JoVE Chemistry surveys a broad scope of chemical disciplines. This collection includes fundamental and applied research that investigates molecular interactions, properties, and structure spanning in the following core divisions: analytical, organic, organometallic, inorganic, bioinorganic, and biochemistry. This section also includes the design and preparation of materials and small molecules for advanced or unique applications.
1Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, University of Hamburg
Indoxyl glycosides are well-established and widely used tools for enzyme screening and enzyme activity monitoring. Especially for glucose type structures previous syntheses proved to be challenging and low yielding. Our novel approach employs indoxylic acid esters as precious intermediates to yield a considerable number of indoxyl glycosides in good yields.
Published May 27, 2015. Keywords: Chemistry, Carbohydrates, Indoxyl-Glycosides, Indoxylic Acid Esters, Decarboxylation, Dyes/Pigments, Enzyme Activity, Nitrogen Heterocycles
1Institut de Physique du Globe de Paris, Institut Universitaire de France, Université Paris Diderot, 2INSERM (Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale), U1148: Laboratory for Vascular Translational Science, Université Paris Diderot
We present the technique to measure with high precision zinc isotope ratios in mouse organs.
Published May 22, 2015. Keywords: Chemistry, Zinc, isotopes, MC-ICP-MS, chromatography, mice, purification
1Hydrogen and Energy Laboratory, Empa, Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology
Nitrogen is an effective supercritical fluid for extraction or drying processes due to its small molecular size, high density in the near-liquid supercritical regime, and chemical inertness. We present a supercritical nitrogen drying protocol for the purification treatment of reactive, porous materials.
Published May 15, 2015. Keywords: Chemistry, supercritical, purification, drying, extraction, solvent, nitrogen, activation, microporous materials, surface area, reactive materials, complex hydrides, hydrogen storage
1Department of Chemistry, New York City College of Technology, City University of New York (CUNY)
Formulation of stable, functional inks is critical to expanding the applications of additive manufacturing. In turn, knowledge of the mechanisms of dispersant/particle bonding is required for effective ink formulation. Diffuse Reflectance Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (DRIFTS) is presented as a simple, inexpensive way to gain insight into these mechanisms.
Published May 8, 2015. Keywords: Chemistry, Additive manufacture, digital fabrication, inkjet printing, ceramic inks, ink dispersants, nanoparticle inks, ink dispersion, diffuse reflectance infrared spectroscopy, centrifugation
1Tsinghua-Peking Center for Life Sciences, School of Life Sciences, Tsinghua University, 2Wyss Institute for Biologically Inspired Engineering, Harvard University, 3Department of Systems Biology, Harvard Medical School
DNA tiling is an effective approach to make programmable nanostructures. We describe the protocols to construct complex two-dimensional shapes by the self-assembly of single-stranded DNA tiles.
Published May 8, 2015. Keywords: Chemistry, self-assembly, DNA tiles, single-stranded tiles, molecular canvas, molecular pixel, programmable nanostructures, DNA nanotechnology
1Department of Industrial and Physical Pharmacy, Purdue University
Here, we present detailed protocols for solid-state amide hydrogen/deuterium exchange mass spectrometry (ssHDX-MS) and solid-state photolytic labeling mass spectrometry (ssPL-MS) for proteins in solid powders. The methods provide high-resolution information on protein conformation and interactions in the amorphous solid-state, which may be useful in formulation design.
Published April 14, 2015. Keywords: Chemistry, Amide hydrogen/deuterium exchange, photolytic labeling, mass spectrometry, lyophilized formulations, photo-leucine, solid-state, protein structure, protein conformation, protein dynamics, secondary structure, protein stability, excipients
1Department of Chemistry, Imperial College London
Ruthenium phosphine complexes are widely used for homogeneous catalytic reactions such as hydrogenations. The synthesis of a series of novel tridentate ruthenium complexes bearing the N-triphos ligand N(CH2PPh2)3 is reported. Additionally, the stoichiometric reaction of a dihydride Ru–N-triphos complex with levulinic acid is described.
Published April 10, 2015. Keywords: Chemistry, ligand, phosphine, coordination, complex, catalysis, ruthenium, biomass, levulinic acid
1School of Biological Sciences, Nanyang Technological University
Sedimentation equilibrium (SE) can be used to study protein-protein interactions in a physiological environment. This manuscript describes the use of this technique to determine the effect of pH on the stability of a homo-pentamer formed by the small hydrophobic (SH) protein encoded by the human syncytial respiratory virus (hRSV).
Published April 2, 2015. Keywords: Chemistry, Analytical ultracentrifugation, sedimentation equilibrium, molecular weight, membrane proteins, small hydrophobic, respiratory syncytial virus, detergent, density matching, oligomeric size, histidine protonation, oligomer stability
1School of Ecology and Environmental Studies, Nalanda University, 2Department of Earth Sciences, Uppsala University
Surface properties of a nanoparticle are important for their interaction with the surrounding medium. Therefore the surface modification of carbon nanotubes can be critical for their transport and retention through porous media. Here, lab scale column experiments are used to understand the possible transport and retention of these nanoparticles.
Published April 2, 2015. Keywords: Chemistry, Carbon nanotubes, functionalization of carbon nanotubes, solution chemistry, flow rate, porous media
1Department of Chemistry, Texas Christian University
The synthesis of asymmetric species of ferrocene is challenging using solution techniques. This report focuses on the methods carried out to produce a ferrocene-biotin bioconjugate using facile and clean reactions accomplished via solid-phase synthesis. Incorporation of a thiolate moiety is shown to impart the ability for immobilization on gold surfaces.
Published March 12, 2015. Keywords: Chemistry, Ferrocene, biotin, bio-conjugate, solid phase peptide synthesis, resin, asymmetric, peptide, amino-acid, gold