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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
High-temperature inhibition of biosynthesis and transportation of anthocyanins results in the poor red coloration in red-fleshed Actinidia chinensis.
Physiol Plant
PUBLISHED: 08-21-2014
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In plants, the role of anthocyanins trafficking in response to high temperature has been rarely studied, and therefore poorly understood. Red-fleshed kiwifruit has stimulated the world kiwifruit industry owing to its appealing color. However, fruit in warmer climates have been found to have poor flesh coloration, and the factors responsible for this response remain elusive. Partial correlation and regression analysis confirmed that accumulative temperatures above 25°C (T25) was one of the dominant factors inhibiting anthocyanin accumulation in red-fleshed Actinidia chinensis, 'Hongyang'. Expression of structural genes, AcMRP and AcMYB1 in inner pericarp sampled from the two high altitudes (low temperature area), was notably higher than the low altitude (high temperature area) during fruit coloration. AcMYB1 and structural genes coordinate expression supported the MYB-bHLH (basic helix-loop-helix)-WD40 regulatory complex mediated downregulation of anthocyanin biosynthesis induced by high temperatures in kiwifruit. Moreover, cytological observations using the light and transmission electronic microscopy showed that there were a series of anthocyanic vacuolar inclusion (AVI)-like structures involved in their vacuolization process and dissolution of the pigmented bodies inside cells of fruit inner pericarp. Anthocyanin transport was inhibited by high temperature via retardation of vacuolization or reduction in AIV-like structure formation. Our findings strongly suggested that complex multimechanisms influenced the effects of high temperature on red-fleshed kiwifruit coloration.
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Reduction of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid iron(III) by Klebsiella sp. FD-3 immobilized on iron(II, III) oxide poly (styrene-glycidyl methacrylate) magnetic porous microspheres: Effects of inorganic compounds and kinetic study of effective diffusion in porous media.
Bioresour. Technol.
PUBLISHED: 06-16-2014
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Fe3O4 poly (styrene-glycidyl methacrylate) magnetic porous microspheres (MPPMs) were introduced to immobilize Klebsiella sp. FD-3, an iron-reducing bacterium applied to reduce Fe(III)EDTA. The effects of potential inhibitors (S(2-), SO3(2-), NO3(-), NO2(-) and Fe(II)EDTA-NO) on Fe(III)EDTA reduction were investigated. S(2-) reacted with Fe(III)EDTA as an electron-shuttling compound and enhanced the reduction. But Fe(III)EDTA reduction was inhibited by SO3(2-) and Fe(II)EDTA-NO due to their toxic to microorganisms. Low concentrations of NO3(-) and NO2(-) accelerated Fe(III)EDTA reduction, but high concentrations inhibited the reduction, whether by free or immobilized FD-3. The immobilized FD-3 performed better than freely-suspended style. The substrate mass transfer and diffusion kinetics in the porous microspheres were calculated. The value of Thiele modulus and effectiveness factors showed that the intraparticle diffusion was fairly small and neglected in this carrier. Fe(III)EDTA reduction fitted first-order model at low Fe(III)EDTA concentration, and changed to zero-order model at high concentrations.
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Different effects of androgen on the expression of fut1, fut2, fut4 and fut9 in male mouse reproductive tract.
Int J Mol Sci
PUBLISHED: 09-18-2013
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The ?-(1,2) fucosyltransferases (Fut1 and Fut2) and ?-(1,3) fucosyltransferases (Fut4, Fut9) are responsible for the synthesis of Lewis X (LeX) and Lewis Y (LeY) conjugated to glycoproteins. We recently reported that these fucosyltransferases were differentially expressed in the reproductive tract of male mouse. Here, we studied the effect of androgen on fucosyltransferase expression through the use of mouse castration models. We found that Fut1 mRNA and Fut4 mRNA were upregulated, while Fut2 mRNA and Fut9 mRNA were downregulated by androgen in the caput epididymis. However, in the vas deferens and prostate, only Fut4 mRNA and Fut2 mRNA were respectively upregulated following exposure to androgen. In the seminal vesicle, all fucosyltransferases, with the exception of Fut9, were upregulated. We identified the androgen receptor binding sites (ARBSs) of Fut2, Fut4 and Fut9 in the caput epididymis. Luciferase assay for these ARBSs is able to provide an indication as to why Fut4 and Fut9 are differently expressed and regulated by androgen, although they catalyze the same ?-(1,3) fucose linkage. Our study showed that androgen could differentially regulate the expression of these fucosyltransferases and provided an insight into the characteristic distribution of each fucosyltransferase responsible for LeX/LeY biosynthesis in the male reproductive tract.
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Seroprevalence of hepatitis B and immune response to hepatitis B vaccination in Chinese college students mainly from the rural areas of western China and born before HBV vaccination integrated into expanded program of immunization.
Hum Vaccin Immunother
PUBLISHED: 09-09-2013
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The prevalence of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) in a population aged 15 y or older was high in China, but an immunization strategy for this population was unavailable. We investigated the seroprevalence of hepatitis B and immune response to HBV vaccine in Chinese college students (n = 2040 participants), 11.1%, 80.8%, and 8.1% had confirmed, unknown and no HBV vaccination history, respectively. The seropositive rates for HBsAg, anti-HBs sole and anti-HBs plus anti-HBc were 12.6%, 25.7%, and 30.1%, respectively. The HBsAg seropositive rate was significantly lower in participants with confirmed HBV vaccination history than in those with unknown or no vaccination history (5.3%, 13.6%, and 12.6%, respectively, P = 0.0019). The anti-HBs alone seropositive rate was significantly higher in participants with confirmed HBV vaccination history than in those with unknown or no vaccination history (37.6%, 25.3%, and 13.8%, respectively, P<0.0001). Participants negative for HBsAg, anti-HBs and anti-HBc at baseline (n = 600) were given three doses of recombinant HBV vaccine (GlaxoSmithKline) at month 0, 1, and 6. Robust immune response was elicited after two and three doses (seroprotective rate: 91.9% and 99.0%, respectively, and geometric mean concentration [GMC]: 95.8 and 742.6 IU/L, respectively). Fourteen months after the third dose, the anti-HBs seroprotective rate of the group remained more than 97%. The seroprotective rates and GMCs did not differ significantly by vaccination history. This study suggested that three doses of 20 ?g HBV vaccine were needed for college students negative for HBsAg, anti-HBs, and anti-HBc to ensure high seroprotective rates and concentrations.
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Progress risk assessment of oral premalignant lesions with saliva miRNA analysis.
BMC Cancer
PUBLISHED: 03-13-2013
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Oral cancer develops through multi-stages: from normal to mild (low grade) dysplasia (LGD), moderate dysplasia, and severe (high grade) dysplasia (HGD), to carcinoma in situ (CIS) and finally invasive oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCC). Clinical and histological assessments are not reliable in predicting which precursor lesions will progress. The aim of this study was to assess the potential of a noninvasive approach to assess progress risk of oral precancerous lesions.
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Bioinformatics for spermatogenesis: annotation of male reproduction based on proteomics.
Asian J. Androl.
PUBLISHED: 01-08-2013
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Proteomics strategies have been widely used in the field of male reproduction, both in basic and clinical research. Bioinformatics methods are indispensable in proteomics-based studies and are used for data presentation, database construction and functional annotation. In the present review, we focus on the functional annotation of gene lists obtained through qualitative or quantitative methods, summarizing the common and male reproduction specialized proteomics databases. We introduce several integrated tools used to find the hidden biological significance from the data obtained. We further describe in detail the information on male reproduction derived from Gene Ontology analyses, pathway analyses and biomedical analyses. We provide an overview of bioinformatics annotations in spermatogenesis, from gene function to biological function and from biological function to clinical application. On the basis of recently published proteomics studies and associated data, we show that bioinformatics methods help us to discover drug targets for sperm motility and to scan for cancer-testis genes. In addition, we summarize the online resources relevant to male reproduction research for the exploration of the regulation of spermatogenesis.
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[Location of Dctn1 in the mouse testis and sperm and its role in spermiogenesis].
Zhonghua Nan Ke Xue
PUBLISHED: 10-04-2011
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To investigate the role of dynactin 1 (Dctn1) in the process of mouse spermiogenesis.
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[Y-chromosome microdeletions do not affect the outcomes of ICSI for infertile males].
Zhonghua Nan Ke Xue
PUBLISHED: 10-04-2011
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To compare the outcomes of intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) for infertile males with Y-chromosome microdeletions and for those with azoospermia or severe oligospermia but without Y-chromosome microdeletions.
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Effects of di-n-butyl phthalate on male rat reproduction following pubertal exposure.
Asian J. Androl.
PUBLISHED: 08-15-2011
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Di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) is an endocrine-disrupting chemical that has the potential to affect male reproduction. However, the reproductive effects of low-dose DBP are still not well known, especially at the molecular level. In the present study, pubertal male Sprague-Dawley rats were orally administered DBP at a wide range of doses (0.1, 1.0, 10, 100 and 500 mg kg?¹ day?¹) for 30 days. The selected end points included reproductive organ weights, testicular histopathology and serum hormonal levels. Additionally, proteomic analysis was performed to identify proteins that are differentially expressed as a result of exposure to DBP at low doses (0.1, 1.0 and 10 mg kg?¹ day?¹). Toxic effects were observed in the high-dose groups, including anomalous development of testes and epididymides, severe atrophy of seminiferous tubules, loss of spermatogenesis and abnormal levels of serum hormones. Treatment with low doses of DBP seemed to exert a stimulative effect on the serum hormones. Proteomics analysis of rat testes showed 20 differentially expressed proteins. Among these proteins, alterations in the expression of HnRNPA2/B1, vimentin and superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) were further confirmed by Western blot and immunohistochemistry. Taken together, we conclude that high doses of DBP led to testicular toxicity, and low doses of DBP led to changes in the expression of proteins involved in spermatogenesis as well as changes in the number and function of Sertoli and Leydig cells, although no obvious morphological changes appeared. The identification of these differentially expressed proteins provides important information about the mechanisms underlying the effects of DBP on male rat reproduction.
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[Expression of annexin A7 in spermatogonial stem cells].
Zhonghua Nan Ke Xue
PUBLISHED: 07-09-2011
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To study the expression of Annexin A7 in the mouse testis, especially in different types of spermatogonia.
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The role of ezrin-associated protein network in human sperm capacitation.
Asian J. Androl.
PUBLISHED: 08-16-2010
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Membrane modifications in sperm cells represent a key step in sperm capacitation; however, the molecular basis of these modifications is not fully understood. Ezrin is the best-studied member of the ezrin/radixin/merlin family. As a cross-linker between the cortical cytoskeleton and plasma membrane proteins, ezrin contributes to remodeling of the membrane surface structure. Furthermore, activated ezrin and the Rho dissociation inhibitor, RhoGDI, promote the formation of cortical cytoskeleton-polymerized actin through Rho activation. Thus, ezrin, actin, RhoGDI, Rho and plasma membrane proteins form a complicated network in vivo, which contributes to the assembly of the structure of the membrane surface. Previously, we showed that ezrin and RhoGDI1 are expressed in human testes. Thus, we sought to determine whether the ezrin-RhoGDI1-actin-membrane protein network has a role in human sperm capacitation. Our results by Western blot indicate that ezrin is activated by phosphorylation of the threonine567 residue during capacitation. Co-immunoprecipitation studies revealed that, during sperm capacitation, the interaction between ezrin and RhoGDI1 increases, and phosphostaining of two dimensional electrophoresis gels showed that RhoGDI1 is phosphorylated, suggesting that RhoGDI1 dissociates from RhoA and leads to actin polymerization on the sperm head. We speculate that activated ezrin interacts with polymerized actin and the glycosylated membrane protein cd44 after capacitation. Blocking sperm capacitation using ezrin- or actin-specific monoclonal antibodies decreases their acrosome reaction (AR) rate, but has no effect on the AR alone. Taken together, our results show that a network consisting of ezrin, RhoGDI1, RhoA, F-actin and membrane proteins functions to influence the modifications that occur on the membrane of the sperm head during human sperm capacitation.
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[Infection status of freshwater fishes with metacercariae of Clonorchis sinensis in Liujiang River of Guangxi].
Zhongguo Ji Sheng Chong Xue Yu Ji Sheng Chong Bing Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 07-30-2010
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From March 2008 to March 2009, fishes were caught from the rivers in Sanjiang, Rongan, Rongshui, Liucheng, Liuzhou and Xiangzhou counties, and their metacercarial infections were examined by the muscle compression and digestion techniques. A total of 16,204 freshwater fishes of 35 species were collected. C. sinensis metacercariae were found in 32 species of fishes with an overall infection rate of 10.5% and a mean infection intensity of 4.6 metacercariae per gram. The highest prevalence (21.5%) and intensity of infection (9.9 per gram) were found in Pseudorasbora parva, followed by Zacco platypus (17.8% and 8.9 per gram, respectively). There were significant differences in infection rate among different localities. The infection rate in Xiangzhou County (12.3%) was higher than that in Sanjiang County (9.1%) and Liuzhou City (9.7%). The infection rate was higher in summer and autumn, but lower in spring and winter. Compared with low water layer, the infection rate was higher in the upper and medium water layers. The infection rates of omnivorous and herbivorous fishes were higher than that of carnivorous fishes.
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[46, XX testicular disorder of sex development: report of 2 cases and review of the literature].
Zhonghua Nan Ke Xue
PUBLISHED: 07-15-2010
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To investigate the phenotype, pathogenesis and molecular biological features of 46, XX testicular disorder of sex development.
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AF-2364 is a prospective spermicide candidate.
Asian J. Androl.
PUBLISHED: 04-26-2010
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AbstractInhibition of sperm motility has recently become a promising target for male contraceptive development. AF-2364, an analogue of Lonidamine (LND), had a contraceptive effect when orally administered to adult Sprague-Dawley rats. LND can also target mitochondria to inhibit oxygen consumption and block energy metabolism in tumour cells. However, there are no reports of the effects of AF-2364 on human sperm function. Herein we describe the action of AF-2364 on human sperm in vitro, as well as the mechanisms involved. AF-2364 specifically blocked human sperm motility in vitro. Further experiments revealed that AF-2364 can target sperm mitochondrial permeability transition (MPT) pores to induce the loss of sperm mitochondrial membrane potential (DeltaPsim) and decrease ATP generation; however, no significant changes in the cytoskeletal network or the human sperm proteome were detected after exposure to AF-2364. Incubation of AF-2364 with other human or mouse cell lines indicated that the spermicidal effect at the lower concentration was specific. In summary, the spermicidal effect of AF-2364 involves direct action on sperm MPT pores, and this compound should be further investigated as a new spermicide candidate.
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[Expression of carbonic anhydrase II in human testes and spermatozoa and its clinical significance].
Zhonghua Nan Ke Xue
PUBLISHED: 03-15-2010
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To investigate the expression of carbonic anhydrase II (CA2) in human testes and spermatozoa, and to compare the expressions of CA2 in ejaculated spermatozoa between normozoospermic and asthenozoospermic men.
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The proteomic analysis of human neonatal umbilical cord serum by mass spectrometry.
Acta Pharmacol. Sin.
PUBLISHED: 11-06-2009
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To investigate the proteome composition and function of human neonatal arterial umbilical cord.
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Phylogenetic analysis of Mycoplasma suis isolates based on 16S rRNA gene sequence in China.
Vet. Res. Commun.
PUBLISHED: 06-01-2009
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To perform phylogenetic analysis of Mycoplasma suis isolates derived from China to define the nature of this pathogen, nearly complete of 16S rRNA genes from Chongqing, Sichuan, Henan and Guangdong isolates were amplified by PCR and sequenced. The four sequences from the blood samples in this study, with other 17 Hemoplasmas sequences and related 3 mycoplasma sequences available in the GenBank, were aligned using Clustal X (version 1.83) sequences alignment program. Maximum parsimony, neighbor-joining and minimum evolution (MEGA 4.0) algorithms were used to create phylogenetic trees. Phylogenetic analysis of these sequences showed that all hemoplasma species were located within a single clade and were most closely related to M. pneumoniae group. The hemoplasma species were further subdivided into two distinct groups, one containing M.wenyonii, M.suis and Candidatus M. haemominutum and the other containing M. haemofelis and M. haemocanis. Within the former clade, four M.suis isolates from Mainland China and other M.suis species formed a monophyletic group in the tree. A tendency of clear geographical grouping of the isolate was evident.
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Role of translation by mitochondrial-type ribosomes during sperm capacitation: an analysis based on a proteomic approach.
Proteomics
PUBLISHED: 03-03-2009
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Mammalian spermatozoa contain a complex population of mRNAs, some of which have been demonstrated to be translated de novo by mitochondrial-type ribosomes using D-chloramphenicol (CP), a specific inhibitor of mitochondrial translation. However, little is known about the functions of these mRNAs in mature sperm. In the present study, differential proteomic approaches were applied to study sperm protein profiles translated by mitochondrial-type ribosomes using the inhibitor CP and 44 proteins were identified with lower expression in CP-treated sperm in comparison to capacitated sperm (ratio >or= 1.5, p<0.05). Results of Western blot and real-time PCR suggest that four proteins were translated by mitochondrial-type ribosomes. Bioinformatics analysis indicated that 26 of 44 proteins were involved in some critical processes correlated to sperm-egg interaction event. In addition, Mups, whose functions in reproduction have never been studied, were chosen for further study. Our results showed that Mups proteins were localized to the acrosome and flagellum of precapacitated sperm, and were also expressed in the equatorial segment of capacitated sperm. The depletion of Mups using neutralizing antibodies significantly inhibited capacitation in a dose-dependent manner, subsequently inhibited acrosome reaction and sperm-egg fusion. In summary, mitochondrial translation during capacitation can store proteins beneficial for sperm-egg interaction.
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NYD-SP27, a novel intrinsic decapacitation factor in sperm.
Asian J. Androl.
PUBLISHED: 03-03-2009
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Prior to fertilization sperm has to undergo an activation process known as capaciation, leading to the acrosome reaction. Till now, little is known about the mechanism for preventing premature capacitation in sperm although decapacitation factors from various sources have been thought to be involved. In this study, we report that NYD-SP27, an isoform of phospholipase C Zeta 1 (PLCZ1), is localized to the sperm acrosome in mouse and human spermatozoa by immunofluorescence using a specific antibody. Western blot and double staining analyses show NYD-SP27 becomes detached from sperm, as they undergo capacitation and acrosome reaction. The absence of HCO3-, a key factor in activating capacitation, from the capacitation-inducing medium prevents the loss of NYD-SP27 from sperm. The anti-NYD-SP27 antibody also prevents the loss of NYD-SP27 from sperm, reduced the number of capacitated sperm, inhibited the acrosome reaction induced by ATP and progesterone, and inhibited agonist-induced PLC-coupled Ca2+ mobilization in sperm, which can be mimicked by the PLC inhibitor, U73122. These data strongly suggest that NYD-SP27 is a physiological inhibitor of PLC that acts as an intrinsic decapacitation factor in sperm to prevent premature capacitation and acrosome reaction.
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Integrity of the blood-testis barrier in healthy men after suppression of spermatogenesis with testosterone and levonorgestrel.
Hum. Reprod.
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Do exogenous male hormonal contraceptives that suppress intratesticular testosterone and spermatogenesis interfere with the blood-testis barrier integrity in men?
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JC virus existence in Chinese gastrointestinal carcinomas.
Oncol Lett
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The John Cunningham virus (JCV) infects a large proportion of the population worldwide and may cause progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy upon immunodeficiency. Recent reports provided evidence of its oncogenetic role in malignancies. In this study, JCV was examined by targeting T antigen, viral protein and agnoprotein in paraffin-embedded or frozen gastrointestinal carcinomas and paired non-neoplastic mucosa (NNM) samples by nested-PCR followed by Southern blot analysis. In addition, the expression of JCV T antigen, ki-67, caspase-3, p53, Rb and ?-catenin was studied by immunohistochemistry on tissue microarrays. The positive rate of JCV T antigen was higher in paraffin-embedded gastrointestinal carcinomas compared to adjacent NNM by nested-PCR followed by Southern blot analysis (36.9 vs. 16.9%, P<0.05), while there was no difference in other viral oncogenes regardless of whether they were paraffin-embedded or frozen samples. Immunohistochemically, T antigen was detectable in 9.6% (13/135) of carcinoma cases, which was higher than its positive rate in NNM (0.8%, 1/126, P<0.01). However, the genomic JCV DNA existence or its T antigen expression was not correlated with age, gender, tumor size, histological types, lymph node metastasis, expression of ki-67, caspase-3, p53, Rb and ?-catenin of gastric carcinomas (P>0.05). In conlusion, JCV T antigen may be involved in gastrointestinal carcinogenesis as an oncogene in China.
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.