The interaction between silver nanoparticles and herpesviruses is attracting great interest due to their antiviral activity and possibility to use as microbicides for oral and anogenital herpes. In this work, we demonstrate that tannic acid modified silver nanoparticles sized 13 nm, 33 nm and 46 nm are capable of reducing HSV-2 infectivity both in vitro and in vivo. The antiviral activity of tannic acid modified silver nanoparticles was size-related, required direct interaction and blocked virus attachment, penetration and further spread. All tested tannic acid modified silver nanoparticles reduced both infection and inflammatory reaction in the mouse model of HSV-2 infection when used at infection or for a post-infection treatment. Smaller-sized nanoparticles induced production of cytokines and chemokines important for anti-viral response. The corresponding control buffers with tannic acid showed inferior antiviral effects in vitro and were ineffective in blocking in vivo infection. Our results show that tannic acid modified silver nanoparticles are good candidates for microbicides used in treatment of herpesvirus infections.
Some sheep breeds are naturally prolific, and they are very informative for the studies of reproductive genetics and physiology. Major genes increasing litter size (LS) and ovulation rate (OR) were suspected in the French Grivette and the Polish Olkuska sheep populations, respectively. To identify genetic variants responsible for the highly prolific phenotype in these two breeds, genome-wide association studies (GWAS) followed by complementary genetic and functional analyses were performed. Highly prolific ewes (cases) and normal prolific ewes (controls) from each breed were genotyped using the Illumina OvineSNP50 Genotyping Beadchip. In both populations, an X chromosome region, close to the BMP15 gene, harbored clusters of markers with suggestive evidence of association at significance levels between 1E(-05) and 1E(-07). The BMP15 candidate gene was then sequenced, and two novel non-conservative mutations called FecX(Gr) and FecX(O) were identified in the Grivette and Olkuska breeds, respectively. The two mutations were associated with the highly prolific phenotype (p FecX (Gr) = 5.98E(-06) and p FecX(O) = 2.55E(-08)). Homozygous ewes for the mutated allele showed a significantly increased prolificacy (FecX(Gr)/FecX(Gr), LS = 2.50 ± 0.65 versus FecX(+)/FecX(Gr), LS = 1.93 ± 0.42, p<1E(-03) and FecX(O)/FecX(O), OR = 3.28 ± 0.85 versus FecX(+)/FecX(O), OR = 2.02 ± 0.47, p<1E(-03)). Both mutations are located in very well conserved motifs of the protein and altered the BMP15 signaling activity in vitro using a BMP-responsive luciferase test in COV434 granulosa cells. Thus, we have identified two novel mutations in the BMP15 gene associated with increased LS and OR. Notably, homozygous FecX(Gr)/FecX(Gr) Grivette and homozygous FecX(O)/FecX(O) Olkuska ewes are hyperprolific in striking contrast with the sterility exhibited by all other known homozygous BMP15 mutations. Our results bring new insights into the key role played by the BMP15 protein in ovarian function and could contribute to a better understanding of the pathogenesis of womens fertility disorders.
Apoptotic cell death is critical for maintaining integrity of the epithelia as well as for removal of the virus infected cells. We assessed the role of Fas/FasL-dependent pathway in apoptosis of genital epithelium during HSV-2 infection using a murine model of HSV-2 infection applied to C57BL6, MRL-Fas(lpr)/J (Fas-/-) and C3-Fasl(gld)/J (FasL-/-) mice and an in vitro model of HSV-2 infection in monocyte RAW 264.7 and keratinocyte 291.03C cell cultures and peritoneal macrophages. In contrast to keratinocyte in vitro cultures, HSV-2 infection of the monocytic cell cultures led to early induction of apoptosis. HSV-2 infection of peritoneal macrophages isolated from Fas- and FasL-deficient mice showed decreased activation of apoptosis, which could be further blocked by caspase-9 inhibitor. Infection of Fas and FasL-deficient mice increased the percentage of apoptotic cells and activation of caspase-9 in the vaginal tissue in comparison to C57BL6 wild type strain. Furthermore, Fas and FasL-deficient mice showed increased infiltration of neutrophiles in the vaginal mucosal epithelium at 3 and 7 day of infection in contrast to HSV-2 infected wild-type mice. Our results show that while the Fas/FasL pathway during HSV-2 infection of the vaginal epithelium plays an important role in controlling early local inflammatory response, mitochondrial apoptotic pathway also becomes activated by the inflammatory reaction.
The present study evaluates the effect of protein source (dipeptides, free amino acids, and intact protein) on development and growth of Salmonid fish alevin. Specifically, we follow the expression of oligopeptide transporter protein PepT1 in the intestine of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Fish were fed exogenously one of four diets: three formulated (lysyl-glycine dipeptide supplemented diet - PP, free lysine and glycine supplemented diet - AA, control diet with no lysine - CON) or commercial starter (Aller Futura - AF). Fish increased mean body weight 8 fold with PP- and AA-supplemented diets resulting in significantly higher weight gain than fish fed CON. Statistical analysis revealed a significant increase in relative PepT1 expression of fish fed experimental diets. Immunohistochemical staining with PepT1 antibody showed the presence of the transporter protein in the brush border membrane of the proximal intestinal enterocytes of fish from all experimental groups. Leptin immunoreactivity occurred not only in the gastric glands but also in proximal intestine and pyloric caeca of fish fed PP, AA and AF diets. Leptin immunoreactivity was also observed in hepatocyte cytoplasm and pancreatic acinar cells. Gastrin/CCK immunoreactive cells were present in the proximal intestine and pyloric caeca.
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