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# Chapter 2 Summarizing and Visualizing Data

## Review and Preview

Data are individual items of information obtained from a population or sample. Data may be classified as qualitative (categorical), quantitative…

## What is a Frequency Distribution

A frequency is the number of times a value of the data occurs. The sum of all the frequency values represents the total number of students included…

## Construction of Frequency Distribution

A frequency distribution table can be constructed using the steps given below. First, make a table with two columns—one with the title of the…

## Relative Frequency Distribution

A relative frequency distribution is the proportion or fraction of times a value occurs in a data set. To find the relative frequencies, one can…

## Percentage Frequency Distribution

A percentage frequency distribution, in general, is a display of data that indicates the percentage of observations for each data point or grouping…

## Cumulative Frequency Distribution

A cumulative frequency distribution is another type of frequency distribution. Instead of reporting how many data values fall in some classes, it…

## Ogive Graph

An ogive graph is sometimes called a cumulative frequency polygon. It is one type of frequency polygon that shows cumulative frequency. In other…

## Histogram

The histogram is a graphical representation in the x-y form of data distribution in a data set. The horizontal x-axis is labeled with what the data…

## Relative Frequency Histogram

The relative frequency depicts the proportion of data points that have each value. The frequency tells the number of data points that have each…

## Scatter Plot

The most common and easiest way to display the relationship between two variables, x and y, is a scatter plot. A scatter plot shows the direction of…

## Time-Series Graph

A time-series graph is a line graph with repeated measurements taken at successive intervals of time. It is also called a time series chart. To…

## Bar Graph

A bar graph is also called a bar chart and consists of bars that are separated from each other. It either uses horizontal or vertical bars to show…

## Multiple Bar Graph

As the name suggests, a multiple bar graph is the same as a bar graph but has multiple bars to depict relationships between different data values.…

## Pareto Chart

A Pareto chart is a bar graph or a combination of both line and bar graphs. The bar lengths represent the individual values or the frequency, while…

## Pie Chart

A pie chart (or a pie graph) is a circular graphical chart or a pictorial representation of categorical data. It is divided into slices of pie each…

## Decomposing the Variance in Reading Comprehension to Reveal the Unique and Common Effects of Language and Decoding

The Simple View of Reading is a popular model of reading that claims that reading is the product of decoding and language, with each component…

## Measuring Light-Switching Behavior Using an Occupancy and Light Data Logger

Due to discrepancies between self-reported and observed pro-environmental behavior, researchers suggest the use of more direct measures of behavior.…

## Observation and Analysis of Blinking Surface-enhanced Raman Scattering

From a single molecule at a silver nanoaggregate junction, blinking surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) is observed. Here, a protocol is…

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