JoVE Chemistry surveys a broad scope of chemical disciplines. This collection includes fundamental and applied research that investigates molecular interactions, properties, and structure spanning in the following core divisions: analytical, organic, organometallic, inorganic, bioinorganic, and biochemistry. This section also includes the design and preparation of materials and small molecules for advanced or unique applications.
1Department of Chemistry, Union College, 2Department of Mechanical Engineering, Union College
This article describes a rapid supercritical extraction method for fabricating silica aerogels. By utilizing a confined mold and hydraulic hot press, monolithic aerogels can be made in eight hours or less.
Published February 28, 2014. Keywords: Chemistry, Aerogel fabrication, Silica aerogels, Aerogel monoliths, Rapid supercritical extraction, Hot press, Tetramethylorthosilicate (TMOS)
1Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, SUNY Upstate Medical University
The protocols here describe kinetic assays of protein-protein interactions with Bio-layer Interferometry. F-type ATP synthase, which is involved in cellular energy metabolism, can be inhibited by its ε subunit in bacteria. We have adapted Bio-layer Interferometry to study interactions of the catalytic complex with ε’s inhibitory C-terminal domain.
Published February 18, 2014. Keywords: Chemistry, ATP synthase, Bio-Layer Interferometry, Ligand-induced conformational change, Biomolecular Interaction Analysis, Allosteric regulation, Enzyme inhibition
1Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Florida International University
Here we report an application of the photothermal beam deflection technique in combination with a caged calcium compound, DM-nitrophen, to monitor microsecond and millisecond dynamics and energetics of structural changes associated with the calcium association to a neuronal calcium sensor, Downstream Regulatory Element Antagonist Modulator.
Published February 18, 2014. Keywords: Chemistry, photothermal techniques, photothermal beam deflection, volume change, enthalpy change, calcium sensors, potassium channel interaction protein, DM-nitrophen
1School of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Georgia Institute of Technology, 2School of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology
The high pressure sapphire cell apparatus is a unique tool to study, without sampling, phase behavior under a wide range of pressures. Using a cathetometer, very precise volume measurements can be recorded to measure liquid expansion and phase composition. Thus, this synthetic method enables the study of (1) phase equilibria of multi-component mixtures and (2) the partition behavior of catalyst or model compounds as a function of pressure.
Published January 24, 2014. Keywords: Chemistry, Phase equilibria, High-pressure, green chemistry, Green Engineering, Sapphire cell, cathetometer, ternary phase diagrams
1School of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Georgia Institute of Technology, 2Earth-Life Science Institute, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 3Institute for Advanced Study, 4Astromaterials Research and Exploration Science Directorate, NASA Johnson Space Center, 5Goddard Center for Astrobiology, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, 6Geosciences Research Division, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, University of California at San Diego
The Miller-Urey experiment was a pioneering study regarding the abiotic synthesis of organic compounds with possible relevance to the origins of life. Simple gases were introduced into a glass apparatus and subjected to an electric discharge, simulating the effects of lightning in the primordial Earth’s atmosphere-ocean system. The experiment was conducted for one week, after which, the samples collected from it were analyzed for the chemical building blocks of life.
Published January 21, 2014. Keywords: Chemistry, Geosciences (General), Exobiology, Miller-Urey, Prebiotic chemistry, amino acids, spark discharge
1Department of Biomedical and Molecular Sciences, Queen's University, 2National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, Porter Neuroscience Research Center, 3Research Institute of Genome-Based Biofactory, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, 4The Robert H. Smith Faculty of Agriculture, Food and Environment, Institute of Biochemistry, Food Science, and Nutrition, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem
Antifreeze proteins (AFPs) bind to specific planes of ice to prevent or slow ice growth. Fluorescence-based ice plane affinity (FIPA) analysis is a modification of the original ice-etching method for determination of AFP-bound ice planes. AFPs are fluorescently labeled, incorporated into macroscopic single ice crystals, and visualized under UV light.
Published January 15, 2014. Keywords: Chemistry, Materials, Life Sciences, Optics, antifreeze proteins, Ice adsorption, Fluorescent labeling, Ice lattice planes, ice-binding proteins, Single ice crystal
1Department of Bioengineering, Stanford University, 2Department of Molecular Biology and Laboratory for Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research, Umeå University, 3Campus de Cantoblanco, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, 4Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Stanford University School of Medicine
The bacterial cell wall is composed of peptidoglycan, a macromolecular network of sugar strands crosslinked by peptides. Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography provides high resolution and throughput for novel discoveries of peptidoglycan composition. We present a procedure for the isolation of cell walls (sacculi) and their subsequent preparation for analysis via UPLC.
Published January 15, 2014. Keywords: Chemistry, peptidoglycan, bacterial cell wall, ultra-performance liquid chromatography, high-performance liquid chromatography, cell shape, morphogenesis
1Department of Chemistry, The Scripps Research Institute, 2Worm Institute of Research and Medicine (WIRM), The Scripps Research Institute
The botulinum neurotoxin type A light chain (BoNT/A LC) is a metalloprotease that enters motor neurons, cleaves its substrate SNAP-25, and disrupts neurotransmission, thereby resulting in flaccid paralysis. Utilizing a high-throughput-compatible FRET-based assay, large libraries of small molecules can be screened for their impact on BoNT/A LC enzymatic activity.
Published December 27, 2013. Keywords: Chemistry, BoNT/A, botulinum neurotoxin, high-throughput screening, FRET, inhibitor, FRET peptide substrate, activator
1Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education, 2Air Force Research Laboratory, Airbase Technology Division, 3School of Materials Science and Engineering, Clemson University
Silica nanoparticles were prepared using acid-catalysis of a siloxane precursor and microwave-assisted synthetic techniques resulting in the controlled growth of nanomaterials ranging from 30-250 nm in diameter. The growth dynamics can be controlled by varying the initial silicic acid concentration, time of the reaction, and temperature of reaction.
Published December 16, 2013. Keywords: Chemistry, Chemistry, chemical manufacturing, chemistry (general), materials (general), nanocomposites, catalysts (chemical), chemistry of compounds, Chemistry and Materials (General), Composite Materials, Inorganic, Organic and Physical Chemistry, Engineering (General), Microwave, nanoparticle, silica, silicic acid, NP, SiO2, synthesis
1Department of Chemistry, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, 2Wolfson Centre for Applied Structural Biology, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem
The NMR-solution structure of a metallochaperone model peptide with Cu (I) was determined, and a detailed protocol from sample preparation and 1D and 2D data collection to a three-dimensional structure is described.
Published December 16, 2013. Keywords: Chemistry, solution structure determination, NMR, peptide models, copper-binding proteins, copper complexes