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In JoVE (1)

Other Publications (12)

Articles by Dhandapani V. Sadasivam in JoVE

 JoVE Chemistry

Preparation and Use of Samarium Diiodide (SmI2) in Organic Synthesis: The Mechanistic Role of HMPA and Ni(II) Salts in the Samarium Barbier Reaction

1Department of Chemistry, Lehigh University


JoVE 4323

A straightforward procedure for the preparation of samarium diiodide (SmI2) in THF is described. The role of two main additives namely hexamethylphosphoramide (HMPA) and Ni(acac)2 in Sm mediated reactions is demonstrated in the Sm-Barbier reaction.

Other articles by Dhandapani V. Sadasivam on PubMed

A Theoretical Study of the [4 + 4] Dimerization of Thioformylketene

[reaction and structure: see text] A theoretical study (B3LYP and G3MP2B3) of the dimerization of thioformylketene (1) was performed. Four pathways-two [4 + 2] pathways with thioformylketene (1), one [4 + 4] pathway with 1, and one [4 + 2] pathway involving 1 and thietone (11)-were considered. Interestingly, the [4 + 4] pathway with 1 had the lowest barrier (3.8 kcal/mol). The geometry of the transition state TS14 is unusual, with the forming bonds in the plane of the ketene. This suggests that the reaction is pseudopericyclic.

Stopped-flow Kinetics of Tetrazine Cycloadditions; Experimental and Computational Studies Toward Sequential Transition States

The Diels-Alder cycloadditions of tetrazines (1) with alkynes (2) are expected to give bicyclic adducts (3). Kinetic measurements of the cycloadditions of 1a and 1b with 2a give DeltaG(++) = 19.2 +/- 1.0 and 11.5 +/- 1.2 kcal/mol, respectively. Stopped-flow UV studies on the reaction of 1b with 2a show an isosbestic point at 428 nm; this places an upper limit of 11.6 +/- 2.6 kcal/mol on DeltaG(++) for loss of N(2) from the putative bicyclic intermediate 3b. Calculations (B3LYP/6-31G(d,p) + ZPVE) of transition structures for the reaction of tetrazinediacid 1d with propynylamine 2c are consistent with the experimental results for the reaction of 1b with 2a. This and several related model systems reveal two interesting features of the calculated energy surfaces. First, there may be no barrier for the loss of nitrogen from structures 3 and thus there may be two sequential transition states. This also extends Berson's correlation of activation energy with reaction energy in pericyclic reactions to significantly lower barriers. Second, for the cycloaddition of 4e and 2c, there is neither an intermediate nor a transition state between TS3e and the final product 6e. It appears that the energy surface "turns a corner" in the vicinity of a structure resembling 5e. This is not a mathematically well-defined point but has chemical consequences in that the overall exothermicity of the reaction from 4e to 6e is not felt in TS3e.

A Computational Study of the Formation and Dimerization of Benzothiet-2-one

A computational B3LYP/6-31G(d,p) study of the formation of benzothiet-2-one (4) from benzothiophenedione (2) and its subsequent dimerization to 5 was performed. The proposed intermediate ketene 3 has no gas-phase barrier to ring closure to 4. Three transition structures for dimerization were located. The geometry of the lowest energy one (TS8a) has a geometry corresponding to a two atom + two atom, face-to-face addition of the two thiolactone moieties. The orbital interactions suggest that the reaction is pseudopericyclic.

Mechanistic Study of Samarium Diiodide-HMPA Initiated 5-exo-trig Ketyl-Olefin Coupling: the Role of HMPA in Post-electron Transfer Steps

The mechanistic importance of HMPA and proton donors (methanol, 2-methyl-2-propanol, and 2,2,2-trifluoroethanol) on SmI2-initiated 5-exo-trig ketyl-olefin cyclizations has been examined using stopped-flow spectrophotometric studies. In the presence of HMPA, the rate order of proton donors was zero and product studies showed that they had no impact on the diastereoselectivity of the reaction. Conversely, reactions were first-order in HMPA, and the additive displayed saturation kinetics at high concentrations. These results were consistent with HMPA being involved in a rate-limiting step before cyclization, where coordination of the intermediate ketyl to the sterically congested Sm(III)HMPA both stabilizes the intermediate and inhibits cyclization. Liberation of the contact ion pair through displacement by an equivalent of HMPA provides a solvent-separated ion pair releasing the steric constraint to ketyl-olefin cyclization. The mechanism derived from rate studies shows that HMPA is important not only in increasing the reduction potential of Sm(II) but also in enhancing the inherent reactivity of the radical anion intermediate formed after electron transfer through conversion of a sterically congested contact ion pair to a solvent-separated ion pair. The mechanistic complexity of the SmI2-HMPA-initiated ketyl-olefin cyclization is driven by the high affinity of HMPA for Sm(III), and these results suggest that simple empirical models describing the role of HMPA in more complex systems are likely to be fraught with a high degree of uncertainty.

Studies on the Mechanism, Selectivity, and Synthetic Utility of Lactone Reduction Using SmI(2) and H(2)O

Although simple aliphatic esters and lactones have long been thought to lie outside the reducing range of SmI(2), activation of the lanthanide reagent by H(2)O allows some of these substrates to be manipulated in an unprecedented fashion. For example, the SmI(2)-H(2)O reducing system shows complete selectivity for the reduction of 6-membered lactones over other classes of lactones and esters. The kinetics of reduction has been studied using stopped-flow spectrophotometry. Experimental and computational studies suggest that the origin of the selectivity lies in the initial electron-transfer to the lactone carbonyl. The radical intermediates formed during lactone reduction with SmI(2)-H(2)O can be exploited in cyclizations to give cyclic ketone (or ketal) products with high diastereoselectivity. The cyclizations constitute the first examples of ester-alkene radical cyclizations in which the ester carbonyl acts as an acyl radical equivalent.

Solvent-dependent Oxidative Coupling of 1-aryl-1,3-dicarbonyls and Styrene

This report describes the scope and mechanism of the solvent-dependent, chemoselective oxidative coupling of 1-aryl-1,3-dicarbonyls with styrene using Ce(IV) reagents. Dihydrofuran derivatives are obtained when reactions are performed in methanol whereas alpha-tetralones can be selectively synthesized in acetonitrile and methylene chloride. Mechanistic studies are consistent with the rate of solvent-assisted deprotonation of a radical cation intermediate playing an integral role in the selective formation of products.

Dynamic Ligand Exchange in Reactions of Samarium Diiodide

Mechanistic studies show the importance of iodide displacement by additives that accelerate reactions of samarium diiodide. The key feature important for acceleration of reaction rate is the use of proton donors and other additives that have a high enough affinity for Sm(II) to displace iodide yet do not saturate the coordination sphere inhibiting substrate reduction.

Corrigendum to Solvent-dependent Oxidative Coupling of 1-aryl-1,3-dicarbonyls and Styrene

This report describes the scope and mechanism of the solvent-dependent, chemoselective oxidative coupling of 1-aryl-1,3-dicarbonyls with styrene using Ce(IV) reagents. Dihydrofuran derivatives are obtained when reactions are performed in methanol whereas nitrate esters can be selectively synthesized in acetonitrile and methylene chloride. Mechanistic studies are consistent with the rate of solvent-assisted deprotonation of a radical cation intermediate playing an integral role in the selective formation of products.

Uncovering the Mechanistic Role of HMPA in the Samarium Barbier Reaction

The presence of HMPA is critical for the selective coupling of alkyl halides and ketones by SmI(2). Although previous rate studies have shown that HMPA dramatically accelerates the reduction of alkyl halides over ketones, the basis of this rate acceleration is unknown. In this communication, we report experimental and computational evidence that demonstrate that the selectivity observed in the samarium Barbier reaction is in part a result of activation of the alkyl halide bond by HMPA.

A Convenient Pathway to Sm(II)-mediated Chemistry in Acetonitrile

In this communication we show that the instability of samarium diiodide (SmI(2)) in acetonitrile is a consequence of ionization of the reductant in this solvent. Samarium triflate (Sm(OTf)(2)) is exceptionally stable in acetonitrile for periods over six months and can be used with appropriate additives to initiate a ketyl-olefin coupling reaction in high yield.

Catalytic Ni(II) in Reactions of SmI2: Sm(II)- or Ni(0)-based Chemistry?

The addition of catalytic amounts of Ni(II) salts provide enhanced reactivity and selectivity in numerous reactions of SmI(2), but the mechanistic basis for their effect is unknown. We report spectroscopic and kinetic studies on the mechanistic role of catalytic Ni(II) in the samarium Barbier reaction. The mechanistic studies presented herein show that the samarium Barbier reaction containing catalytic amounts of Ni(II) salts is driven solely by the reduction of Ni(II) to Ni(0) in a rate-limiting step. Once formed, Ni(0) inserts into the alkyl halide bond through oxidative addition to produce an organonickel species. During the reaction, the formation of colloidal Ni(0) occurs concomitantly with Ni(0) oxidative addition as an unproductive process. Overall, this study shows that a reaction thought to be driven by the unique features of SmI(2) is in fact a result of known Ni(0) chemistry.

Catalytic, Atom-economical Radical Arylation of Epoxides

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