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In JoVE (1)
Other Publications (18)
- Pharmaceutical Research
- Journal of Controlled Release : Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
- Pharmaceutical Research
- Journal of Drug Targeting
- The Journal of Experimental Medicine
- Journal of Controlled Release : Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
- Science (New York, N.Y.)
- PLoS Pathogens
- Developmental Biology
- PloS One
- Journal of Immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950)
- Methods in Enzymology
- Infection and Immunity
- Journal of Immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950)
- Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
- Journal of Immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950)
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Articles by Bernd H. Zinselmeyer in JoVE
Não-invasiva por imagem do Homing leucócitos e Migração In vivo
Baomei Wang1, Bernd H. Zinselmeyer1,2, Jeremiah R. McDole1, Peggy A. Gieselman1, Mark J. Miller1
1Department of Pathology and Immunology, Washington University in St. Louis, 2National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, NINDS, NIH - National Institute of Health
Aqui, descrevemos um método não invasivo de dois fótons abordagem microscopia (2P) para estudo de leucócitos homing na pata do rato. Discutimos os aspectos técnicos de nossa preparação tissular e andar o leitor através de um experimento típico de configuração inicial para coleta de execução e de dados.
Other articles by Bernd H. Zinselmeyer on PubMed
Pharmaceutical Research. Jul, 2002 | Pubmed ID: 12180548
To evaluate polypropylenimine dendrimers (generations 1-5: DAB 4, DAB 8, DAB 16, DAB 32, and DAB 64) as gene delivery systems.
Journal of Controlled Release : Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society. Aug, 2003 | Pubmed ID: 12932652
The limited efficacy of non-viral gene delivery systems currently hampers their wider therapeutic use. In order to further develop novel gene delivery systems, it is important to quantify their efficacy. Many reporter gene assays have limitations when being used to quantify expression in vivo. We have developed a simple assay which allows the quantification of beta-galactosidase transgene activity in vivo. The assay is based on beta-galactosidase cleavage of the DDAO-galactopyranoside substrate to DDAO, which shifts the fluorescence towards longer wavelengths. Reaction conditions were optimised to minimise degradation, activity of endogenous beta-galactosidase, and non-specific background fluorescence. The spectrofluorimetric quantification of the reaction product DDAO in the red part of the spectrum avoided interference from haemoglobin or other bio-molecules which hamper many in vivo assays. Routinely, amounts of less than 1 ng of beta-galactosidase (1 mU) per gram tissue could be detected and quantified. After intravenous administration of beta-galactosidase complexed with linear polyethylenimine (PEI, 22 kD) in mice, 134 mU g(-1) beta-galactosidase were detected in the lung, but only 2.9 mU g(-1) were found in the liver.
Evaluation of Generation 2 and 3 Poly(propylenimine) Dendrimers for the Potential Cellular Delivery of Antisense Oligonucleotides Targeting the Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor
Pharmaceutical Research. Mar, 2004 | Pubmed ID: 15070097
To evaluate low generation, G2 and G3, poly(propylenimine) dendrimers for the potential cellular delivery of antisense oligonucleotides (ODNs) targeting the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) in A431 epidermoid carcinoma cells.
Gene Transfer with Three Amphiphilic Glycol Chitosans--the Degree of Polymerisation is the Main Controller of Transfection Efficiency
Journal of Drug Targeting. 2004 | Pubmed ID: 15621678
A number of studies have examined the possibility of delivering genes for the treatment of genetic diseases using various polymers and lipids. We have previously demonstrated the gene transfer ability of amphiphilic polymers (a soluble amine polymer covalently bound to lipid pendant groups). In the current communication we explore the gene transfer activity of amphiphilic glycol chitosans. Glycol chitosan was acid depolymerised to give polymers of various molecular weights. Palmitoyl or hexadecyl and in some cases additional N-methyl quaternary ammonium groups were attached to the polymers. DNA binding was studied by measuring the reduced fluorescence of ethidium bromide and the polyplex particle size and zeta potential. Biological characterisation of the polyplexes involved haemolysis, cytotoxicity and gene transfer assays. For the 22 polymers tested, DNA binding was optimum at a nitrogen to phosphate ratio of 2:1 and above. Polyplexes were 200-500 nm in diameter with a neutral or positive zeta potential. The haemolytic activity of the N-methyl polymers was studied and no haemolysis was detected up to a concentration of 10 mg ml-1. Cytotoxicity studies showed that the biocompatibility of glycol chitosan was adversely affected by a combination of a palmitoyl group and depolymerisation and that biocompatibility was subsequently restored with the introduction of N-methyl groups. In vitro transfection efficiency superior to the cationic lipid formulation N-[1-(2,3-dioleoyloxy)propyl]-N,N,N-trimethylammonium methyl sulphate (DOTAP) was seen with depolymerised glycol chitosan in the A431 cell line only and with the depolymerised N-methyl quaternary ammonium amphiphilic derivatives in both the A431 and A549 cell lines. Degree of polymerisation (DP) was the most important controller of transfection efficiency and transfection resided within polymers with a DP of 73-171. High DP polymers diminished DNA-cell association, the first step in the cellular gene transfer process, thus apparently diminishing cell uptake. In vivo transfection with the N-methyl quaternary ammonium amphiphile was best at a DP of 86 and this glycol chitosan amphiphile gave superior liver and heart gene expression levels when compared to both Exgen 500 (linear polyethylenimine) and Superfect (a polyamidoamine dendrimer).
In Situ Characterization of CD4+ T Cell Behavior in Mucosal and Systemic Lymphoid Tissues During the Induction of Oral Priming and Tolerance
The Journal of Experimental Medicine. Jun, 2005 | Pubmed ID: 15928201
The behavior of antigen-specific CD4+ T lymphocytes during initial exposure to antigen probably influences their decision to become primed or tolerized, but this has not been examined directly in vivo. We have therefore tracked such cells in real time, in situ during the induction of oral priming versus oral tolerance. There were marked contrasts with respect to rate and type of movement and clustering between naive T cells and those exposed to antigen in immunogenic or tolerogenic forms. However, the major difference when comparing tolerized and primed T cells was that the latter formed larger and longer-lived clusters within mucosal and peripheral lymph nodes. This is the first comparison of the behavior of antigen-specific CD4+ T cells in situ in mucosal and systemic lymphoid tissues during the induction of priming versus tolerance in a physiologically relevant model in vivo.
Journal of Controlled Release : Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society. Jan, 2005 | Pubmed ID: 15588909
Previously, the lower generation (DAB 8-generation 2 and DAB 16-generation 3) polypropylenimine dendrimers have been shown to be effective gene delivery systems in vitro. In the current work, we sought to: (a) test the effect of the strength of the carrier, DNA electrostatic interaction on gene transfer and (b) to study the in vivo gene transfer activity of these low molecular weight (<1687 Da) non-amphiphilic plain and quaternary ammonium gene carriers. Towards this aim, methyl quaternary ammonium derivatives of DAB 4 (generation 1), DAB 8, DAB 16 and DAB 32 (generation 4) were synthesised to give Q4, Q8, Q16 and Q32, respectively. Quaternisation of DAB 8 proved to be critical in improving DNA binding, as evidenced by data from the ethidium bromide exclusion assay and dendrimer-DNA colloidal stability data. This improved colloidal stability had a major effect on vector tolerability, as Q8-DNA formulations were well tolerated on intravenous injection while a similar DAB 8-DNA dose was lethally toxic by the same route. Quaternisation also improved the in vitro cell biocompatibility of DAB 16-DNA and DAB 32-DNA dendrimer complexes by about 4-fold but not that of the lower generation DAB 4-DNA and DAB 8-DNA formulations. In contrast to previous reports with non-viral gene delivery systems, the intravenous administration of DAB 16-DNA and Q8-DNA formulations resulted in liver targeted gene expression as opposed to the lung targeted gene expression obtained with the control polymer-Exgen 500 [linear poly(ethylenimine)] and a lung avoidance hypothesis is postulated. We conclude that the polypropylenimine dendrimers are promising gene delivery systems which may be used to target the liver and avoid the lung and also that molecular modifications conferring colloidal stability on gene delivery formulations have a profound effect on their tolerability on intravenous administration.
Science (New York, N.Y.). Sep, 2006 | Pubmed ID: 16931720
The coreceptor cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 (CTLA-4) is pivotal in regulating the threshold of signals during T cell activation, although the underlying mechanism is still not fully understood. Using in vitro migration assays and in vivo two-photon laser scanning microscopy, we showed that CTLA-4 increases T cell motility and overrides the T cell receptor (TCR)-induced stop signal required for stable conjugate formation between T cells and antigen-presenting cells. This event led to reduced contact periods between T cells and antigen-presenting cells that in turn decreased cytokine production and proliferation. These results suggest a fundamentally different model of reverse stop signaling, by which CTLA-4 modulates the threshold for T cell activation and protects against autoimmunity.
Images in Cardiovascular Medicine. Multiphoton Microscopy for 3-dimensional Imaging of Lymphocyte Recruitment into Apolipoprotein-E-deficient Mouse Carotid Artery
Circulation. Mar, 2007 | Pubmed ID: 17372180
PLoS Pathogens. Oct, 2007 | Pubmed ID: 17937497
Interactions between antigen-presenting dendritic cells (DCs) and T cells are essential for the induction of an immune response. However, during malaria infection, DC function is compromised and immune responses against parasite and heterologous antigens are reduced. Here, we demonstrate that malaria infection or the parasite pigment hemozoin inhibits T cell and DC interactions both in vitro and in vivo, while signal 1 intensity remains unaltered. This altered cellular behaviour is associated with the suppression of DC costimulatory activity and functional T cell responses, potentially explaining why immunity is reduced during malaria infection.
Immunity. Sep, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18760639
The spleen plays an important role in host-protective responses to bacteria. However, the cellular dynamics that lead to pathogen-specific immunity remain poorly understood. Here we examined Listeria monocytogenes (Lm) infection in the mouse spleen via in situ fluorescence microscopy. We found that the redistribution of Lm from the marginal zone (MZ) to the periarteriolar lymphoid sheath (PALS) was inhibited by pertussis toxin and required the presence of CD11c(+) cells. As early as 9 hr after infection, we detected infected dendritic cells in the peripheral regions of the PALS and clustering of Lm-specific T cells by two-photon microscopy. Pertussis toxin inhibited both Lm entry into the PALS and antigen presentation to CD8(+) T cells. Our study suggests that splenic dendritic cells rapidly deliver intracellular bacteria to the T cell areas of the white pulp to initiate CD8(+) T cell responses.
The Gastric Epithelial Progenitor Cell Niche and Differentiation of the Zymogenic (chief) Cell Lineage
Developmental Biology. Jan, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19013146
In the mammalian gastrointestinal tract, the cell fate decisions that specify the development of multiple, diverse lineages are governed in large part by interactions of stem and early lineage progenitor cells with their microenvironment, or niche. Here, we show that the gastric parietal cell (PC) is a key cellular component of the previously undescribed niche for the gastric epithelial neck cell, the progenitor of the digestive enzyme secreting zymogenic (chief) cell (ZC). Genetic ablation of PCs led to failed patterning of the entire zymogenic lineage: progenitors showed premature expression of differentiated cell markers, and fully differentiated ZCs failed to develop. We developed a separate mouse model in which PCs localized not only to the progenitor niche, but also ectopically to the gastric unit base, which is normally occupied by terminally differentiated ZCs. Surprisingly, these mislocalized PCs did not maintain adjacent zymogenic lineage cells in the progenitor state, demonstrating that PCs, though necessary, are not sufficient to define the progenitor niche. We induced this PC mislocalization by knocking out the cytoskeleton-regulating gene Cd2ap in Mist1(-/-) mice, which led to aberrant E-cadherin localization in ZCs, irregular ZC-ZC junctions, and disruption of the ZC monolayer by PCs. Thus, the characteristic histology of the gastric unit, with PCs in the middle and ZCs in the base, may depend on establishment of an ordered adherens junction network in ZCs as they migrate into the base.
ITAM Signaling by Vav Family Rho Guanine Nucleotide Exchange Factors Regulates Interstitial Transit Rates of Neutrophils in Vivo
PloS One. 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19247495
In response to infection, neutrophils are quickly recruited from the blood into inflamed tissues. The interstitial migration of neutrophils is crucial for the efficient capture and control of rapidly proliferating microbes before microbial growth can overwhelm the host's defenses. However, the molecular mechanisms that regulate interstitial migration are incompletely understood.
Journal of Immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950). Apr, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19299693
It is the prevailing view that adaptive immune responses are initiated in secondary lymphoid organs. Studies using alymphoplastic mice have shown that secondary lymphoid organs are essential to initiate allograft rejection of skin, heart, and small bowel. The high immunogenicity of lungs is well recognized and allograft rejection remains a major contributing factor to poor outcomes after lung transplantation. We show in this study that alloreactive T cells are initially primed within lung allografts and not in secondary lymphoid organs following transplantation. In contrast to other organs, lungs are acutely rejected in the absence of secondary lymphoid organs. Two-photon microscopy revealed that recipient T cells cluster predominantly around lung-resident, donor-derived CD11c(+) cells early after engraftment. These findings demonstrate for the first time that alloimmune responses following lung transplantation are initiated in the graft itself and therefore identify a novel, potentially clinically relevant mechanism of lung allograft rejection.
Methods in Enzymology. 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19480927
Two-photon (2P) microscopy is a high-resolution imaging technique that was initially applied by neurobiologists and developmental cell biologists but has subsequently been broadly adapted by immunologists. The value of 2P microscopy is that it affords an unparalleled view of single-cell spatiotemporal dynamics deep within intact tissues and organs. As the technology develops and new transgenic mice and fluorescent probes become available, 2P microscopy will serve as an increasingly valuable tool for assessing cell function and probing molecular mechanisms. Here we discuss the technical aspects related to 2P microscope design, explain in detail various tissue imaging preparations, and walk the reader through the often daunting process of analyzing multidimensional data sets and presenting the experimental results.
Streptolysin S Inhibits Neutrophil Recruitment During the Early Stages of Streptococcus Pyogenes Infection
Infection and Immunity. Nov, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19687200
In contrast to infection of superficial tissues, Streptococcus pyogenes infection of deeper tissue can be associated with a significantly diminished inflammatory response, suggesting that this bacterium has the ability to both promote and suppress inflammation. To examine this, we analyzed the behavior of an S. pyogenes mutant deficient in expression of the cytolytic toxin streptolysin S (SLS-) and evaluated events that occur during the first few hours of infection by using several models including injection of zebrafish (adults, larvae, and embryos), a transepithelial polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMN) migration assay, and two-photon microscopy of mice in vivo. In contrast to wild-type S. pyogenes, the SLS- mutant was associated with the robust recruitment of neutrophils and significantly reduced lethal myositis in adult zebrafish. Similarly, the mutant was attenuated in embryos in its ability to cause lethality. Infection of larva muscle allowed an analysis of inflammation in real time, which revealed that the mutant had recruited PMNs to the infection site. Analysis of transepithelial migration in vitro suggested that SLS inhibited the host cells' production of signals chemotactic for neutrophils, which contrasted with the proinflammatory effect of an unrelated cytolytic toxin, streptolysin O. Using two-photon microscopy of mice in vivo, we showed that the extravasation of neutrophils during infection with SLS- mutant bacteria was significantly accelerated compared to infection with wild-type S. pyogenes. Taken together, these data support a role for SLS in the inhibition of neutrophil recruitment during the early stages of S. pyogenes infection.
Journal of Immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950). Apr, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20194718
Chemokines promote lymphocyte motility by triggering F-actin rearrangements and inducing cellular polarization. Chemokines can also enhance cell-cell adhesion and costimulate T cells. In this study, we establish a requirement for the actin-bundling protein L-plastin (LPL) in CCR7- and sphingosine-1-phosphate-mediated T cell chemotaxis using LPL(-/-) mice. Disrupted motility of mature LPL(-/-) thymocytes manifested in vivo as diminished thymic egress. Two-photon microscopy of LPL(-/-) lymphocytes revealed reduced velocity and motility in lymph nodes. Defective migration resulted from defective cellular polarization following CCR7 ligation, as CCR7 did not polarize to the leading edge in chemokine-stimulated LPL(-/-) T cells. However, CCR7 signaling to F-actin polymerization and CCR7-mediated costimulation was intact in LPL(-/-) lymphocytes. The differential requirement for LPL in CCR7-induced cellular adhesion and CCR7-induced motility allowed assessment of the contribution of CCR7-mediated motility to positive selection of thymocytes and lineage commitment. Results suggest that normal motility is not required for CCR7 to function in positive selection and lineage commitment. We thus identify LPL as a molecule critical for CCR7-mediated motility but dispensable for early CCR7 signaling. The requirement for actin bundling by LPL for polarization reveals a novel mechanism of regulating actin dynamics during T cell motility.
In Vivo Two-photon Imaging Reveals Monocyte-dependent Neutrophil Extravasation During Pulmonary Inflammation
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. Oct, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20923880
Immune-mediated pulmonary diseases are a significant public health concern. Analysis of leukocyte behavior in the lung is essential for understanding cellular mechanisms that contribute to normal and diseased states. Here, we used two-photon imaging to study neutrophil extravasation from pulmonary vessels and subsequent interstitial migration. We found that the lungs contained a significant pool of tissue-resident neutrophils in the steady state. In response to inflammation produced by bacterial challenge or transplant-mediated, ischemia-reperfusion injury, neutrophils were rapidly recruited from the circulation and patrolled the interstitium and airspaces of the lung. Motile neutrophils often aggregated in dynamic clusters that formed and dispersed over tens of minutes. These clusters were associated with CD115(+) F4/80(+) Ly6C(+) cells that had recently entered the lung. The depletion of blood monocytes with clodronate liposomes reduced neutrophil clustering in the lung, but acted by inhibiting neutrophil transendothelial migration upstream of interstitial migration. Our results suggest that a subset of monocytes serve as key regulators of neutrophil extravasation in the lung and may be an attractive target for the treatment of inflammatory pulmonary diseases.
T Cell Dynamics During Induction of Tolerance and Suppression of Experimental Allergic Encephalomyelitis
Journal of Immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950). Oct, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21911603
The cell dynamics associated with induction of peripheral T cell tolerance remain largely undefined. In this study, an in vivo model was adapted to two-photon microscopy imaging, and T cell behavior was analyzed on tolerogen-induced modulation. FcγR-deficient (FcγR(-/-)) mice were unable to resist or alleviate experimental allergic encephalomyelitis when treated with Ig-myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) tolerogen, an Ig carrying the MOG35-55 peptide. However, when FcγR(+/+) dendritic cells (DCs) are adoptively transferred into FcγR(-/-) mice, uptake and presentation of Ig-MOG occurs and the animals were able to overcome experimental allergic encephalomyelitis. We then fluorescently labeled FcγR(+/+) DCs and 2D2 MOG-specific TCR-transgenic T cells, transferred them into FcγR(-/-) mice, administered Ig-MOG, and analyzed both T cell-DC contact events and T cell motility. The results indicate that tolerance takes place in lymphoid organs, and surprisingly, the T cells do not become anergic but instead have a Th2 phenotype. The tolerant Th2 cells displayed reduced motility after tolerogen exposure similar to Th1 cells after immunization. However, the Th2 cells had higher migration speeds and took longer to exhibit changes in motility. Therefore, both Th1 immunity and Th2 tolerance alter T cell migration on Ag recognition, but the kinetics of this effect differ among the subsets.