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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Compromised telomere maintenance in hypomethylated Arabidopsis thaliana plants.
Nucleic Acids Res.
PUBLISHED: 12-10-2013
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Telomeres, nucleoprotein structures at the ends of linear eukaryotic chromosomes, are important for the maintenance of genomic stability. Telomeres were considered as typical heterochromatic regions, but in light of recent results, this view should be reconsidered. Asymmetrically located cytosines in plant telomeric DNA repeats may be substrates for a DNA methyltransferase enzyme and indeed, it was shown that these repeats are methylated. Here, we analyse the methylation of telomeric cytosines and the length of telomeres in Arabidopsis thaliana methylation mutants (met 1-3 and ddm 1-8), and in their wild-type siblings that were germinated in the presence of hypomethylation drugs. Our results show that cytosine methylation in telomeric repeats depends on the activity of MET1 and DDM1 enzymes. Significantly shortened telomeres occur in later generations of methylation mutants as well as in plants germinated in the presence of hypomethylation drugs, and this phenotype is stably transmitted to the next plant generation. A possible role of compromised in vivo telomerase action in the observed telomere shortening is hypothesized based on telomere analysis of hypomethylated telomerase knockout plants. Results are discussed in connection with previous data in this field obtained using different model systems.
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Amidate Prodrugs of 9-[2-(Phosphonomethoxy)ethyl]adenine (PMEA) as Inhibitors of Adenylate Cyclase Toxin from Bordetella Pertussis.
Antimicrob. Agents Chemother.
PUBLISHED: 10-21-2013
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Adenylate cyclase toxin (ACT) is the key virulence factor of Bordetella pertussis that facilitates its invasion into the mammalian body. 9-[2-(Phosphonomethoxy)ethyl]adenine diphosphate (PMEApp), the active metabolite of the antiviral drug bis(POM)PMEA (adefovir dipivoxil), has been shown to inhibit ACT. The objective of this study was to evaluate six novel amidate prodrugs of PMEA, both phenyloxy phosphonamidates and phosphonodiamidates, for their ability to inhibit ACT activity in J774A.1 macrophage cell line. The two phenyloxy phosphonamidate prodrugs exhibited higher inhibitory activity (IC50 = 22 and 46 nM) than the phosphonodiamidates (IC50 = 84-3960 nM). The inhibitory activity of the prodrugs correlated with their lipophilicity and the degree of their hydrolysis into free PMEA in J774A.1 cells. Although they did not inhibit ACT as effectively as bis(POM)PMEA (IC50=6 nM), they were significantly less cytotoxic. Moreover, they all reduced apoptotic effects of ACT and prevented an ACT-induced elevation of intracellular [Ca(2+)]i. The amidate prodrugs were less susceptible to degradation in Caco-2 cells compared to bis(POM)PMEA while they exerted good transepithelial permeability in this assay. As a consequence, high amount of intact amidate prodrug is expected to be available to target macrophages in vivo. This feature makes nontoxic amidate prodrugs attractive candidates for further investigation as novel antimicrobial agents.
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Enantiopurity analysis of new types of acyclic nucleoside phosphonates by capillary electrophoresis with cyclodextrins as chiral selectors.
J Sep Sci
PUBLISHED: 10-03-2013
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CE methods have been developed for the chiral analysis of new types of six acyclic nucleoside phosphonates, nucleotide analogs bearing [(3-hydroxypropan-2-yl)-1H-1,2,3-triazol-4-yl]phosphonic acid, 2-[(diisopropoxyphosphonyl)methoxy]propanoic acid, or 2-(phosphonomethoxy)propanoic acid moieties attached to adenine, guanine, 2,6-diaminopurine, uracil, and 5-bromouracil nucleobases, using neutral and cationic cyclodextrins as chiral selectors. With the exception of the 5-bromouracil-derived acyclic nucleoside phosphonate with a 2-(phosphonomethoxy)propanoic acid side chain, the R and S enantiomers of the other five acyclic nucleoside phosphonates were successfully separated with sufficient resolutions, 1.51-2.94, within a reasonable time, 13-28 min, by CE in alkaline BGEs (50 mM sodium tetraborate adjusted with NaOH to pH 9.60, 9.85, and 10.30, respectively) containing 20 mg/mL ?-cyclodextrin as the chiral selector. A baseline separation of the R and S enantiomers of the 5-bromouracil-derived acyclic nucleoside phosphonate with 2-(phosphonomethoxy)propanoic acid side chain was achieved within a short time of 7 min by CE in an acidic BGE (20:40 mM Tris/phosphate, pH 2.20) using 60 mg/mL quaternary ammonium ?-cyclodextrin chiral selector. The developed methods were applied for the assessment of the enantiomeric purity of the above acyclic nucleoside phosphonates. The preparations of all these compounds were found to be synthesized in pure enantiomeric forms. Using UV absorption detection at 206 nm, their concentration detection limits were in the low micromolar range.
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A switchable intramolecular hydrogen bond in polysubstituted 5-nitrosopyrimidines.
J. Org. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 09-27-2013
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The formation of strong intramolecular hydrogen bonds was observed in a series of 2-amino-5-nitrosopyrimidines with alkylamino and arylamino substituents at positions 4 and 6. Mixtures of two rotamers differing in the orientation of the nitroso group were observed in the NMR spectra of the compounds where two distinct intramolecular hydrogen bonds could be formed. The ratio of the two rotamers depends strongly on the character of the substituents at positions 4 and 6 and can be finely tuned over a broad range of conformation ratios. The experimental results were supported by DFT calculations, which also made it possible to explain the apparent contradiction in the experimental dependence of the rotamer ratio on the Hammett constants for the arylamino substituents. The UV/vis spectra of the compounds also significantly depend on the nature of the substituents; however, the orientation of the nitroso group does not have any influence on the position of the absorption bands in the spectra.
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Medicinal Chemistry of Fluorinated Cyclic and Acyclic Nucleoside Phosphonates.
Med Res Rev
PUBLISHED: 07-30-2013
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The fluorine atom plays an important role in medicinal chemistry because fluorine substitution has a strong impact on the physical, chemical, and biological properties of bioactive compounds. Such fluorine modifications have also been extensively studied among the pharmaceutically important class of nucleoside phosphonates, nucleotide analogues in which the phosphate group is replaced by the enzymatically and chemically stable phosphonate moiety. The fluorinated nucleoside phosphonates abound with antiviral, antiparasitic, and anticancer properties because they are able to act as inhibitors of important enzymes of nucleoside/nucleotide metabolism. In this paper, we review the biological properties of cyclic and acyclic nucleoside phosphonates modified by the attachment of one or more fluorine atoms to various parts of the molecule, namely to nucleobases, alkylphosphonate groups, cyclic or acyclic linkers, or to prodrug moieties.
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Interactions with selected drug renal transporters and transporter-mediated cytotoxicity in antiviral agents from the group of acyclic nucleoside phosphonates.
Toxicology
PUBLISHED: 05-08-2013
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Members of acyclic nucleoside phosphonates (ANPs) possess antiviral and antiproliferative activities. However, several clinically important ANPs may cause renal injury, most likely due to their active accumulation in the renal tubular cells. The goal of this study was to investigate in vitro relationships between the affinity of several structurally related potent ANPs to selected human transporters and their cytotoxicity. SLC (solute carrier family) transporters (hOAT1, hOCT2, hCNT2, hCNT3) and ABC (ATP-binding cassette) transporters (MDR1, BCRP), which are typically expressed in the kidney, were included in the study. The transport and toxic parameters of the tested compounds were compared to those of two clinically approved ANPs, adefovir and tenofovir. Transport studies with transiently transfected cells were used as the main method in the experiments. Most of the ANPs studied showed the potency to interact with hOAT1. GS-9191, a double prodrug of PMEG, displayed an affinity for hOAT1 comparable with that of adefovir and tenofovir. No significant interaction of the tested ANPs with hOCT2, hCNT2 and hCNT3 was observed. Only GS-9191 was found to be a strong inhibitor for both MDR1 and BCRP. PMEO-DAPy showed the potency to interact with MDR1. Most of the tested substances caused a significant decrease in cellular viability in the cells transfected with hOAT1. Only with the exclusion of GS-9191, a relatively lipophilic compound, did the in vitro cytotoxicity of the ANPs closely correspond to their potential to interact with hOAT1. The increased cytotoxicity of the studied ANPs found in OAT1 transfected cells was effectively reduced by OAT inhibitors probenecid and quercetin. The higher cytotoxicity of the compounds with affinity to hOAT1 proved in the inhibitory experiments evidences that ANPs are not only inhibitors but also substrates of hOAT1. Any clear relationship between the potency of ANPs to inhibit the studied efflux transporters and their cytotoxicity was not demonstrated. In conclusion, the study documented that among the studied transporters hOAT1 seems to be the decisive determinant for renal handling in most of the tested ANPs. This transporter may also play an important role in the mechanism of their potential cytotoxic effects. These facts are in good accordance with previous findings in the clinically used ANPs.
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The effect of novel [3-fluoro-(2-phosphonoethoxy)propyl]purines on the inhibition of Plasmodium falciparum, Plasmodium vivax and human hypoxanthine-guanine-(xanthine) phosphoribosyltransferases.
Eur J Med Chem
PUBLISHED: 03-19-2013
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Protozoan parasites from the Plasmodiidae family are the causative agents of malaria. Inhibition of hypoxanthine-guanine-(xanthine) phosphoribosyltransferase (HG(X)PRT) has been suggested as a target for development of new anti-malarial therapeutics. Acyclic nucleoside phosphonates (ANPs) are potent and selective inhibitors of plasmodial HG(X)PRTs. A new series of ANPs, based on the chemical structure and inhibitory activity of three ANPs, 2-(phosphonoethoxy)ethyl with either guanine or hypoxanthine as the base (PEEG and PEEHx) and 3-hydroxy-2-(phosphonomethoxy)propyl with guanine as the base (HPMPG), were prepared. These compounds are stereoisomers of 3-fluoro-(2-phosphonoethoxy)propyl (FPEPs) and 3-fluoro-(2-phosphonomethoxy)propyl (FPMPs) analogues. Both the (R)- and (S)-isomers of these fluorinated derivatives have higher Ki values (by 10- to 1000-fold) for human HGPRT and Plasmodium falciparum HGXPRT than the non-fluorinated ANPs. Possible explanations for these changes in affinity are proposed based on docking studies using the known crystal structures of human HGPRT in complex with PEEG.
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Acyclic nucleoside phosphonates containing a second phosphonate group are potent inhibitors of 6-oxopurine phosphoribosyltransferases and have antimalarial activity.
J. Med. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 03-19-2013
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Acyclic nucleoside phosphonates (ANPs) that contain a 6-oxopurine base are good inhibitors of the Plasmodium falciparum (Pf) and Plasmodium vivax (Pv) 6-oxopurine phosphoribosyltransferases (PRTs). Chemical modifications based on the crystal structure of 2-(phosphonoethoxy)ethylguanine (PEEG) in complex with human HGPRT have led to the design of new ANPs. These novel compounds contain a second phosphonate group attached to the ANP scaffold. {[(2-[(Guanine-9H-yl)methyl]propane-1,3-diyl)bis(oxy)]bis(methylene)}diphosphonic acid (compound 17) exhibited a Ki value of 30 nM for human HGPRT and 70 nM for Pf HGXPRT. The crystal structure of this compound in complex with human HGPRT shows that it fills or partially fills three critical locations in the active site: the binding sites of the purine base, the 5-phosphate group, and pyrophosphate. This is the first HG(X)PRT inhibitor that has been able to achieve this result. Prodrugs have been synthesized resulting in IC50 values as low as 3.8 ?M for Pf grown in cell culture, up to 25-fold lower compared to the parent compounds.
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Synthesis and biological evaluation of guanidino analogues of roscovitine.
Eur J Med Chem
PUBLISHED: 01-11-2013
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A series of 2,9-substituted 6-guanidinopurines, structurally related to the cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitors olomoucine and roscovitine, has been synthesized and characterized. A new copper-catalyzed method for the synthesis of 2-substituted 6-guanidino-9-isopropylpurines under mild reaction conditions has been developed. All prepared compounds were screened for their CDK1 and CDK2 inhibitory activities, cytotoxicity and antiproliferative effects in the breast cancer-derived cell line MCF7. The most active derivative 16g possessed an identical side chain in the C2 position to roscovitine; this compound displayed approximately five fold higher inhibitory activity towards CDK2/cyclin E and more than ten fold increase in cytotoxicity in MCF7 cells. Interestingly and in contrast to previously described findings, (S)-6-guanidinopurine derivatives were generally more active than their (R)-counterparts. Kinase selectivity profiling of (R)- and (S)-enantiomers 16e and 16g, respectively, revealed that introduction of a guanidino group at the C6 position of the purine moiety decreased selectivity towards protein kinases compared to roscovitine. Nevertheless, increased inhibitory activity and decreased selectivity offer a good starting point for further development of new protein kinase inhibitors.
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9-[2-(R)-(Phosphonomethoxy)propyl]-2,6-diaminopurine (R)-PMPDAP and its prodrugs: optimized preparation, including identification of by-products formed, and antiviral evaluation in vitro.
Bioorg. Med. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 01-09-2013
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New large-scale synthetic approach to antiretroviral agent 9-[2-(R)-(phosphonomethoxy)propyl]-2,6-diaminopurine, (R)-PMPDAP, was developed. Reaction of (R)-propanediol carbonate with 2,6-diaminopurine afforded exclusively (R)-9-(2-hydroxypropyl)-2,6-diaminopurine which was subsequently used for introduction of a phosphonomethyl residue using TsOCH(2)P(O)(OiPr)(2) or BrCH(2)P(O)(OiPr)(2) followed by deprotection of ester groups. All minor ingredients and by-products formed during the process were identified and further studied. The final product was obtained in high yield and its high enantiomeric purity (>99%) was confirmed by chiral capillary electrophoretic analysis using ?-cyclodextrin as a chiral selector. Antiretroviral activity data of (R)-PMPDAP and its diverse prodrugs against HIV and FIV were investigated. Akin to (R)-PMPDAP, both prodrugs inhibit FIV replication in a selective manner. Compared to the parent molecule, the amidate prodrug was 10-fold less active against FIV in cell culture, whereas the alkoxyalkyl ester prodrug was 200-fold more potent in inhibiting FIV replication in vitro.
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A novel and efficient one-pot synthesis of symmetrical diamide (bis-amidate) prodrugs of acyclic nucleoside phosphonates and evaluation of their biological activities.
Eur J Med Chem
PUBLISHED: 04-22-2011
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A novel and efficient method for the one-pot synthesis of diamide (bis-amidate) prodrugs of acyclic nucleoside phosphonates, starting from free phosphonic acids or phosphonate diesters is reported. The approach from phosphonate diesters via their bis(trimethylsilyl) esters is highly convenient, eliminates isolation and tedious purification of the phosphonic acids, and affords the corresponding bis-amidates in excellent yields (83-98%) and purity. The methodology has been applied to the synthesis of the potent anticancer agent GS-9219, and symmetrical bis-amidates of other biologically active phosphonic acids. Anti-HIV, antiproliferative, and immunomodulatory activities of the compounds are discussed including the bis-amidate prodrugs 14 and 17 that exhibited anti-HIV activity at submicromolar concentrations with minimal cytotoxicity.
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Synthesis and antiviral activity of N9-[3-fluoro-2-(phosphonomethoxy)propyl] analogues derived from N6-substituted adenines and 2,6-diaminopurines.
Bioorg. Med. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 02-23-2011
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An efficient method for the synthesis of N(9)-[3-fluoro-2-(phosphonomethoxy)propyl] (FPMP) derivatives of purine bases has been developed. Both (R)- and (S)-enantiomers of the N(6)-substituted FPMP derivatives of adenine and 2,6-diaminopurine were prepared and their anti-human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and anti-Moloney murine sarcoma virus (MSV) activity was evaluated. Whereas none of the 6-substituted FPMPA derivatives showed any antiviral activity, several FPMPDAP derivatives had a moderate antiretroviral activity. Moreover, the data obtained from the study of the substrate activity of the active derivatives towards N(6)-methyl-AMP aminohydrolase support the notion that the studied N(6)-substituted FPMPDAP derivatives act as prodrugs of the antiretroviral FPMPG analogues.
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Synthesis of novel N-branched acyclic nucleoside phosphonates as potent and selective inhibitors of human, Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax 6-oxopurine phosphoribosyltransferases.
J. Med. Chem.
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Hypoxanthine-guanine-(xanthine) phosphoribosyltransferase (HG(X)PRT) is crucial for the survival of malarial parasites Plasmodium falciparum (Pf) and Plasmodium vivax (Pv). Acyclic nucleoside phosphonates (ANPs) are inhibitors of HG(X)PRT and arrest the growth of Pf in cell culture. Here, a novel class of ANPs containing trisubstituted nitrogen (aza-ANPs) has been synthesized. These compounds have a wide range of K(i) values and selectivity for human HGPRT, PfHGXPRT, and PvHGPRT. The most selective and potent inhibitor of PfHGXPRT is 9-[N-(3-methoxy-3-oxopropyl)-N-(2-phosphonoethyl)-2-aminoethyl]hypoxanthine (K(i) = 100 nM): no inhibition could be detected against the human enzyme. This compound exhibits the highest ever reported selectivity for PfHGXPRT compared to human HGPRT. For PvHGPRT, 9-[N-(2-carboxyethyl)-N-(2-phosphonoethyl)-2-aminoethyl]guanine has a K(i) of 50 nM, the best inhibitor discovered for this enzyme to date. Docking of these compounds into the known structures of human HGPRT in complex with ANP-based inhibitors suggests reasons for the variations in affinity, providing insights for the design of antimalarial drug candidates.
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