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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Tumor-to-Tumor Metastasis: Report of Two Cases of Renal Cell Carcinoma Metastasizing to Microcystic Serous Cystadenoma of the Pancreas.
Int. J. Surg. Pathol.
PUBLISHED: 05-31-2014
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Metastatic cancer to the pancreas accounts for less than 2% of all pancreatic malignancies. In contrast to other metastatic tumors, renal cell carcinoma (RCC) has a propensity to metastasize as a solitary pancreatic lesion. While symptomatic patients may present with obstructive jaundice, abdominal pain, or gastrointestinal bleeding, the diagnosis of metastatic pancreatic involvement is often made in asymptomatic patients, during follow-up evaluation in the aftermath of an initial diagnosis of renal cell carcinoma. Microcystic serous cystadenoma of the pancreas is an uncommon pancreatic exocrine neoplasm that morphologically resembles conventional (clear cell) RCC, in so far as both tumors are characterized by neoplastic cells with clear cytoplasm, relatively uniform nuclei and scant associated tumor stroma. Herein, we report 2 immunohistochemically confirmed cases of unsuspected metastatic RCC to the pancreas, with the metastatic tumor in each case confined to a preexisting microcystic serous cystadenoma of the pancreas.
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Observation after a positive sentinel lymph node biopsy in patients with melanoma.
Ann. Surg. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 01-25-2014
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The benefit of completion lymph node dissection (CLND) in melanoma patients with a positive sentinel lymph node (SLN) remains unknown.
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Predicting the development of brain metastases in patients with local/regional melanoma.
J Surg Oncol
PUBLISHED: 01-14-2014
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The brain is a common site of recurrence in melanoma patients. Brain recurrence may present as a seizure, hemorrhage, or death. We sought to determine predictors of brain metastases in patients with primary and regional melanoma in order to facilitate targeted screening.
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Stage-stratified prognosis of signet ring cell histology in patients undergoing curative resection for gastric adenocarcinoma.
Ann. Surg. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2014
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The prognosis of signet ring cell (SRC) gastric adenocarcinoma is regarded as poor, although studies addressing outcomes in relation to non-SRC tumors are conflicting. Our objective was to compare the survival of SRC tumors with stage-matched intestinal-type tumors in a cohort of Western patients.
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Dysplasia at the surgical margin is associated with recurrence after resection of non-invasive intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms.
HPB (Oxford)
PUBLISHED: 03-12-2013
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The significance of a positive margin in resected non-invasive pancreatic intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMN) remains controversial. The aim of this study was to determine recurrence rates when dysplasia was present at the final surgical margin.
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Metastasectomy for gastrointestinal stromal tumors.
J Surg Oncol
PUBLISHED: 01-21-2013
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Gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) is the most common sarcoma of the intestinal tract. Improvements in understanding the molecular pathogenesis of GIST have resulted in novel treatment strategies combining surgery with tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs). Metastasectomy in carefully selected patients who have stable or responsive disease on imatinib should be considered in the multidisciplinary setting. We review existing data on surgical cytoreduction in metastatic GIST while on targeted therapy and compare outcomes with either treatment alone. J. Surg. Oncol. 2014 109:23-27. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
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Imatinib potentiates antitumor T cell responses in gastrointestinal stromal tumor through the inhibition of Ido.
Nat. Med.
PUBLISHED: 07-07-2011
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Imatinib mesylate targets mutated KIT oncoproteins in gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) and produces a clinical response in 80% of patients. The mechanism is believed to depend predominantly on the inhibition of KIT-driven signals for tumor-cell survival and proliferation. Using a mouse model of spontaneous GIST, we found that the immune system contributes substantially to the antitumor effects of imatinib. Imatinib therapy activated CD8(+) T cells and induced regulatory T cell (T(reg) cell) apoptosis within the tumor by reducing tumor-cell expression of the immunosuppressive enzyme indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (Ido). Concurrent immunotherapy augmented the efficacy of imatinib in mouse GIST. In freshly obtained human GIST specimens, the T cell profile correlated with imatinib sensitivity and IDO expression. Thus, T cells are crucial to the antitumor effects of imatinib in GIST, and concomitant immunotherapy may further improve outcomes in human cancers treated with targeted agents.
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Factors affecting lymph node yield from patients undergoing colectomy for cancer.
Int J Colorectal Dis
PUBLISHED: 05-03-2011
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Lymph node (LN) yield is a critical component of colon cancer staging and is often a surrogate for quality assessment in surgery. We investigated the impact of pathologists training on LN harvest.
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Antiangiogenic therapy for primary liver cancer: correlation of changes in dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging with tissue hypoxia markers and clinical response.
Ann. Surg. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 02-01-2011
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This study utilized the imaging data of primary liver cancer (PLC) treated with floxuridine (FUDR) and bevacizumab to test the hypothesis that dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) parameters correlate with tissue hypoxia markers and treatment outcome.
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Neutrophil IL-10 suppresses peritoneal inflammatory monocytes during polymicrobial sepsis.
J. Leukoc. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 11-24-2010
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Septic peritonitis remains a major cause of death. Neutrophils and inflammatory monocytes are principal components of the innate immune system and are essential for defense against a range of microbial pathogens. Their role and interaction in polymicrobial sepsis have not been defined clearly. Using a murine model of CLP to induce moderate sepsis, we found that neutrophil depletion did not alter survival, whereas depletion of neutrophils and inflammatory monocytes markedly reduced survival. After neutrophil depletion, inflammatory monocytes had greater phagocytic capacity and oxidative burst, and increased expression of costimulatory molecules, TNF, and iNOS. Notably, peritoneal neutrophils produced IL-10 following CLP. Adoptive i.p. transfer of WT but not IL-10(-/-) neutrophils into septic mice reduced monocyte expression of TNF. In vitro experiments confirmed that monocyte suppression was mediated by neutrophil-derived IL-10. Thus, during septic peritonitis, neutrophils suppress peritoneal inflammatory monocytes through IL-10 and are dispensable for survival.
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Sclerosing angiomatoid nodular transformation of the spleen in an adolescent with chronic abdominal pain.
J. Pediatr. Surg.
PUBLISHED: 03-31-2010
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Sclerosing angiomatoid nodular transformation (SANT) is a relatively new, benign neoplasm arising within the red pulp of the spleen. The lesion is often identified incidentally on imaging, and the diagnosis is confirmed on pathologic assessment of the resected spleen. Although there have been several reports of SANT in the adult population, data on this lesion in the pediatric population are exceedingly rare. We present a case of SANT in an adolescent male with chronic abdominal pain and discuss the management issues that arise in treating this condition in the pediatric population.
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Conventional DCs reduce liver ischemia/reperfusion injury in mice via IL-10 secretion.
J. Clin. Invest.
PUBLISHED: 01-19-2010
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TLRs are recognized as promoters of tissue damage, even in the absence of pathogens. TLR binding to damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) released by injured host cells unleashes an inflammatory cascade that amplifies tissue destruction. However, whether TLRs possess the reciprocal ability to curtail the extent of sterile inflammation is uncertain. Here, we investigated this possibility in mice by studying the role of conventional DCs (cDCs) in liver ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury, a model of sterile inflammation. Targeted depletion of mouse cDCs increased liver injury after I/R, as assessed by serum alanine aminotransferase and histologic analysis. In vitro, we identified hepatocyte DNA as an endogenous ligand to TLR9 that promoted cDCs to secrete IL-10. In vivo, cDC production of IL-10 required TLR9 and reduced liver injury. In addition, we found that inflammatory monocytes recruited to the liver via chemokine receptor 2 were downstream targets of cDC IL-10. IL-10 from cDCs reduced production of TNF, IL-6, and ROS by inflammatory monocytes. Our results implicate inflammatory monocytes as mediators of liver I/R injury and reveal that cDCs respond to DAMPS during sterile inflammation, providing the host with protection from progressive tissue damage.
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The lytic potential of human liver NK cells is restricted by their limited expression of inhibitory killer Ig-like receptors.
J. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 07-08-2009
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The human liver is enriched in NK cells which are potent effectors of the innate immune system. We have determined that liver NK cells freshly isolated from surgical specimens from patients with hepatic malignancy have less cytolytic activity than autologous blood NK cells. This difference was due to a higher proportion of CD16(-) NK cells in the liver and reduced cytotoxicity by CD16(+) liver NK cells compared with their blood counterparts. CD16(+) liver NK cells had similar expression of activating NK receptors and had similar intracellular granzyme B and perforin content compared with CD16(+) blood NK cells. CD16(+) liver NK cells contained a reduced fraction of cells with inhibitory killer Ig-like receptors specific for self-MHC class I (self-killer Ig-related receptor (KIR)) and an increased fraction of self-KIR(neg)NKG2A(pos) and self-KIR(neg)NKG2A(neg) cells. Using single-cell analysis of intracellular IFN-gamma production and cytotoxicity assays, we determined that CD16(+) liver NK cells expressing self-KIR were more responsive to target cells than those cells that did not express self-KIR molecules. CD16(+) liver NK cells gained cytolytic function when stimulated with IL-2 or cultured with LPS or poly(I:C)-activated autologous liver Kupffer cells. Thus, the human liver contains NK cell subsets which have reduced effector function, but under appropriate inflammatory conditions become potent killers.
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Perioperative fluid management.
Clin Colon Rectal Surg
PUBLISHED: 04-16-2009
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Many colorectal surgeons rely on traditional theories and approaches in addressing perioperative fluid management issues. Often, their training and instincts favor over-resuscitation, especially after bowel or emergent colorectal procedures. However, data are now emerging to support the use of more restrictive approaches to perioperative fluid administration-though uncertainties still exist as to which fluids are optimal, and how and when they should be administered. This article provides a focused, evidence-based review on this topic-highlighting critical considerations that clinicians may wish to address to improve patient outcomes following colorectal surgery.
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T cell infiltrate predicts long-term survival following resection of colorectal cancer liver metastases.
Ann. Surg. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 03-27-2009
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While tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL) have been shown to independently predict survival in primary colorectal cancer, the prognostic implications of TIL in resectable colorectal cancer liver metastases (CRCLM) have not been previously defined. This study examines the correlation between TIL numbers and survival following hepatic resection.
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Human liver dendritic cells promote T cell hyporesponsiveness.
J. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 02-10-2009
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The liver is believed to promote tolerance, which may be beneficial due to its constant exposure to foreign Ags from the portal circulation. Although dendritic cells (DCs) are critical mediators of immune responses, little is known about human liver DCs. We compared freshly purified liver DCs from surgical specimens with autologous blood DCs. Liver and blood DCs were equally immature, but had distinct subset compositions. BDCA-1(+) DCs represented the most prevalent liver DC subset, whereas the majority of peripheral blood DCs were CD16(+). Upon TLR4 ligation, blood DCs secreted multiple proinflammatory cytokines, whereas liver DCs produced substantial amounts of IL-10. Liver DCs induced less proliferation of allogeneic T cells both in a primary MLR and after restimulation. Similarly, Ag-specific CD4(+) T cells were less responsive to restimulation when initially stimulated by autologous liver DCs rather than blood DCs. In addition, liver DCs generated more suppressive CD4(+)CD25(+)FoxP3(+) T regulatory cells and IL-4-producing Th2 cells via an IL-10-dependent mechanism. Our findings are critical to understanding hepatic immunity and demonstrate that human liver DCs promote immunologic hyporesponsiveness that may contribute to hepatic tolerance.
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Regulatory T cell infiltration predicts outcome following resection of colorectal cancer liver metastases.
Ann. Surg. Oncol.
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Tumor-infiltrating lymphocyte (TIL) counts in colorectal cancer liver metastases (CRCLM) predict survival following resection. While CD4 and CD8 T cells have been correlated with outcome following CRCLM resection, the role of regulatory T cells (Treg) is not well defined.
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Minimally invasive surgery for gastric cancer.
J Surg Oncol
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Application of minimally invasive techniques to gastric cancer in the West has been curbed by concerns of feasibility and oncologic adequacy. Growing evidence supports improved short-term and equivalent oncologic outcomes in selected patients undergoing laparoscopic surgery for early-stage disease. Laparoscopic resection for advanced gastric cancer remains controversial due to few reliable studies on long-term outcomes. We focus on important studies from Asia and highlight the Western experience with laparoscopic and robotic surgery for gastric carcinoma.
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Short-term outcomes in obese patients after colectomy for adenocarcinoma at a bariatric center.
J. Gastrointest. Surg.
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Obesity (body mass index ?30) is associated with worse outcomes after colon cancer surgery. Most research, however, has been performed outside bariatric centers of excellence. We sought to determine the relationship between obesity and outcomes after colon cancer resection when performed at a center with bariatric expertise.
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Nilotinib protects the murine liver from ischemia/reperfusion injury.
J. Hepatol.
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The mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), and p38, mediate liver ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury via cell death and inflammatory cytokine expression, respectively. Nilotinib is an orally available receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor used for chronic myelogenous leukemia that also has in vitro activity against JNK and p38. In this study, we examine its therapeutic potential against hepatic I/R injury.
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Updates on the management of gastrointestinal stromal tumors.
Surg. Oncol. Clin. N. Am.
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Despite being the most common sarcoma of the gastrointestinal tract, gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) has been widely recognized as a unique entity for just over a decade. The advent of tyrosine kinase inhibitors has revolutionized the diagnosis and treatment of GIST. Although surgery remains the only chance for cure, multimodal treatment that includes molecular therapy continues to develop. Optimal management of GIST requires careful radiographic, pathologic, medical, and surgical care, emphasizing the need for a multidisciplinary approach. This review highlights recent developments in the management of GIST.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.