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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
[Diagnosis and treatment of neuromyelitis optica.]
Ugeskr. Laeg.
PUBLISHED: 10-09-2014
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Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) is an inflammatory demyelinating disease characterized by antibodies against aquaporin-4 in up to 80% of the cases and even less in the NMO spectrum disorders, which may be difficult to distinguish from early multiple sclerosis. While immunosuppressive therapy should be introduced in definite NMO, treatment strategies of NMO spectrum disorders are less clearly defined. Here, we review the current guidelines for treatment of NMO and NMO spectrum disorders in the light of two cases, and suggest a practical approach to the management of these disorders.
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Natural course of LGI1 encephalitis: 3-5 years of follow-up without immunotherapy.
J. Neurol. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 02-18-2014
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Antibodies against LGI1 (leucin-rich glioma-inactivated 1 protein) are associated with limbic encephalitis (LE), which is characterized by a favorable outcome following immunotherapy. Here, we present two cases, where antibodies against LGI1 were detected in the sera 36 and 53 months after acute LE, respectively, and none of the patients received immunotherapy. LE showed characteristics of LGI1 encephalitis in both cases, including low sodium content in the sera; disorientation, hallucination, short-term memory loss; and epileptic seizures. One patient had faciobrachial tonic seizures. MRI indicated bilateral inflammation of the hippocampus in one case. We reviewed longitudinal clinical and MRI data covering 53 and 36 months after LE without immunotherapy, respectively. Both patients became seizure-free and spontaneously recovered with mild/moderate cognitive impairment. No relapses have been observed. Follow-up brain MRI indicated early hippocampal sclerosis and global brain atrophy in one case characterized by more pronounced cognitive deficit. Memory and verbal fluency were affected most during the natural course of LGI1 encephalitis. LGI1 encephalitis had a monophasic course and spontaneously improved, suggesting that a relatively benign natural course may contribute to the favorable outcome observed after immunotherapy. Our data also indicate that LGI1 antibodies can be present in the sera without clinical disease activity.
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Clinical, paraclinical and serological findings in Susac syndrome: an international multicenter study.
J Neuroinflammation
PUBLISHED: 02-13-2014
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Susac syndrome (SuS) is a rare disorder thought to be caused by autoimmune-mediated occlusions of microvessels in the brain, retina and inner ear leading to central nervous system (CNS) dysfunction, visual disturbances due to branch retinal artery occlusions (BRAO), and hearing deficits. Recently, a role for anti-endothelial cell antibodies (AECA) in SuS has been proposed.
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CLIPPERS among patients diagnosed with non-specific CNS neuroinflammatory diseases.
J. Neurol. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 02-05-2014
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Chronic Lymphocytic Inflammation with Pontine Perivascular Enhancement Responsive to Steroids (CLIPPERS) is an inflammatory CNS disorder characterized by 1) subacute onset of cerebellar and brainstem symptoms, 2) peripontine contrast-enhancing perivascular lesions with a "salt-and-pepper" appearance on MRI, and 3) angiocentric, predominantly T-lymphocytic infiltration as revealed by brain biopsy. Inflammatory diseases including neuroinfections, CNS lymphoma and neurosarcoidosis must be excluded. Since CLIPPERS was described in 2010, many patients might have been misdiagnosed in the past. We therefore searched medical records from a large tertiary neurological center, the Department of Neurology at Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen University Hospital, for patients discharged between 1999 and 2013 with a diagnosis of "sarcoidosis with other localization", "other acute disseminating demyelination", "other demyelinating disease in the CNS" or "encephalitis, myelitis or encephalomyelitis". Of 206 identified patients, 24 had been examined by brain biopsy and were included for further evaluation. Following clinical, neuroradiological and neuropathological review, 3 patients (12.5%) were reclassified as having CLIPPERS. Median long-term follow-up was 75 months. The present results suggest that clinical re-evaluation of patients previously diagnosed with unspecified inflammatory demyelinating CNS disease or atypical neurosarcoidosis may increase the detection rate of CLIPPERS. Further, potentially severe neurological deficits and progressive parenchymal atrophy on MRI may suggest neurodegenerative features, which emphasizes the need for early immunomodulatory treatment.
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Differentiating white matter lesions in multiple sclerosis and migraine using monoexponential and biexponential diffusion measurements.
J Magn Reson Imaging
PUBLISHED: 01-14-2014
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To compare the white matter lesions seen in multiple sclerosis and migraine using monoexponential and high b-value biexponential diffusion measurements.
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The L-arginine pathway in acute ischemic stroke and severe carotid stenosis: temporal profiles and association with biomarkers and outcome.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis
PUBLISHED: 01-10-2014
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Endothelial dysfunction is associated with increased levels of asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) and symmetric dimethylarginine (SDMA) resulting in a decreased production of nitric oxide, which regulates the vascular tone.
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SJL mice infected with Acanthamoeba castellanii develop central nervous system autoimmunity through the generation of cross-reactive T cells for myelin antigens.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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We recently reported that Acanthamoeba castellanii (ACA), an opportunistic pathogen of the central nervous system (CNS) possesses mimicry epitopes for proteolipid protein (PLP) 139-151 and myelin basic protein 89-101, and that the epitopes induce experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) in SJL mice reminiscent of the diseases induced with their corresponding cognate peptides. We now demonstrate that mice infected with ACA also show the generation of cross-reactive T cells, predominantly for PLP 139-151, as evaluated by T cell proliferation and IAs/dextramer staining. We verified that PLP 139-151-sensitized lymphocytes generated in infected mice contained a high proportion of T helper 1 cytokine-producing cells, and they can transfer disease to naïve animals. Likewise, the animals first primed with suboptimal dose of PLP 139-151 and later infected with ACA, developed EAE, suggesting that ACA infection can trigger CNS autoimmunity in the presence of preexisting repertoire of autoreactive T cells. Taken together, the data provide novel insights into the pathogenesis of Acanthamoeba infections, and the potential role of infectious agents with mimicry epitopes to self-antigens in the pathogenesis of CNS diseases such as multiple sclerosis.
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Peripheral blood TIM-3 positive NK and CD8+ T cells throughout pregnancy: TIM-3/galectin-9 interaction and its possible role during pregnancy.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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The T-cell immunoglobulin and mucin domain (TIM) family is a relatively newly described group of molecules with a conserved structure and important immunological functions. Identification of Galectin-9 as a ligand for TIM-3 has established the Galectin-9/TIM-3 pathway as an important negative regulator of Th1 immunity and tolerance induction. Data about the TIM-3/Gal-9 pathway in the pathogenesis of human diseases is emerging, but their possible role during human pregnancy is not precisely known. The aim of our study was to investigate the number, phenotype and functional activity of TIM-3+ peripheral blood mononuclear cells during healthy human pregnancy.
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A systematic analysis of the complement pathways in patients with neuromyelitis optica indicates alteration but no activation during remission.
Mol. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 05-14-2013
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Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) is an autoimmune demyelinating inflammatory disorder, mediated by pathogenic autoantibodies against aquaporin 4 (AQP4), the main water channel of the central nervous system (CNS). NMO is characterized by local IgG deposition and complement activation within the CNS, but the three complement pathways have not been systematically investigated. We evaluated the overall activation of the classical, alternative, and MBL-lectin pathways in the peripheral blood of 25 patients with AQP4-seropositive NMO spectrum during remission and 113 healthy controls by three ways: (1) we measured the concentrations of native complement proteins of the three pathways [C1-inhibitor (C1-inh), C1q, C4, C3, C5, factor I, factor B, properdin]; (2) the concentrations of complement products suggesting in vivo activation (C1rC1sC1-inh, C3a, C3bBbP, and SC5b-9); and (3) the total activity of the three complement pathways. Additionally we measured levels of C1rC1sC1-inh, C3a, C3bBbP in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of 6 patients with relapsing NMO and of 18 patients with relapsing multiple sclerosis (MS). The serological studies indicated that total complement activity of the classical [median (interquartile range) 72 (61-82) vs. 65 (56-73) CH50/mL; p=0.0122] and of the lectin pathways [73 (59-111) vs. 49 (3-92)%; p=0.0078)] were elevated compared with the controls, whereas that of the alternative pathway was not significantly different. The levels of C3 [1.1 (0.9-1.3) vs. 1.4 (1.2-1.5)g/L; p<0.0001], factor B [89 (77-115) vs. 103 (93-113)%; p=0.0397] and factor I [85 (69-95) vs. 101 (93-107)%; p=0.0007], as well as of properdin [92 (74-104) vs. 108 (97-122)%; p=0.0028] were significantly lower in the patients than in the controls. The only increase in the patients was ascertained in the relative concentration of C1rC1sC1-inh vs. the C1-inhibitor (42.3 [31.9-65.0] vs. 30.8 [13.5-43.5] AU/mg; p=0.0007). The absolute and relative levels of the other complement activation products were not elevated in the patients. On the contrary, the serum concentrations of C3a, C3bBbP, and SC5b-9 of the patients were lower than those of the controls. The absolute concentration of the complement activation products (C1rC1sC1-inh, C3bBbP, C3a) and the ratio of C3bBbP/C1rC1sC1-inh did not differ in NMO and MS CSF samples. The ratio of C3bBbP/C1rC1sC1-inh was similar in NMO plasma and CSF samples. We found a higher ratio of C3bBbP/C1rC1sC1-inh in the plasma of control subjects compared to those in any pathological samples. Our results do not indicate substantial systemic complement activation if NMO activity is adequately controlled; nevertheless, the complement system is abnormally affected even during remission. The relative ancillarity of the alternative compared to the classical pathway may also suggest that suppression of the alternative pathway by treatment may be important to achieve remission.
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Association of myasthenia gravis with polymorphisms in the gene of histamine N-methyltransferase.
Hum. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 01-29-2013
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Histamine N-methyltransferase (HNMT) is the main metabolizing enzyme of histamine. Histamine modulates immune responses and plays a role in the pathogenesis of autoimmune disorders.
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Effective humoral immunity against diphtheria and tetanus in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus or myasthenia gravis.
Mol. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 01-24-2013
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Controversy exists about the effectiveness of vaccine-induced immune response in patients with immunoregulatory disorders. Our aim was to determine the antibody titers to diphtheria and tetanus in patients with either of two autoimmune diseases.
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Recommendations for the use of prolonged-release fampridine in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS).
CNS Neurosci Ther
PUBLISHED: 01-15-2013
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Prolonged-release fampridine (fampridine PR) is a potassium channel blocker that improves conductivity of signal on demyelinated axons in central nervous system. Fampridine PR has been approved to improve speed of walking in patients with multiple sclerosis. This statement provides a brief summary of data on fampridine PR and recommendations on practical use of the medication in clinical practice, prediction, and evaluation of response to treatment and patient management.
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Quantitative MRI analysis of the brain after twenty-two years of neuromyelitis optica indicates focal tissue damage.
Eur. Neurol.
PUBLISHED: 01-10-2013
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The long-term effect of neuromyelitis optica (NMO) on the brain is not well established.
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Disconnection mechanism and regional cortical atrophy contribute to impaired processing of facial expressions and theory of mind in multiple sclerosis: a structural MRI study.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Successful socialization requires the ability of understanding of others mental states. This ability called as mentalization (Theory of Mind) may become deficient and contribute to everyday life difficulties in multiple sclerosis. We aimed to explore the impact of brain pathology on mentalization performance in multiple sclerosis. Mentalization performance of 49 patients with multiple sclerosis was compared to 24 age- and gender matched healthy controls. T1- and T2-weighted three-dimensional brain MRI images were acquired at 3Tesla from patients with multiple sclerosis and 18 gender- and age matched healthy controls. We assessed overall brain cortical thickness in patients with multiple sclerosis and the scanned healthy controls, and measured the total and regional T1 and T2 white matter lesion volumes in patients with multiple sclerosis. Performances in tests of recognition of mental states and emotions from facial expressions and eye gazes correlated with both total T1-lesion load and regional T1-lesion load of association fiber tracts interconnecting cortical regions related to visual and emotion processing (genu and splenium of corpus callosum, right inferior longitudinal fasciculus, right inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus, uncinate fasciculus). Both of these tests showed correlations with specific cortical areas involved in emotion recognition from facial expressions (right and left fusiform face area, frontal eye filed), processing of emotions (right entorhinal cortex) and socially relevant information (left temporal pole). Thus, both disconnection mechanism due to white matter lesions and cortical thinning of specific brain areas may result in cognitive deficit in multiple sclerosis affecting emotion and mental state processing from facial expressions and contributing to everyday and social life difficulties of these patients.
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Involvement of Galectin-9/TIM-3 pathway in the systemic inflammatory response in early-onset preeclampsia.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Preeclampsia is a common obstetrical disease affecting 3-5% of pregnancies and representing one of the leading causes of both maternal and fetal mortality. Maternal symptoms occur as an excessive systemic inflammatory reaction in response to the placental factors released by the oxidatively stressed and functional impaired placenta. The T-cell immunoglobulin domain and mucin domain (TIM) family is a relatively newly described group of molecules with a conserved structure and important immunological functions. Identification of Galectin-9 as a ligand for TIM-3 has established the Galectin-9/TIM-3 pathway as an important regulator of Th1 immunity and tolerance induction.
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[Clinical manifestations, course and outcome of enzyme replacement therapy in Hungarian patients with Pompes disease].
Orv Hetil
PUBLISHED: 09-17-2011
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Pompes disease is an autosomal recessive disease caused by deficiency of acid-alpha-glucosidase. Aims and Methods: Authors analyzed the phenotype of 11 Hungarian patients with Pompes disease and evaluated clinical parameters and response to enzyme replacement therapy during a long-term follow-up in 8 patients. Results: One patient with atypical infantile form presented with cardiomyopathy and a very slow progression of motor deficits; after 2 years of enzyme replacement therapy no disability was present at the age 6 years. Another patient was asymptomatic at the age of 2.5 years. The adult onset form was characterized by slight to prominent limb-girdle myopathy with an age of onset between 20 and 50 years. In 3 of such cases respiratory insufficiency was also present. Conclusions: Hungarian patients with Pompes disease presented with a wide phenotypic variability ranging from atypical early childhood form with slowly progressive course to late-onset limb-girdle myopathy with variable courses. Enzyme replacement therapy resulted in significant improvement in motor and respiratory functions in most of the patients.
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Low ficolin-3 levels in early follow-up serum samples are associated with the severity and unfavorable outcome of acute ischemic stroke.
J Neuroinflammation
PUBLISHED: 09-07-2011
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A number of data indicate that the lectin pathway of complement activation contributes to the pathophysiology of ischemic stroke. The lectin pathway may be triggered by the binding of mannose-binding lectin (MBL), ficolin-2 or ficolin-3 to different ligands. Although several papers demonstrated the significance of MBL in ischemic stroke, the role of ficolins has not been examined.
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[Recent changes in the paradigm of limbic encephalitis].
Ideggyogy Sz
PUBLISHED: 08-26-2011
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In the recent years, novel antibodies associated with limbic encephalitis have been described, which target such extracellular receptors or proteins that have been already indicated in the pathogenesis of hereditary or degenerative diseases. In a number of cases, where pathogenic role of antibodies generated against the voltage-gated potassium channel (VGKC) had been presumed, antibodies against a trans-synaptic scaffolding protein, LGI1 were indicated. Antibody response against NMDA-receptors has been suggested as a major cause of limbic encephalitis especially in young females, resulting in a typical clinical syndrome sometimes triggered by an ovarian teratoma. Antibodies against other receptors essential in synaptic transmission and plasticity (AMPA and GABA, receptors) have been also indicated, partially elicited by paraneoplastic processes. Such antibodies against surface proteins result in severe but potentially treatable diseases due to reversible internalization of the antigens crosslinked by the bivalent antibodies. In contrast, the rare classical onconeural antibodies reacting with intracellular targets (anti-Hu, anti-Ta/Ma2, anti-CV2/CRMP5) may elicit additional symptoms beside limbic encephalitis and the prognosis of such syndromes is poor.
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[Anti-NMDA-receptor encephalitis: description of the syndrome in connection with the first Hungarian patient].
Ideggyogy Sz
PUBLISHED: 05-07-2011
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In the majority of cases, anti-NMDA (N-methyl-D-aspartate) receptor encephalitis is a severe, but treatable disorder, therefore early diagnosis and adequate therapy are very important. It should be suspected in children and young women, who develop acute psychiatric symptoms and seizures. During the course of the disease severe encephalopathy, agitation, hallucinations, orofacial dyskinesias, prolonged cognitive disturbance, autonomic symptoms can be observed and akinetic mutism develops. EEG shows diffuse slowing. Brain MRI is normal or unspecific. Elevated protein, pleiocytosis and oligoclonal bands can be present in the CSF Detection of NMDA-receptor antibodies in sera or CSF confirms diagnosis. We present the case of a 15-year-old girl, who fully recovered within two months after steroid treatment and repeated plasma exchange. Ovarian teratoma has not been detected.
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Enzyme replacement therapy induces T-cell responses in late-onset Pompe disease.
Muscle Nerve
PUBLISHED: 04-08-2011
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Enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) in ultra-orphan Pompe disease generates anti-rhGAA antibodies, which may interfere with efficacy.
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Interleukin-4 receptor alpha polymorphisms in autoimmune myasthenia gravis in a Caucasian population.
Hum. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 03-10-2011
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Autoimmune myasthenia gravis is a T-cell-dependent, antibody-mediated, rare neuromuscular disorder. Interleukin-4, acting via interleukin-4 receptor alpha, plays a pivotal role in B-cell differentiation and antibody production and has been implicated to influence disease progression in experimental autoimmune myasthenia gravis. Polymorphisms of the interleukin-4 receptor alpha gene have been shown to be associated with various autoimmune diseases. We compared the distribution of three polymorphisms of the interleukin-4 receptor alpha gene (S503P, rs1805015, Q576R, rs1801275, I75V, rs1805010), all affecting interleukin-4 signaling, in two cohorts of myasthenia gravis patients with ethnically matched controls. Although the distribution of the S503P and Q576R polymorphisms did not differ significantly between the groups, the frequency of the GG rare homozygote genotype of the I75V polymorphism was significantly higher in patients with myasthenia gravis. Our data suggest that the reduced responsiveness to interleukin-4 because the I75V polymorphism may contribute to the pathogenesis of myasthenia gravis.
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APOE epsilon status in Hungarian patients with primary progressive multiple sclerosis.
Swiss Med Wkly
PUBLISHED: 11-27-2010
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Apolipoprotein E (ApoE), an important glycoprotein in the transport, uptake and redistribution of cholesterol, is necessary in nerve tissue repair. The APOE gene (APOE) is involved in neurodegenerative diseases, the best-known association being that between the APOE ?4 allele and Alzheimers disease. Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic inflammatory neurological disease. The aim of this study was to assess (multicentre assessment) the possible influence of the APOE gene on the susceptibility of primary progressive MS (PPMS) in Hungary.
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Clinical and biological heterogeneity of autoimmune myasthenia gravis.
J. Neuroimmunol.
PUBLISHED: 11-19-2010
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Although myasthenia gravis (MG) has long been considered a well-established autoimmune disease associated with autoantibodies, which are convincingly pathogenic, accumulating data indicate both clinical and biological heterogeneity similar to many other putative autoimmune disorders. In a subset of patients, thymus plays a definite role: thymic autoimmunity results in generation of autoantibodies within the thymus, which cross-react with antigens at the neuromuscular junction, or thymoma leads to deficient central tolerance and impaired T cell selection. Heterogeneity on the autoantibody level may be associated with genetic heterogeneity and clinical phenotypes with different treatment responses.
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Quantification and functional characterization of antibodies to native aquaporin 4 in neuromyelitis optica.
Arch. Neurol.
PUBLISHED: 10-13-2010
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Antibodies targeting membrane proteins play an important role in various autoimmune diseases of the nervous system. So far, assays allowing proper analysis of such autoantibodies are largely missing. A serum autoantibody to aquaporin 4 (AQP4) is associated with neuromyelitis optica (NMO). Although several assays are able to detect this autoantibody, they do not allow determination of the biological activity of anti-AQP4 antibodies.
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[Immune responses and neuroimmune modulation in the pathogenesis of acute ischemic stroke and poststroke infections].
Ideggyogy Sz
PUBLISHED: 09-04-2010
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Acute-onset cerebrovascular diseases are connected to a number of immunological changes. Here, we summarize immune responses participating in the evolution of atherosclerotic plaques and poststroke local immune responses in the injured CNS as well as in the systemic circulation. Ischemic injury of the CNS alters the balanced neuroimmune modulation resulting in CIDS, the central nervous system injury-induced immune deficiency syndrome. Due to the immunodepression and reduced pro-inflammatory immune responses, the susceptibility for infection is increased; indeed, poststroke infection plays a major role in stroke-related mortality. On the other hand, CIDS may protect against damaging autoimmune responses elicited by exposed CNS antigens. Investigation of immune responses related to ischemic stroke may result in novel therapies indicated by an increasing number of experimental and clinical trials altering poststroke immune responses and preventing infections.
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Relationship between C-reactive protein and early activation of leukocytes indicated by leukocyte antisedimentation rate (LAR) in patients with acute cerebrovascular events.
Clin. Hemorheol. Microcirc.
PUBLISHED: 04-06-2010
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The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between high-sensitive C-reactive protein (hsCRP) and leukocyte antisedimentation rate (LAR) as a specific test to detect early activation of leukocytes providing the first line of defence against infections in ischemic stroke. In 49 patients with acute ischemic events and 61 healthy subjects (HS), we examined LAR, astroglia specific S100B indicating the extent of brain tissue damage and hsCRP within 6 hours, as well as 24 and 72 hours after onset of symptoms. Serum levels of hsCRP on admission was significantly higher in patients with acute ischemic stroke (AIS) compared to HS and were higher in patients with recurrent to first ever ischemic stroke. Increased basal levels of hsCRP also correlated with severity of stroke and extent of infarct reflected by S100B levels in sera, but did not correlate with post-stroke infections. However, a higher rate of infection was observed among patients, in whom hsCRP was elevated at 72 hours but LAR did not increase. Therefore, such late elevation of hsCRP may indicate pre-clinical infections due to deficient leukocyte activation. Simple tests like LAR and hsCRP may help in predicting outcome and high risk of infectious complications.
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Possible role of natural killer and natural killer T-like cells in implantation failure after IVF.
Reprod. Biomed. Online
PUBLISHED: 03-11-2010
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During implantation, maternal immunoactivation and tolerance are not only limited to the decidua but are also observed in the periphery, predominantly affecting the innate immune system. Since unexplained female infertility, as well as recurrent spontaneous abortion and implantation failure, are thought to be associated with pathological maternal immunotolerance mechanisms, this study focused on immune profile analysis of IVF candidates. Previous studies on peripheral natural killer (NK) cell characteristics of IVF patients have been limited to the comparison of blood samples taken prior to the IVF procedure. This study performed a follow-up study and compared patients data obtained on the day of oocyte collection with the data 1 week after embryo transfer. The aim was to investigate phenotypic (subpopulations, CD69, T-cell immunoglobulin mucin 3 and NK-activating receptor expression) and functional (perforin and CD107a expression) changes in the peripheral NK and NK T (NKT)-like cell populations. During this short period of time around the IVF procedure, women with failed IVF reflected unfavourable Th1-oriented changes of NK and NKT-like cells. In comparison the follow-up data for women with successful conception remained principally constant. The observed peripheral changes during early pregnancy in the same individual may also have importance in successful embryo implantation.
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Inhibiting poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase: a potential therapy against oligodendrocyte death.
Brain
PUBLISHED: 02-15-2010
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Oligodendrocyte loss and demyelination are major pathological hallmarks of multiple sclerosis. In pattern III lesions, inflammation is minor in the early stages, and oligodendrocyte apoptosis prevails, which appears to be mediated at least in part through mitochondrial injury. Here, we demonstrate poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase activation and apoptosis inducing factor nuclear translocation within apoptotic oligodendrocytes in such multiple sclerosis lesions. The same morphological and molecular pathology was observed in an experimental model of primary demyelination, induced by the mitochondrial toxin cuprizone. Inhibition of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase in this model attenuated oligodendrocyte depletion and decreased demyelination. Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase inhibition suppressed c-Jun N-terminal kinase and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphorylation, increased the activation of the cytoprotective phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase-Akt pathway and prevented caspase-independent apoptosis inducing factor-mediated apoptosis. Our data indicate that poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase activation plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of pattern III multiple sclerosis lesions. Since poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase inhibition was also effective in the inflammatory model of multiple sclerosis, it may target all subtypes of multiple sclerosis, either by preventing oligodendrocyte death or attenuating inflammation.
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[Neuromyelitis optica spectrum: novel concept of pathogenesis, diagnosis and treatment of Devics disease].
Orv Hetil
PUBLISHED: 11-06-2009
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The identification of autoantibodies generated against the brain isoform water channel aquaporin4 in the sera of patients, changed the current diagnostic guidelines and concept of neuromyelitis optica (NMO). In a number of cases, clinical manifestation is spatially limited to myelitis or relapsing optic neuritis creating a diverse. NMO spectrum. Since prevention of relapses provides the only possibility to reduce permanent disability, early diagnosis and treatment is mandatory. In the present study, we discuss the potential role of neuroimaging and laboratory tests in differentiating the NMO spectrum from other diseases, as well as the diagnostic procedures and therapeutic options. We also present clinical cases, to provide examples of different clinical settings, diagnostic procedures and therapeutic decisions.
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[Pompes disease. Part II. Treatment strategies and enzyme replacement].
Ideggyogy Sz
PUBLISHED: 10-20-2009
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Pompes disease is an ultra-orphan disease caused by the deficiency of lysosomal alpha-glucosidase. At present, it is the only inherited muscle disorder, which can be treated by replacement of the enzyme. Three international randomized trials examined the clinical efficacy of enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) in infantile and late-onset diseases. ERT reduced the risk of death, respiratory support, invasive ventilation and improved cardiomyopathy. Respiration, muscle function and quality of life were improved in both infantile and late-onset diseases. These randomized and pilot trials also proved the safety of the treatment. At present it is not clear if antibodies induced by ERT result in decreased efficacy. In this review, we also discuss our experiences obtained by the treatment of three patients, and review the spectrum of supportive and experimental treatment strategies.
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[Pompes disease. Part I: pathogenesis and clinical features].
Ideggyogy Sz
PUBLISHED: 08-19-2009
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Pompes disease is an ultra-orphan disease caused by the deficiency of lysosomal alpha-glucosidase. At present, it is the only inherited muscle disorder, which can be treated by replacement of the enzyme. According to the natural course, early infantile and late childhood-juvenile-adult cases are known. Respiratory insufficiency, cardiomyopathy, and muscle hypotonia are cardinal symptoms/signs in infantile Pompes disease, while cardiomyopathy is absent in adult-onset cases. CK levels are always elevated in the sera of infantile patients. Hip-girdle dystrophy and orthopnoe should alert suspicion in adult patients. Diagnosis is established by decreased activity of the enzyme or mutational analysis. Muscle biopsy can be misleading in adult cases due to absence of glycogen in the examined specimen. In this review, we also discuss our experiences obtained by the treatment of three patients.
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Childhood steroid-responsive acute erythromelalgia with axonal neuropathy of large myelinated fibers: a dysimmune neuropathy?
Neuromuscul. Disord.
PUBLISHED: 05-21-2009
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A 12-year-old girl developed acute erythromelalgia of distal extremities. Physical, imaging and laboratory examinations failed to find an infective, systemic autoimmune, metabolic, endocrine, and vascular origin. The severe pain and allodynia indicated small-fiber neuropathy but muscle weakness suggested an involvement of large myelinated nerve fibers. This was confirmed by electrophysiological testing. High-dose then slowly tapered methylprednisolone resulted in rapid remission of painful erythromelalgia and complete electrophysiological recovery. Our case may suggest an additional variant to recently described steroid-responsive erythromelalgia with small-fiber axonopathy and may denote a transitory variant to Guillain-Barré syndrome or chronic dysimmune neuropathies.
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Impaired function of innate T lymphocytes and NK cells in the acute phase of ischemic stroke.
Cerebrovasc. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 02-16-2009
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Functional alterations of innate lymphocytes, which can mount rapid immune responses and shape subsequent T cell reactions, were examined in the acute phase of ischemic stroke.
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Tumour necrosis factor alpha gene (TNF-alpha) -376 polymorphism in Hungarian patients with primary progressive multiple sclerosis.
J. Neuroimmunol.
PUBLISHED: 01-09-2009
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Tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) is associated with clinical activity in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) and the development of progressive disease. Our aim was to investigate the TNF-alpha -376 polymorphism in primary progressive MS (PPMS) patients. Polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism were carried out on 45 PPMS patients, 45 age and sex-matched RRMS patients and 45 healthy controls (HC). The GG genotype and the guanine allele (G) were detected significantly more often in the PPMS group as compared with the HC group (p=0.027; p=0.032). The G allele may be one of the factors responsible for progression in PPMS.
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The autoimmunity-related polymorphism PTPN22 1858C/T is associated with anti-titin antibody-positive myasthenia gravis.
Hum. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2009
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Genetic variation in the intracellular tyrosine phosphatase PTPN22 has been recently associated with susceptibility to various autoimmune diseases. Myasthenia gravis (MG) is a complex genetic disease with a distinct clinical and pathological heterogeneity. We conducted a case-control association study for the PTPN22 1858C/T polymorphism in Hungarian and German MG patients (n = 282) and regional controls (n = 379). We detected an association of the PTPN22 1858T allele with MG in the subgroup of nonthymoma patients with anti-titin antibodies present (n = 50; T allele frequency 21% vs 11% in controls; p = 0.005, odds ratio 2.1, 95% confidence interval 1.23-3.58). This overrepresentation was reported independently in both Hungarian and German MG patients compared with regional controls. We conclude that the common autoimmune polymorphism PTPN22 1858C/T may account for disease susceptibility in a subset of nonthymoma MG patients with anti-titin antibodies present.
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[Treatment of dystonia by deep brain stimulation: a summary of 40 cases].
Ideggyogy Sz
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Bilateral pallidal deep brain stimulation (DBS) is an established treatment option for primary generalized and segmental dystonia. In the present study we evaluated the results of our dystonia patients treated by DBS.
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Bi-exponential diffusion signal decay in normal appearing white matter of multiple sclerosis.
Magn Reson Imaging
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Our aim was to characterize bi-exponential diffusion signal changes in normal appearing white matter of multiple sclerosis (MS) patients.
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[European treatment recommendation of neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders: critical remarks and case discussion].
Ideggyogy Sz
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Neuromyelitis optica is a demyelinating disease of the central nervous system mediated by antibodies against the waterchannel aquaporin4 (AQP4). In a number of cases the clinical manifestation is spatially limited. Such events of separate longitudinally extensive transverse myelitis (LETM) or relapsing/bilateral optic neuritis (RION/BON) are defined as NMO spectrum diseases. The diagnosis is further challenged by anti-AQP4 seronegative cases. While chronic immunosuppressive therapy should be introduced in definitive NMO, treatment strategy of the NMO spectrum is less defined. Recent EFNS guidelines recommend chronic immunosuppressive treatment of NMO spectrum diseases depending on the clinical course even in AQP4-seropositive cases. Presenting a case with relapsing optic neuritis, here we emphasize the importance of early immunosuppressive therapy in all seropositive NMO spectrum diseases regardless of relapse severity, in order to prevent an upcoming devastating relapse, i.e. NMO conversion.
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Volumetric comparisons of supratentorial white matter hyperintensities on FLAIR MRI in patients with migraine and multiple sclerosis.
J Clin Neurosci
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Migraine and multiple sclerosis (MS) can both cause white matter lesions that appear similar on conventional MRI. This study aimed to compare these abnormalities, and to find anatomical biomarkers specific for migraine. Supratentorial white matter hyperintensities (WMH) of 17 migraineurs and 15 patients with MS were counted, volumetrically analyzed, and their lobar distribution assessed on fluid-attenuated inversion recovery MRI. We found that migraine WMH affected mainly the deep white matter and subcortical U-fibers, belonged to the anterior circulation, appeared more frequently in the frontal and parietal lobes, showed no difference in average size between lobes, and were smaller and fewer than in MS. Most of the MS WMH were in the frontal lobe and were the smallest average size, while the fewest WMH with the largest size were in the occipital lobe. The pattern of supratentorial WMH appearance differs between the two groups; however, accurate differential diagnosis of WMH by conventional MRI is probably not possible in individual patients.
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Serum GFAP levels in optic neuropathies.
J. Neurol. Sci.
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Complement mediated autoimmunity against aquaporin-4 results in astrocytic damage in neuromyelitis optica (NMO). There is evidence for increased CSF glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and S100B levels in acute NMO. Here we tested whether the CSF finding also holds true for the diagnostic value of serum GFAP and S100B levels in NMO.
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Motor function and respiratory capacity in patients with late-onset pompe disease.
Muscle Nerve
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Introduction: The relationship between skeletal muscle strength and respiratory dysfunction in Pompe disease has not been examined by quantitative methods. We investigated correlations among lower extremity proximal muscle strength, respiratory function, and motor performance. Methods: Concentric strength of the knee extensor and flexor muscles were measured with a dynamometer, and pulmonary function was evaluated using spirometry in 7 adult patients. The six-minute walk test and the four-step stair-climb test were used for assessing aerobic endurance and anaerobic power, respectively. Results: Anaerobic motor performance correlated with strength of both thigh muscles. Respiratory function did not correlate with either muscle strength or motor function performance. Conclusions: Respiratory and lower extremity proximal muscles could be differentially affected by the disease in individual patients. Motor performance is influenced by thigh muscle strength and is less dependent of respiratory capacity in our cohort of ambulatory patients © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.