polymorphism from next generation sequencing data with high error rate by dual sequencing applications.
BMC Genomics
PUBLISHED: 01-18-2013
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As the error rate is high and the distribution of errors across sites is non-uniform in next generation sequencing (NGS) data, it has been a challenge to estimate DNA polymorphism (?) accurately from NGS data.
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Flocculation of both anionic and cationic dyes in aqueous solutions by the amphoteric grafting flocculant carboxymethyl chitosan-graft-polyacrylamide.
J. Hazard. Mater.
PUBLISHED: 01-15-2013
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In the current work, a series of amphoteric grafting chitosan-based flocculants (carboxymethyl chitosan-graft-polyacrylamide, denoted as CMC-g-PAM) was designed and prepared successfully. The flocculants were applied to eliminate various dyes from aqueous solutions. Among different graft copolymers, CMC-g-PAM11 with a PAM grafting ratio of 74% demonstrated the most efficient performance for removal of both the anionic dye (Methyl Orange, MO) and the cationic dye (Basic Bright Yellow, 7GL) under the corresponding favored conditions (80 mg/L of the flocculant at pH 4.0, and 160 mg/L at pH 11.0). In comparison with its precursors, chitosan and carboxymethyl chitosan, CMC-g-PAM11 showed higher removal efficiencies and wider flocculation windows. More importantly, the graft copolymer produced notably more compacted flocs based on image analysis in combination with fractal theory, which was of great significance in practical water treatment. Furthermore, the flocculation mechanism was discussed in detail. The grafted polyacrylamide chains were found to contribute much to the improved bridging and sweeping flocculation effects, but reduced charge neutralization flocculation for the effect of charge screening.
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Design, synthesis, and insecticidal evaluation of new benzoylureas containing amide and sulfonate groups based on the sulfonylurea receptor protein binding site for diflubenzuron and glibenclamide.
J. Agric. Food Chem.
PUBLISHED: 01-10-2013
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On the basis of the sulfonylurea receptor (SUR) protein binding site for diflubenzuron and glibenclamide, 15 new benzoylphenylureas containing amide and sulfonate groups were designed and synthesized. Their structures were characterized by (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and elemental analysis [or high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS)]. The larvicidal activities of the new compounds against oriental armyworm and diamondback moth were evaluated. Compound II-3 showed nearly the same level of insecticidal activity against oriental armyworm as commercial insecticide flucycloxuron and, thus, emerged as a new lead compound for the development of new benzoylurea insecticides.
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Discovery and SARs of trans-3-aryl acrylic acids and their analogs as novel anti-tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) agents.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-09-2013
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A series of trans-3-aryl acrylic acids 1-27 and their derivatives 28-34 were prepared and evaluated for their antiviral activity against tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) for the first time. The bioassay results showed that most of these compounds exhibited good antiviral activity against TMV, of which compounds 1, 5, 6, 20, 27 and 34 exhibited significantly higher activity against TMV than commercial Ribavirin both in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, these compounds have more simple structure than commercial Ribavirin, and can be synthesized more efficiently. These new findings demonstrate that trans-3-aryl acrylic acids and their derivatives represent a new template for antiviral studies and could be considered for novel therapy against plant virus infection.
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In vitro and in vivo anticancer activity of aconitine on melanoma cell line B16.
Molecules
PUBLISHED: 01-05-2013
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The anti-tumor effect of aconitine in melanoma cell line B16 has been studied in this paper. We found that B16 cells showed significantly reduced growth rates and increased apoptotic effects in the presence of aconitine. Furthermore, aconitine inhibited the PI3K/AKT and MAPK/ERK1/2 signaling pathways, thus regulating the levels of protein and mRNA of PCNA and apoptotic related signaling molecules. Above all, we found that aconitine showed an anti-melanoma effect in suppressing tumor growth in vivo. In conclusion, we show that aconitine may be a useful anticancer drug in the future.
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Altered modular organization of structural cortical networks in children with autism.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Autism is a complex developmental disability that characterized by deficits in social interaction, language skills, repetitive stereotyped behaviors and restricted interests. Although great heterogeneity exists, previous findings suggest that autism has atypical brain connectivity patterns and disrupted small-world network properties. However, the organizational alterations in the autistic brain network are still poorly understood. We explored possible organizational alterations of 49 autistic children and 51 typically developing controls, by investigating their brain network metrics that are constructed upon cortical thickness correlations. Three modules were identified in controls, including cortical regions associated with brain functions of executive strategic, spatial/auditory/visual, and self-reference/episodic memory. There are also three modules found in autistic children with similar patterns. Compared with controls, autism demonstrates significantly reduced gross network modularity, and a larger number of inter-module connections. However, the autistic brain network demonstrates increased intra- and inter-module connectivity in brain regions including middle frontal gyrus, inferior parietal gyrus, and cingulate, suggesting one underlying compensatory mechanism associated with brain functions of self-reference and episodic memory. Results also show that there is increased correlation strength between regions inside frontal lobe, as well as impaired correlation strength between frontotemporal and frontoparietal regions. This alteration of correlation strength may contribute to the organization alteration of network structures in autistic brains.
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MicroRNA-148a suppresses tumor cell invasion and metastasis by downregulating ROCK1 in gastric cancer.
Clin. Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 10-12-2011
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MicroRNAs (miRNA) have been documented playing a critical role in cancer development and progression. In this study, we investigate the role of miR-148a in gastric cancer metastasis.
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The prognostic significance of apoptosis-related biological markers in Chinese gastric cancer patients.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 06-29-2011
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The prognosis varied among the patients with the same stage, therefore there was a need for new prognostic and predictive factors. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship of apoptosis-related biological markers such as p53, bcl-2, bax, and c-myc, and clinicopathological features and their prognostic value.
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A proteome reference map and virulence factors analysis of Yersinia pestis 91001.
J Proteomics
PUBLISHED: 06-13-2011
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In this report, we carried out the in-depth proteomic analysis of Yersinia pestis strain 91001 under in vitro flea-simulated condition using three technique routes, SDS-PAGE combined with LTQ-FT, two-dimensional liquid chromatography peptide (2D-LC peptide) separation combined with LTQ-FT and intact protein separation followed by 2D-LC peptide separation combined with LTQ-FT. Totally, 1926 proteins (13082 peptides) were identified, covering 46.50% (1926/4142) of the predicted proteome. Transcriptome analysis based on a whole genome DNA microarray of Y. pestis defined 1655 genes with the coincidence of 56.65% to the proteomic results. Through analyzing the identifications of virulence factors involving in the life cycle of Y. pestis, it was found that Hms system and murine toxin, which are virulence factors involved in Y. pestis maintenance in flea, were highly expressed in our analysis. Moreover, some virulence factors also appeared with different extents, such as plasminogen activator, PhoP/PhoQ two-component system, type III secretion system, iron acquisition systems (Ybt, Yfe and Yfu) and ferric uptake regulator. These results indicated that Y. pestis may prepare itself with various strategies in advance for its survival when it evades the hosts. The protein identifications can be accessed through PRIDE database (http://www.ebi.ac.uk/pride) with accession number 18578-18605
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Population genetics in nonmodel organisms: II. natural selection in marginal habitats revealed by deep sequencing on dual platforms.
Mol. Biol. Evol.
PUBLISHED: 04-18-2011
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Population genetics of species living in marginal habitats could be particularly informative about the genetics of adaptation, but such analyses have not been readily feasible until recently. Sonneratia alba, a mangrove species widely distributed in the Indo-West Pacific, provides a very suitable system for the study of local adaptation. In this study, we analyzed DNA variation by pooling 71 genes from 85-100 individuals for DNA sequencing. For each of the two nearby S. alba populations, we obtained ~2,500 × coverage on the Illumina GA platform and for the Sanya population, an additional 5,400 × coverage on the AB SOLiD platform. For the Sanya sample, although each sequencing method called many putative single nucleotide polymorphisms, the two sets of calls did not overlap, suggesting platform-dependent errors. Conventional sequencing corroborated that each population is monomorphic. The two populations differ by 54 bp of 79,000 sites, but 90% of the variants are found in 10% of the genes. Strong local adaptation and high migration may help to explain the extensive monomorphism shared by the two populations in the presence of a small number of highly differentiated loci.
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Use of protein microarray to identify gene expression changes of Yersinia pestis at different temperatures.
Can. J. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 04-16-2011
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Yersinia pestis is a bacterium that is transmitted between fleas, which have a body temperature of 26 °C, and mammalian hosts, which have a body temperature of 37 °C. To adapt to the temperature shift, phenotype variations, including virulence, occur. In this study, an antigen microarray including 218 proteins of Y. pestis was used to evaluate antibody responses in a pooled plague serum that was unadsorbed, adsorbed by Y. pestis cultivated at 26 °C, or adsorbed by Y. pestis cultivated at 26 and 37 °C to identify protein expression changes during the temperature shift. We identified 12 proteins as being expressed at 37 °C but not at 26 °C, or expressed at significantly higher levels at 37 °C than at 26 °C. The antibodies against 7 proteins in the serum adsorbed by Y. pestis cultivated at 26 and 37 °C remained positive, suggesting that they were not expressed on the surface of Y. pestis in LB broth in vitro or specifically expressed in vivo. This study proved that protein microarray and antibody profiling comprise a promising technique for monitoring gene expression at the protein level and for better understanding pathogenicity, to find new vaccine targets against plague.
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Two evolutionary histories in the genome of rice: the roles of domestication genes.
PLoS Genet.
PUBLISHED: 04-07-2011
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Genealogical patterns in different genomic regions may be different due to the joint influence of gene flow and selection. The existence of two subspecies of cultivated rice provides a unique opportunity for analyzing these effects during domestication. We chose 66 accessions from the three rice taxa (about 22 each from Oryza sativa indica, O. sativa japonica, and O. rufipogon) for whole-genome sequencing. In the search for the signature of selection, we focus on low diversity regions (LDRs) shared by both cultivars. We found that the genealogical histories of these overlapping LDRs are distinct from the genomic background. While indica and japonica genomes generally appear to be of independent origin, many overlapping LDRs may have originated only once, as a result of selection and subsequent introgression. Interestingly, many such LDRs contain only one candidate gene of rice domestication, and several known domestication genes have indeed been "rediscovered" by this approach. In summary, we identified 13 additional candidate genes of domestication.
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Life cycle implications of urban green infrastructure.
Environ. Pollut.
PUBLISHED: 01-02-2011
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Low Impact Development (LID) is part of a new paradigm in urban water management that aims to decentralize water storage and movement functions within urban watersheds. LID strategies can restore ecosystem functions and reduce runoff loadings to municipal water pollution control facilities (WPCF). This research examines the avoided energy and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of select LID strategies using life cycle assessment (LCA) and a stochastic urban watershed model. We estimate annual energy savings and avoided GHG emissions of 7.3 GJ and 0.4 metric tons, respectively, for a LID strategy implemented in a neighborhood in New York City. Annual savings are small compared to the energy and GHG intensity of the LID materials, resulting in slow environmental payback times. This preliminary analysis suggests that if implemented throughout an urban watershed, LID strategies may have important energy cost savings to WPCF, and can make progress towards reducing their carbon footprint.
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Analysis of clinicopathologic features and prognostic factors in hepatoid adenocarcinoma of the stomach.
Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
PUBLISHED: 09-28-2010
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To investigate the different nature between hepatoid adenocarcinoma of the stomach (HAS) and common stomach cancer without the hepatoid differentiation areas (non-HAS).
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Asymmetric synthesis of (R)-antofine and (R)-cryptopleurine via proline-catalyzed sequential ?-aminoxylation and Horner-Wadsworth-Emmons olefination of aldehyde.
J. Org. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 09-17-2010
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Naturally occurring phenanthroindolizidine alkaloids (R)-antofine and phenanthroquinolizidine alkaloids (R)-cryptopleurine have been synthesized in high optical purity via proline-catalyzed sequential ?-aminoxylation and Horner-Wadsworth-Emmons olefination of aldehyde. Both enantiopure forms of proline are commercially available, and thus, in principle, both isomers of antofine and cryptopleurine can be accessed with the new method.
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Clinicopathologic features and prognostic factors in alpha-fetoprotein-producing gastric cancers: analysis of 104 cases.
J Surg Oncol
PUBLISHED: 08-27-2010
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There were no comprehensive studies on the clinicopathologic features and prognosis of alpha-protein-producing gastric cancer. The aim of this study was to elucidate the clinicopathologic characteristics and prognostic factors of alpha-fetoprotein (AFP)-producing gastric cancer.
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Development of an up-converting phosphor technology-based 10-channel lateral flow assay for profiling antibodies against Yersinia pestis.
J. Microbiol. Methods
PUBLISHED: 04-22-2010
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In this study, a 10-channel up-converting phosphor technology-based lateral flow (TC-UPT-LF) assay was developed to profile antibodies against Yersinia pestis. Ten expressed Y. pestis proteins were covalently conjugated with an up-converting phosphor particle to develop double-antigen sandwich immunochromatographic strips to detect corresponding antibodies. After optimization one by one, each strip was integrated into a TC-UPT-LF disc for simultaneously detection of different antibodies. A scanning biosensor was also developed to acquire the results. The performance of the TC-UPT-LF assay was evaluated by using standard samples and plague monkey serum samples. Fifty-one patient serum samples were detected by the TC-UPT-LF assay. The TC-UPT-LF disc could be stable for 10 days at 37°C with an average CV of 10.3%. Its sensitivity and qualitative results are comparable to those of ELISA. Its linearity fitting coefficient of determination (R2) for different antibody detection is between 0.93 and 0.99. Besides F1 antibody, the LcrV and YopD antibodies also showed higher positive ratio than the other seven antibodies, as 100% (13/13) and 92% (12/13) in monkey sera and 86.3% (44/51) and 66.7% (34/51) in patient sera, respectively. It is suggested that the TC-UPT-LF assay has been successfully developed for multi-detection and LcrV and YopD can be the potential diagnostic markers of the plague.
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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