Translate this page to:
In JoVE (1)
- लाइव सेल की इमेजिंग बेसिलस subtilis और स्ट्रैपटोकोकस निमोनिया स्वचालित माइक्रोस्कोपी समय चूक का उपयोग
Other Publications (3)
This translation into Hindi was automatically generated.
English Version | Other Languages
Articles by Imke G. de Jong in JoVE
लाइव सेल की इमेजिंग बेसिलस subtilis और स्ट्रैपटोकोकस निमोनिया स्वचालित माइक्रोस्कोपी समय चूक का उपयोग
Imke G. de Jong, Katrin Beilharz, Oscar P. Kuipers, Jan- Willem Veening
Molecular Genetics Group, Groningen Biomolecular Sciences and Biotechnology Institute, Centre for Synthetic Biology, University of Groningen
इस प्रोटोकॉल एक कदम दर कदम प्रक्रिया प्रदान करता है स्वचालित प्रतिदीप्ति माइक्रोस्कोपी समय चूक का उपयोग समय में विभिन्न जीवाणुओं की एकल कोशिका व्यवहार पर नजर रखने के. इसके अलावा, हम कैसे दिशानिर्देशों माइक्रोस्कोपी छवियों का विश्लेषण करने के लिए प्रदान करते हैं.
Other articles by Imke G. de Jong on PubMed
Heterochronic Phosphorelay Gene Expression As a Source of Heterogeneity in Bacillus Subtilis Spore Formation
Journal of Bacteriology. Apr, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20154131
In response to limiting nutrient sources and cell density signals, Bacillus subtilis can differentiate and form highly resistant endospores. Initiation of spore development is governed by the master regulator Spo0A, which is activated by phosphorylation via a multicomponent phosphorelay. Interestingly, only part of a clonal population will enter this developmental pathway, a phenomenon known as sporulation bistability or sporulation heterogeneity. How sporulation heterogeneity is established is largely unknown. To investigate the origins of sporulation heterogeneity, we constructed promoter-green fluorescent protein (GFP) fusions to the main phosphorelay genes and perturbed their expression levels. Using time-lapse fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry, we showed that expression of the phosphorelay genes is distributed in a unimodal manner. However, single-cell trajectories revealed that phosphorelay gene expression is highly dynamic or "heterochronic" between individual cells and that stochasticity of phosphorelay gene transcription might be an important regulatory mechanism for sporulation heterogeneity. Furthermore, we showed that artificial induction or depletion of the phosphorelay phosphate flow results in loss of sporulation heterogeneity. Our data suggest that sporulation heterogeneity originates from highly dynamic and variable gene activity of the phosphorelay components, resulting in large cell-to-cell variability with regard to phosphate input into the system. These transcriptional and posttranslational differences in phosphorelay activity appear to be sufficient to generate a heterogeneous sporulation signal without the need of the positive-feedback loop established by the sigma factor SigH.
Molecular Microbiology. Sep, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20624218
Appropriate stimulus perception, signal processing and transduction ensure optimal adaptation of bacteria to environmental challenges. In the Gram-positive model bacterium Bacillus subtilis signalling networks and molecular interactions therein are well-studied, making this species a suitable candidate for the application of mathematical modelling. Here, we review systems biology approaches, focusing on chemotaxis, sporulation, σ(B) -dependent general stress response and competence. Processes like chemotaxis and Z-ring assembly depend critically on the subcellular localization of proteins. Environmental response strategies, including sporulation and competence, are characterized by phenotypic heterogeneity in isogenic cultures. The examples of mathematical modelling also include investigations that have demonstrated how operon structure and signalling dynamics are intricately interwoven to establish optimal responses. Our review illustrates that these interdisciplinary approaches offer new insights into the response of B. subtilis to environmental challenges. These case studies reveal modelling as a tool to increase the understanding of complex systems, to help formulating hypotheses and to guide the design of more directed experiments that test predictions.
BioEssays : News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology. Mar, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21254151
Bacteria have developed an impressive ability to survive and propagate in highly diverse and changing environments by evolving phenotypic heterogeneity. Phenotypic heterogeneity ensures that a subpopulation is well prepared for environmental changes. The expression bet hedging is commonly (but often incorrectly) used by molecular biologists to describe any observed phenotypic heterogeneity. In evolutionary biology, however, bet hedging denotes a risk-spreading strategy displayed by isogenic populations that evolved in unpredictably changing environments. Opposed to other survival strategies, bet hedging evolves because the selection environment changes and favours different phenotypes at different times. Consequently, in bet hedging populations all phenotypes perform differently well at any time, depending on the selection pressures present. Moreover, bet hedging is the only strategy in which temporal variance of offspring numbers per individual is minimized. Our paper aims to provide a guide for the correct use of the term bet hedging in molecular biology.