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In JoVE (1)

Other Publications (27)

Articles by Enno Klussman in JoVE

 JoVE Biology

Culturing Primary Rat Inner Medullary Collecting Duct Cells

1Anchored Signalling, Max-Delbrück-Center for Molecular Medicine, 2Leibniz Institute for Molecular Pharmacology (FMP), 3Charité University Medicine Berlin


JoVE 50366

Arginine-vasopressin (AVP) controls fine-tuning of body water homeostasis through facilitating water reabsorption by renal principal cells. Here, we present a protocol for the cultivation of primary rat inner medullary collecting duct cells suitable for the elucidation of molecular mechanisms underlying AVP-mediated water reabsorption.

Other articles by Enno Klussman on PubMed

[Psychosomatic Medicine: Clinical Aspects]

Outpatient Dacryocystorhinostomy

We report 105 dacryocystorhinostomy procedures in 87 patients performed on an outpatient basis. Seventy-six patients received local, and 29 received general, anesthesia. The patients left the hospital an average of 2.6 hours after surgery, but 14 were admitted after surgery--9 immediately, and 5 after some delay, primarily for epistaxis. There were no serious complications related to the outpatient nature of the surgery. The success rate was 94%. We conclude that outpatient dacryocystorhinostomy is successful, well accepted by patients, and safe, provided that inpatient care facilities are readily available should they be needed.

Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-2, a Second Counter-receptor for CD11a/CD18 (leukocyte Function-associated Antigen-1), Provides a Costimulatory Signal for T-cell Receptor-initiated Activation of Human T Cells

Activation of T cells often requires both activation signals delivered by ligation of the TCR and those resulting from costimulatory interactions between certain T cell surface accessory molecules and their respective counter-receptors on APC. CD11a/CD18 complex on T cells modulate the activation of T cells by interacting with its counter-receptors intracellular adhesion molecule (ICAM-1) (CD54) and/or ICAM-2 on the surface of APC. The costimulatory ability of ICAM-1 has been demonstrated. Using a soluble ICAM-2 Ig fusion protein (receptor globulin, Rg) we demonstrate the costimulatory effect of ICAM-2 during the activation of CD4+ T cells. When coimmobilized with anti-TCR-1 mAb ICAM-2 Rg induced vigorous proliferative response of CD4+ T cells. This costimulatory effect of ICAM-2 was dependent on its coimmobilization with mAb directed at the CD3/TCR complex but not those directed at CD2 or CD28. Both resting as well as Ag-primed CD4+ T cells responded to the costimulatory effects of ICAM-2. The addition of mAb directed at the CD11a or CD18 molecules almost completely inhibited the responses to ICAM-2 Rg. These results are consistent with the role of CD11a/CD18 complex as a receptor for ICAM-2 mediating its costimulatory effects. Stimulation of T cells with coimmobilized anti-TCR-1 and ICAM-2 resulted in the induction of IL-2R (CD25), and anti-Tac (CD25) mAb inhibited this response suggesting the contribution of endogenously synthesized IL-2 during this stimulation. These results demonstrate that like its homologue ICAM-1, ICAM-2 also exerts a strong costimulatory effect during the TCR-initiated activation of T cells. The costimulatory effects generated by the CD11a/CD18:ICAM-2 interaction may be critical during the initiation of T cell activation by ICAM-1low APC.

Differential Costimulatory Effects of Adhesion Molecules B7, ICAM-1, LFA-3, and VCAM-1 on Resting and Antigen-primed CD4+ T Lymphocytes

Optimal proliferation of T cells although initiated via ligation of the CD3/TCR complex requires additional stimulation resulting from adhesive interactions between costimulatory receptors (R) on T cells and their counter-R on APC. At least four distinct adhesion molecules (counter-R) present on APC, B7, ICAM-1 (CD54), LFA-3 (CD58), and VCAM-1 have been individually shown to costimulate T cell activation. Because some of these molecules may be expressed simultaneously on APC, it has been difficult to examine relative contributions of individual counter-R during the induction of T cell proliferation. We have produced soluble IgC gamma 1 fusion chimeras (receptor globulins or Rg) of B7, ICAM-1, LFA-3, and VCAM-1 and compared their relative abilities to costimulate proliferation of resting or Ag-primed CD4+ T cells. When co-immobilized with mAb directed at TCR alpha beta or CD3 but not CD2 or CD28, each Rg induced proliferation of both resting and Ag-primed CD4+ cells. In contrast, similarly co-immobilized CD7 Rg or ELAM-1 Rg were ineffective. Resting CD4+ T cells produced more IL-2, expressed significantly higher levels of IL-2R alpha, and proliferated more efficiently when costimulated with either ICAM-1 Rg or VCAM-1 Rg than with B7 Rg or LFA-3 Rg. CD4+ CD45RO+ memory T cells proliferated more vigorously in response to the costimulation by each of the four Rg than CD4+ CD45RA+ naive T cells. In contrast with the behavior of resting CD4+ T cells, proliferation of Ag-preactivated CD4+ T cells was most efficient when costimulated by B7 Rg. The costimulatory effect of LFA-3 Rg on Ag-primed CD4+ T cells was weaker than that of B7 Rg but was significantly greater than that of either ICAM-1 Rg or VCAM-1 Rg. These results suggest that resting and Ag-primed CD4+ T cells preferentially respond by proliferation to different costimulatory counter-R. ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 may be involved in the initiation of proliferation of Ag-responsive T cells, and B7 and LFA-3 may facilitate sustained proliferation of Ag-primed T cells. The cumulative costimulation by the above counter-R may facilitate optimal expression of various regulatory and effector functions of T cells.

GMP-140 (P-selectin/CD62) Binds to Chronically Stimulated but Not Resting CD4+ T Lymphocytes and Regulates Their Production of Proinflammatory Cytokines

GMP-140 (P-selectin), a 140-kDa granular membrane glycoprotein localized to the alpha granules of platelets and the Weibel-Palade bodies of endothelial cells, is thought to play an important role in adhesive interactions predominantly between granulocytes, platelets and vascular endothelial cells during inflammation. Although GMP-140 binds to granulocytes, its binding to lymphocytes has not been demonstrated. Using genetically engineered IgG C gamma 1 fusion protein of the extracellular domains of GMP-140, we demonstrate that GMP-140 binds to chronically antigen (Ag)-stimulated CD4+ T cells. Freshly isolated CD4+ T cells did not bind GMP-140, but priming and subsequent stimulation with alloantigen induced and gradually increased expression of GMP-140-reactive structures on their surface. T cells isolated from rheumatoid synovial fluids also exhibited strong binding to GMP-140. The binding of GMP-140 to primed T cells is not influenced by preactivation with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate, is almost completely abolished by pretreatment of T cells with neuraminidase or trypsin, and is also strongly inhibited by EDTA, the soluble sulfated glycans dextran sulfate, fucoidan, and heparin, but not by chondroitin sulfates. In spite of its strong binding to Ag-primed T cells, GMP-140 did not modulate the proliferative responses of these cells to various stimuli. However, GMP-140 in conjunction with anti-T cell receptor alpha beta monoclonal antibodies augmented the production of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor GM-CSF and inhibited the production of interleukin-8 by Ag-primed T cells without influencing their tumor necrosis factor-alpha production. These results suggest that GMP-140 binds to chronically stimulated CD4+ T cells and differentially modulates their production of proinflammatory cytokines. The ability of Ag-primed T cells to bind GMP-140 may facilitate interactions with activated platelets and endothelial cells affecting the course of inflammation.

Differential Regulatory Effects of Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1 on Costimulation by the CD28 Counter-receptor B7

Although ligation of the CD3/TCR complex initiates an activation signal in T cells, additional costimulatory signals generated during cell-to-cell interactions with APC transduced via ligation of CD11a/CD18 and CD28 by their specific counter-receptor intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1 and B7, respectively, are required for optimal T cell proliferation and cytokine synthesis. Using soluble IgC gamma 1 fusion proteins of these costimulatory counter-receptors, we have recently shown that unactivated resting CD4+ T cells and Ag-primed CD4+ T cells differ in their response to the costimulation by ICAM-1 and B7. Preferential proliferative responses of resting T and Ag-primed T cells to ICAM-1 and B7, respectively, prompted us to speculate that ICAM-1-induced signals may regulate coupling of the CD28 signaling pathway. Furthermore, both B7 and ICAM-1 are co-expressed on APC and thus, may co-regulate activation-driven maturation of T cells. In this study, we have examined regulatory effects of IgC gamma 1 fusion proteins of B7, ICAM-1, and ICAM-2 (a homologue of ICAM-1) on each other's costimulation. We first demonstrate that TCR-directed costimulation of resting CD4+ T cells with ICAM-1 (ICAM-1 priming) but not ICAM-2 induces increased responsiveness to B7. Priming of CD4+ T cells with ICAM-1 induced higher expression of both CD18 and CD28 than that with either B7 or ICAM-2. Cross-linking of CD28 induced faster and significantly higher cytoplasmic free calcium mobilization response in ICAM-1-primed CD4+ T cells than in resting, B7-primed, or ICAM-2-primed CD4+ T cells. B7 synergized with ICAM-1 but not ICAM-2 to augment proliferative responses of not only resting CD4+ T cells but also those that had been primed with either ICAM. Unlike resting or ICAM-2-primed CD4+ T cells, ICAM-1-primed CD4+ T cells efficiently proliferated in response to the synergistic costimulation of B7 and ICAM-2. In contrast, both ICAM-1 and ICAM-2 inhibit B7-driven proliferation of Ag-primed CD4+ T cells. Thus, B7 and ICAM-1 exert contrasting regulatory effects on the proliferation of CD4+ T cells depending on their state of activation-induced maturation.

Proliferation of Human T Lymphocytes Induced with Superantigens is Not Dependent on Costimulation by the CD28 Counter-receptor B7

Staphylococcal enterotoxins, also known as superantigens (SAg), bind class II MHC molecules on APC and upon direct cell-to-cell contact stimulate proliferation of T cells expressing appropriate V beta gene products. The T cell surface molecule CD28 binds its costimulatory counter-receptor, B7 expressed on APC, and augments IL-2 production and T cell growth. Although the role of B7 costimulation during Ag-specific responses of T cells is established, its involvement during the activation of T cells with SAg has not been examined. Using a soluble Ig C gamma 1 chimera of CTLA-4, a second receptor for B7 and a homologue of CD28, this study examines the role of B7 expressed on APC during the induction of proliferation of CD4+ T cells upon stimulation with SAg (SAg/staphylococcal enterotoxins). CTLA-4lg, which has a higher avidity for B7 than CD28, had no effect on the synthesis of IL-2 as well as proliferative responses of CD4+ T cells induced by SAg presented on allogeneic EBV-transformed B cells, and IFN-gamma-activated endothelial cells. In contrast, T cell proliferation induced by alloAg presentation by the same APC was significantly inhibited by CTLA-4lg. mAb directed at the CD11a/CD18 molecule inhibited both SAg-induced and alloAg-induced proliferation of T cells. AlloAg-primed CD4+ T cells, which expressed both class II MHC and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 but not B7, presented SAg to and induced proliferation of both resting and SAg-primed T cells. These responses were inhibited by mAb directed at CD11a/CD18 but not by CTLA-4 Rg. These results suggest that SAg-induced responses differ from those induced by alloAg in that they are not obligatorily dependent on the costimulation by B7. In contrast, adhesive interaction between CD11a/CD18 on T cells and its counter-receptor on SAg-presenting cells is necessary and probably sufficient to support SAg-induced proliferation of T cells.

Costimulation Via Vascular Cell Adhesion Molecule-1 Induces in T Cells Increased Responsiveness to the CD28 Counter-receptor B7

Optimal stimulation of CD4+ T cells in an immune response requires not only signals transduced via the CD3/TCR complex but also costimulatory signals delivered as a consequence of interactions between T-cell surface-associated costimulatory R and their counter-R on APC. CD28 plays a crucial role as a dominant costimulatory R during the induction of CD4+ T-cell proliferation by interacting with counter-R B7 on APC to sustain IL-2 production. The absence of CD28-mediated costimulation has been postulated to result in T-cell anergy or unresponsiveness. The costimulatory effects of CD28 can be generated with its natural counter-R B7 or mAb directed at CD28. Using soluble C gamma 1 chimeras of B7, ICAM-1, and VCAM-1, we have recently shown that B7 costimulates TCR-dependent proliferation of Ag-primed CD4+ T cells more efficiently than that of resting nonactivated CD4+ T cells. In contrast, proliferation of resting CD4+ T cells can be efficiently costimulated by either ICAM-1 or VCAM-1 via interactions with their R CD11a/CD18 (LFA-1/beta 2 integrin) and CD29/CD49d (VLA-4/beta 1 integrin), respectively. TCR-directed preactivation of resting CD4+ T cells with ICAM-1 can induce increased responsiveness to B7 costimulation. In this study, we show that prior TCR-directed activation of resting CD4+ T cells with VCAM-1 induced increased responsiveness to B7 costimulation. VCAM-1 also synergized with B7 to bring about supraoptimal proliferation of CD4+ T cells. In addition, costimulation of resting T cells with VCAM-1 significantly increased not only surface expression of CD28 but also CD28-mediated mobilization of intracellular free [Ca2+]i. Similar activation of T cells with fibronectin also resulted in increased B7 responsiveness, suggesting the involvement of VLA-4 molecule. VCAM-1 costimulation induced hyperresponsiveness to B7 costimulation in both CD18+ (normal) and CD18- (leukocyte adhesion deficient) T cells. Thus, VCAM-1 may play an important costimulatory role during the activation of resting T cells and, by augmenting responsiveness to B7, facilitate optimal development of immunological memory in addition to various regulatory and effector functions.

Costimulation with Integrin Ligands Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1 or Vascular Cell Adhesion Molecule-1 Augments Activation-induced Death of Antigen-specific CD4+ T Lymphocytes

Integrin ligands intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) can efficiently costimulate proliferation of resting T cells but not that of Ag-specific T cells. In contrast, CD28 ligand B7 and CD2 ligand leukocyte function-associated Ag (LFA-3) can support IL-2 synthesis and proliferation of Ag-specific T cells more efficiently than that of resting T cells. The molecular basis for this differential costimulation of T cells is poorly understood. In this study, using mAb and soluble IgC gamma 1 chimeras of these adhesion molecules, we demonstrate that coligation of the TCR and CD11a/CD18 (LFA-1/beta 2 integrin) or CD29/CD49d (very late activation Ag-4/beta 1 integrin) using anti-TCR mAb and either ICAM-1 or VCAM-1 induces activation-dependent death of DRw6-specific CD4+ T cells. Similar coligation of the TCR with CD2 or CD28 using either mAb or ligands LFA-3 or B7 not only lacked the ability to induce death but also failed to reverse or inhibit integrin-facilitated death of DRw6-specific T cells. Each of these ligands augmented anti-TCR mAb-induced transcription of IL-2 and IL-4 genes. Exogenous addition of IL-2 and IL-4 did not reverse the integrin-supported T cell death. The death-promoting costimulatory effects of ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 were observed with Ag-specific chronically stimulated T cells but not with either resting T cells or those activated in short-term cultures. Treatment of T cells with cyclosporin A or a protein tyrosine kinase inhibitor herbimycin A inhibited ICAM-1 or VCAM-1-promoted activation-induced T cell death. The Ag-specific T cells that survived death-promoting effects of ICAM-1 or VCAM-1 proliferated efficiently upon restimulation with these ligands. Exposure of DRw6-specific T cells to DRw6+ B7+ ICAM-1+ LFA-3+ VCAM-1+ APC but not DR3+ B7+ ICAM-1+ LFA-3+ VCAM-1+ APC induced death of these T cells. This effect was blocked by pretreatment of T cells with mAb directed at CD18 or CD29 but not with those against CD2 or CD28. Taken together, these results suggest that TCR-directed engagement of integrins by their ligands ICAM-1 or VCAM-1 induces activation-dependent death of some perhaps more differentiated Ag-specific T cells and this may be an important homeostatic mechanism by which functional expression of Ag-specific T cells is regulated during an ongoing immune response.

Activation with Superantigens Induces Programmed Death in Antigen-primed CD4+ Class II+ Major Histocompatibility Complex T Lymphocytes Via a CD11a/CD18-dependent Mechanism

Staphylococcal enterotoxin superantigens (SAg) bind class II major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules on antigen-presenting cells (APC) and upon cell-to-cell contact stimulate proliferation of T cells expressing appropriate V beta gene products. In addition, SAg can also deliver negative signals to Ag-specific T cells resulting in a state of unresponsiveness or a loss of viability. The present study examines the functional consequences of a direct interaction of SAg with alloAg-specific class II MHC+ CD4+ T cell lines (TCL). Our results demonstrate that SAg induce programmed death (apoptosis) in a majority of Ag-specific CD4+ T cells accompanied by genomic DNA fragmentation. SAg binding to Ag-specific TCL resulted in a rapid mobilization of intracellular free calcium ([Ca2+]i) and transcription of a number of cytokine genes including interleukin-2(IL-2), IL-4, interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma), granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), and granzyme B indicating the activation of primed T cells. Both SAg-induced cytokine gene expression as well as subsequent death were significantly inhibited by a tyrosine kinase inhibitor herbimycin A and also by cyclosporin A. SAg-induced death of primed T cells was also inhibited by monoclonal antibodies (mAb) directed at the CD11a/CD18 molecule but not those reactive with other T cell surface molecules such as CD2, CD7, CD28, CD29 or CD49d. None of these mAb, including anti-CD11a/CD18, had any effect on SAg-induced expression of IL-2 and IL-4 genes or SAg-induced [Ca2+]i response. Addition of cytokines such as IL-1 alpha, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, GM-CSF, IFN-gamma, tumor necrosis factor (TNF-alpha, or TNF-beta), or neutralizing Ab to these cytokines had no effect on SAg-induced death of Ag-specific TCL. The T cells which survived the death-inducing effects of SAg showed down-regulation of the CD3/T cell receptor and up-regulation of CD2 and HLA-DR expression, and upon re-exposure to the same SAg upregulated expression of mRNA for IL-2 and IFN-gamma. Presentation of SAg by B7+ ICAM-1+ LFA-3+ DR+ professional APC was also able to induce the death of Ag-specific TCL. Together these results suggest that the activation with SAg causes programmed death of Ag-specific TCL cells via a mechanism that requires late participation of the CD11a/CD18 molecule.

Costimulation of T Lymphocytes with Integrin Ligands Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1 or Vascular Cell Adhesion Molecule-1 Induces Functional Expression of CTLA-4, a Second Receptor for B7

Costimulation by the CD28 ligand B7/BB1 plays an important role during T cell proliferation primarily by augmenting synthesis of IL-2 and other cytokines. Resting CD4+ T cells express CD28 but not CTLA-4 on their surface. Costimulation of T cells with ICAM-1 or VCAM-1 induced CTLA-4 expression and up-regulated CD28 expression. CD28 and CTLA-4 were independently distributed on the surface of activated T lymphoblasts. When co-immobilized with anti-TCR mAb both anti-CD28 and anti-CTLA-4 mAb augmented T cell proliferation. Although anti-CD28-mediated augmentation of T cell proliferation was stronger than that seen with anti-CTLA-4 mAb, together these two mAb caused supraadditive augmentation of T cell proliferation. The augmentation of the effects of anti-CD28 mAb by anti-CTLA-4 mAb was greater at low occupancy of CD28 by anti-CD28 mAb. Costimulation of CD28+ CTLA-4+ T cells with anti-CTLA-4 caused three- to fivefold increase in IL-2 production, whereas similar treatment with anti-CD28 caused > 40-fold increase. The costimulatory effect of B7 on primed T cells was partially inhibited by Fab anti-CD28 mAb. Anti-CTLA-4 mAb alone did not inhibit B7-induced response but caused modest increase in the inhibitory effect of anti-CD28 Fab. On integrin-mediated costimulation, Ag-specific CD4+ T cell lines also up-regulated their CTLA-4 expression, and proliferation of these cells was augmented by anti-CTLA-4 mAb. Unlike that of CD28, ligation of CTLA-4 alone failed to mobilize intracellular [Ca2+]. However, coligation of CTLA-4 and TCR induced stronger [Ca2+] response in Ag-specific T cell lines than that seen with TCR alone. These results suggest that integrin-costimulated T cells express CTLA-4 and can be costimulated via CTLA-4. Optimal development of various immune functions may involve combined costimulation via both CD28 and CTLA-4.

CD45-mediated Regulation of Extracellular Calcium Influx in a CD4-transfected Human T Cell Line

Transfection of a CD4- Jurkat leukemic T cell line with the human wild-type CD4 gene resulted in the constitutive mobilization of calcium by these cells. The altered calcium phenotype was dependent on expression of a completely functional CD4 molecule on the cell surface. Transfectants receiving the vector alone or those in which a mutated CD4 gene lacking a functional Lck binding region failed to generate a constitutive calcium response. In addition, CD4 wild-type transfectants over time lost CD4 expression. These CD4- revertants failed to constitutively mobilize calcium. Treatment of CD4 wild-type transfected cells with either anti-CD45 mAb, EGTA, or PMA rapidly restored the cells to basal levels of intracellular calcium. Analysis of CD45 cross-linking on CD4+ and CD4- normal Jurkat lines demonstrated that CD4 expression was required for CD45-mediated inhibition of TCR induced calcium responses. CD45-mediated inhibition affected the duration of the response rather than its magnitude. These results, taken together with the observations obtained with CD4 transfected Jurkats suggested that influx of extracellular calcium was the predominant reason for the elevated levels of calcium within the cell. In support of this hypothesis, we could find no evidence of phosphorylated phospholipase C gamma 1 or constitutive inositol 1,4,5 trisphosphate generation in the CD4 wild-type transfected cells, yet both were detectable after anti-CD3 mAb-induced activation. Immunokinase assays of Lck and Fyn precipitated from untreated or anti-CD45-treated wild-type transfectants demonstrated that CD45 cross-linking dephosphorylated Lck and reduced its capacity to phosphorylate enolase. In contrast, neither Fyn autophosphorylation nor its activity was affected by CD45 cross-linking.

Crystallization and Preliminary Diffraction Studies of the Structural Domain E of Thermus Flavus 5S RRNA

The ribosomal 5S RNA is an essential constituent of the large ribosomal subunit. To overcome the difficulties of crystallizing large RNA molecules such as 5S rRNAs, we decided to divide the 5S rRNA in five domains A through E to determine their structure. Recently we determined the crystal structural of the helical domain A. Here we report the crystallization of the chemically synthesized domain E of the Thermus flavus 5S rRNA. The crystal form is trigonal with unit cell dimensions: a = b = 42.80 A and c = 162.20 A. Diffraction-data to 2.8 A have been recorded and the structure solution is currently underway by means of MIR and MAD techniques.

Surface Expression of CD28 Single Chain Fv for Costimulation by Tumor Cells

4-1BB Costimulatory Signals Preferentially Induce CD8+ T Cell Proliferation and Lead to the Amplification in Vivo of Cytotoxic T Cell Responses

The 4-1BB receptor is an inducible type I membrane protein and member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor (TNFR) superfamily that is rapidly expressed on the surface of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells after antigen- or mitogen-induced activation. Cross-linking of 4-1BB and the T cell receptor (TCR) on activated T cells has been shown to deliver a costimulatory signal to T cells. Here, we expand upon previously published studies by demonstrating that CD8+ T cells when compared with CD4+ T cells are preferentially responsive to both early activation events and proliferative signals provided via the TCR and 4-1BB. In comparison, CD28-mediated costimulatory signals appear to function in a reciprocal manner to those induced through 4-1BB costimulation. In vivo examination of the effects of anti-4-1BB monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) on antigen-induced T cell activation have shown that the administration of epitope-specific anti-4-1BB mAbs amplified the generation of H-2d-specific cytotoxic T cells in a murine model of acute graft versus host disease (GVHD) and enhanced the rapidity of cardiac allograft or skin transplant rejection in mice. Cytokine analysis of in vitro activated CD4+ and CD8+ T cells revealed that anti-4-1BB costimulation markedly enhanced interferon-gamma production by CD8+ T cells and that anti-4-1BB mediated proliferation of CD8+ T cells appears to be IL-2 independent. The results of these studies suggest that regulatory signals delivered by the 4-1BB receptor play an important role in the regulation of cytotoxic T cells in cellular immune responses to antigen.

Anti-4-1BB Monoclonal Antibodies Abrogate T Cell-dependent Humoral Immune Responses in Vivo Through the Induction of Helper T Cell Anergy

The 4-1BB receptor (CDw137), a member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily, has been shown to costimulate the activation of T cells. Here we show that anti-mouse 4-1BB monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) inhibit thymus-dependent antibody production by B cells. Injection of anti-4-1BB mAbs into mice being immunized with cellular or soluble protein antigens induced long-term anergy of antigen-specific T cells. The immune response to the type II T cell-independent antigen trinintrophenol-conjugated Ficoll, however, was not suppressed. Inhibition of humoral immunity occurred only when anti-4-1BB mAb was given within 1 wk after immunization. Anti-4-1BB inhibition was observed in mice lacking functional CD8(+) T cells, indicating that CD8(+) T cells were not required for the induction of anergy. Analysis of the requirements for the anti-4-1BB-mediated inhibition of humoral immunity revealed that suppression could not be adoptively transferred with T cells from anti-4-1BB-treated mice. Transfer of BALB/c splenic T cells from sheep red blood cell (SRBC)-immunized and anti-4-1BB-treated mice together with normal BALB/c B cells into C.B-17 severe combined immunodeficient mice failed to generate an anti-SRBC response. However, B cells from the SRBC-immunized, anti-4-1BB-treated BALB/c mice, together with normal naive T cells, exhibited a normal humoral immune response against SRBC after transfer, demonstrating that SRBC-specific B cells were left unaffected by anti-4-1BB mAbs.

The Anti-CD30 Monoclonal Antibody SGN-30 Promotes Growth Arrest and DNA Fragmentation in Vitro and Affects Antitumor Activity in Models of Hodgkin's Disease

The leukocyte activation marker CD30 is highly expressed on the Reed Sternberg cells of Hodgkin's disease (HD). On normal tissues, CD30 has a restricted expression profile limited to activated T cells, activated B cells, and activated natural killer cells. This expression profile makes CD30 an ideal target for monoclonal antibody (mAb)-based therapies of Hodgkin's disease. CD30 mAbs have been shown to be effective in in vitro and in vivo models of hematologic malignancies such as anaplastic large cell lymphoma, yet these mAb have not been efficacious in HD models. We have found that a mAb against CD30, AC10, was able to inhibit the growth of HD cell lines in vitro. To generate a more clinically relevant molecule, the variable regions from AC10 were cloned into an expression construct containing the human gamma1 heavy chain and kappa light chain constant regions. The resulting chimeric antibody, designated SGN-30, retained the binding and in vitro growth-inhibitory activities of the parental antibody. Treatment of HD cell lines with SGN-30 in vitro resulted in growth arrest in the G(1) phase of the cell cycle and DNA fragmentation consistent with apoptosis in the HD line L540cy. Severe combined immunodeficient mouse xenograft models of disseminated HD treated with SGN-30 produced significant increases in survival. Similarly, xenograft models of localized HD demonstrated dose-dependent reduction in tumor mass in response to SGN-30 therapy. SGN-30 is being developed for the treatment of patients who have HD that is refractory to initial treatment or who have relapsed and have limited therapeutic options.

CAC10-vcMMAE, an Anti-CD30-monomethyl Auristatin E Conjugate with Potent and Selective Antitumor Activity

The chimeric monoclonal antibody cAC10, directed against CD30, induces growth arrest of CD30+ cell lines in vitro and has pronounced antitumor activity in severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) mouse xenograft models of Hodgkin disease. We have significantly enhanced these activities by conjugating to cAC10 the cytotoxic agent monomethyl auristatin E (MMAE) to create the antibody-drug conjugate cAC10-vcMMAE. MMAE, a derivative of the cytotoxic tubulin modifier auristatin E, was covalently coupled to cAC10 through a valine-citrulline peptide linker. The drug was stably attached to the antibody, showing only a 2% release of MMAE following 10-day incubation in human plasma, but it was readily cleaved by lysosomal proteases after receptor-mediated internalization. Release of MMAE into the cytosol induced G2/M-phase growth arrest and cell death through the induction of apoptosis. In vitro, cAC10-vcMMAE was highly potent and selective against CD30+ tumor lines (IC50 less than 10 ng/mL) but was more than 300-fold less active on antigen-negative cells. In SCID mouse xenograft models of anaplastic large cell lymphoma or Hodgkin disease, cAC10-vcMMAE was efficacious at doses as low as 1 mg/kg. Mice treated at 30 mg/kg cAC10-vcMMAE showed no signs of toxicity. These data indicate that cAC10-vcMMAE may be a highly effective and selective therapy for the treatment of CD30+ neoplasias.

[Vascularized Tumor of the Scalp]

Secondary MAb--vcMMAE Conjugates Are Highly Sensitive Reporters of Antibody Internalization Via the Lysosome Pathway

Monoclonal antibodies (mAb) selectively recognizing tumor surface antigens are an important and evolving approach to targeted cancer therapy. One application of therapeutic mAbs is drug targeting via mAb-drug conjugate (ADC) technology. Identification of mAbs capable of internalizing following antigen binding has been accomplished by tracking decline of surface-bound mAb or by internalization of a secondary mAb linked to a toxin. These methods may not be sufficiently sensitive for screening nor wholly predictive of the mAbs' capacity for a specific drug delivery. We have developed a highly selective and sensitive method to detect mAbs for cell internalization and drug delivery. This system uses secondary anti-human or anti-murine mAbs conjugated to the high-potency drug monomethyl auristatin E (MMAE) via a highly stable, enzymatically cleavable linker. Prior studies of this drug linker technology demonstrated internalization of a primary ADC leads to trafficking to lysosomes, drug release by lysosomal cathepsin B, and ensuing cell death. A secondary antibody--drug conjugate (2 degrees ADC) capable of binding primary mAbs bound to the surface of antigen-positive cells has comparable drug delivery capability. The system is sufficiently sensitive to detect internalizing mAbs in nonclonal hybridoma supernatants and is predictive of the activity of subsequently produced primary ADC. Because of their high extracellular stability, the noninternalized 2 degrees ADC are 100--1000-fold less toxic to cells over extended periods of time, permitting an assay in which components can be added without need for separate wash steps. This homogeneous screening system is amenable to medium-throughput screening applications and enables the early identification of mAbs capable of intracellular trafficking for drug delivery and release.

Efficient Elimination of B-lineage Lymphomas by Anti-CD20-auristatin Conjugates

The anti-CD20 antibody rituximab is useful in the treatment of certain B-cell malignancies, most notably non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Its efficacy has been increased when used in combination with chemotherapy, yet anti-CD20 monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) directly conjugated with drugs such as doxorubicin (Dox) have failed to deliver drug or to demonstrate antitumor activity. We have produced anti-CD20 antibody-drug conjugates that possess potent antitumor activity by using the anti-mitotic agent, monomethyl auristatin E (MMAE), linked via the lysosomally cleavable dipeptide, valine-citrulline (vc). Two anti-CD20 conjugates, rituximab-vcMMAE and 1F5-vcMMAE, were selectively cytotoxic against CD20(+) B-lymphoma cell lines, with IC(50) values ranging from 50 ng/mL to 1 microg/mL. Unlike rituximab, which showed diffuse surface localization, rituximab-vcMMAE capped and was internalized within 4 hours after binding to CD20(+) B cells. Internalization of rituximab-vcMMAE was followed by rapid G(2)-M phase arrest and onset of apoptosis. Anti-CD20 antibody-drug conjugates prepared with Dox were internalized and localized as with rituximab-vcMMAE, yet these were not effective for drug delivery (IC(50) > 50 microg/mL). Consistent with in vitro activity, rituximab-vcMMAE showed antitumor efficacy in xenograft models of CD20-positive lymphoma at doses where rituximab or rituximab-Dox conjugates were ineffective. These data indicate that anti-CD20-based antibody-drug conjugates are effective antitumor agents when prepared with a stable, enzyme-cleavable peptide linkage to highly potent cytotoxic agents such as MMAE.

Preclinical Antilymphoma Activity of a Humanized Anti-CD40 Monoclonal Antibody, SGN-40

SGN-40 is a humanized IgG1 antihuman CD40 that is currently in a phase I clinical trial for the treatment of multiple myeloma. As surface CD40 expression on B-lineage cells is maintained from pro-B cells to plasma cells, SGN-40 may be applicable to treatment of other B-cell neoplasias, including non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. In this study, we examined potential in vitro and in vivo anti-B-lineage lymphoma activity of SGN-40. Recombinant SGN-40 was expressed and purified from Chinese hamster ovary cells and characterized based on binding affinity, specificity, and normal B-cell stimulation. The ability of SGN-40 to target neoplastic B cells was examined in vitro by proliferation inhibition, cytotoxicity, and antibody-dependent cell cytotoxicity assays and in vivo by human lymphoma xenograft models. Recombinant SGN-40 showed high affinity, Kd of approximately 1 nmol/L, and specific binding to CD40. Whereas SGN-40 was a weak agonist in stimulating normal B-cell proliferation in the absence of IL-4 and CD40L, it delivered potent proliferation inhibitory and apoptotic signals to, and mediated antibody-dependent cytotoxicity against, a panel of high-grade B-lymphoma lines. These in vitro antilymphoma effects were extended to disseminated and s.c. xenograft CD40 tumor models. In these xenograft models, the antitumor activity of SGN-40 was comparable with that of rituximab. The preclinical in vitro and in vivo antilymphoma activity of SGN-40 observed in this study provides a rationale for the clinical testing of SGN-40 in the treatment of CD40+ B-lineage lymphomas.

Engineered Anti-CD70 Antibody with Multiple Effector Functions Exhibits in Vitro and in Vivo Antitumor Activities

Antigens expressed on malignant cells in the absence of significant expression on normal tissues are highly desirable targets for therapeutic antibodies. CD70 is a TNF superfamily member whose normal expression is highly restricted but is aberrantly expressed in hematologic malignancies including non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL), Hodgkin disease, and multiple myeloma. In addition, solid tumors such as renal cell carcinoma, nasopharyngeal carcinoma, thymic carcinoma, meduloblastoma, and glioblastoma express high levels of this antigen. To functionally target CD70-expressing cancers, a murine anti-CD70 monoclonal antibody was engineered to contain human IgG1 constant domains. The engineered antibody retained the binding specificity of the murine parent monoclonal antibody and was shown to induce Fc-mediated effector functions including antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity, complement-dependent cytotoxicity, and antibody-dependent cellular phagocytosis in vitro. Further, administration of this antibody significantly prolonged survival of severe combined immunodeficient (SCID) mice bearing CD70+ disseminated human NHL xenografts. Survival of these mice was dependent upon the activity of resident effector cells including neutrophils, macrophages, and natural killer (NK) cells. These data suggest that an anti-CD70 antibody, when engineered to contain human IgG1 constant domains, possesses effector cell-mediated antitumor activity and has potential utility for anticancer therapy.

Comparison of D-g3139 and Its Enantiomer L-g3139 in Melanoma Cells Demonstrates Minimal in Vitro but Dramatic in Vivo Chiral Dependency

G3139 (Genasense), an 18mer phosphorothioate antisense oligonucleotide targeted to the initiation codon region of the Bcl-2 messenger RNA (mRNA), downregulates Bcl-2 protein and mRNA expression in many cell lines. However, both the in vitro and in vivo mechanisms of action of G3139 are still uncertain. The isosequential L-deoxyribose enantiomer L-G3139, which does not downregulate Bcl-2 expression, was synthesized to study the role of the Bcl-2 protein in melanoma cells. Both D-G3139 and L-G3139 bind nonspecifically to basic fibroblast growth factor with approximately the same K(c), and cause highly effective inhibition of net formation in 518A2 melanoma cells on Matrigel. The uptakes of D-G3139 and L-G3139 in melanoma cells were also similar. However, unlike D-G3139, L-G3139 does not produce poly ADP-ribose polymerase-1 and procaspase-3 cleavage at 9.5 h after the initiation of the transfection, but can activate the intrinsic pathway of apoptosis at approximately 48 h. Furthermore, treatment of A375 melanoma human xenografts in severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) mice demonstrates that tumor growth is not inhibited by L-G3139, whereas D-G3139 significantly inhibits the rate of tumor growth. Furthermore, the immunostimulatory properties of L-G3139 appear to be nil, which differs dramatically from those of D-G3139. In conclusion, profound differences exist between D-G3139 and L-G3139 in vivo despite their similarities in vitro.

Preclinical Characterization of SGN-70, a Humanized Antibody Directed Against CD70

CD70 (CD27L) is a member of the tumor necrosis factor family aberrantly expressed on a number of hematologic malignancies and some carcinomas. CD70 expression on malignant cells coupled with its highly restricted expression on normal cells makes CD70 an attractive target for monoclonal antibody (mAb)-based therapies. We developed a humanized anti-CD70 antibody, SGN-70, and herein describe the antitumor activities of this mAb.

Development of Orally Active Inhibitors of Protein and Cellular Fucosylation

The key role played by fucose in glycoprotein and cellular function has prompted significant research toward identifying recombinant and biochemical strategies for blocking its incorporation into proteins and membrane structures. Technologies surrounding engineered cell lines have evolved for the inhibition of in vitro fucosylation, but they are not applicable for in vivo use and drug development. To address this, we screened a panel of fucose analogues and identified 2-fluorofucose and 5-alkynylfucose derivatives that depleted cells of GDP-fucose, the substrate used by fucosyltransferases to incorporate fucose into protein and cellular glycans. The inhibitors were used in vitro to generate fucose-deficient antibodies with enhanced antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity activities. When given orally to mice, 2-fluorofucose inhibited fucosylation of endogenously produced antibodies, tumor xenograft membranes, and neutrophil adhesion glycans. We show that oral 2-fluorofucose treatment afforded complete protection from tumor engraftment in a syngeneic tumor vaccine model, inhibited neutrophil extravasation, and delayed the outgrowth of tumor xenografts in immune-deficient mice. The results point to several potential therapeutic applications for molecules that selectively block the endogenous generation of fucosylated glycan structures.

SGN-CD33A: a Novel CD33-targeting Antibody-drug Conjugate Utilizing a Pyrrolobenzodiazepine Dimer is Active in Models of Drug-resistant AML

Outcomes in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) remain unsatisfactory, and novel treatments are urgently needed. One strategy explores antibodies and their drug conjugates, particularly those targeting CD33. Emerging data with gemtuzumab ozogamicin (GO) demonstrate target validity and activity in some AML patients, but efficacy is limited by heterogeneous drug conjugation, linker instability, and a high incidence of multi-drug resistance. We describe here the development of SGN-CD33A, a humanized anti-CD33 antibody with engineered cysteines, conjugated to a highly potent, synthetic DNA cross-linking pyrrolobenzodiazepine (PBD) dimer via a protease-cleavable linker. The use of engineered cysteine residues at the sites of drug linker attachment results in a drug loading of approximately 2 PBD dimers per antibody. In preclinical testing, SGN-CD33A is more potent than GO against a panel of AML cell lines and primary AML cells in vitro and in xenotransplantation studies in mice. Unlike GO, anti-leukemic activity is observed with SGN-CD33A in AML models with the multi-drug resistant (MDR) phenotype. Mechanistic studies indicate that the cytotoxic effects of SGN-CD33A involve DNA damage with ensuing cell cycle arrest and apoptotic cell death. Together, these data suggest that SGN-CD33A has CD33-directed antitumor activity and support clinical testing of this novel therapeutic in patients with AML.

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