JoVE Chemistry surveys a broad scope of chemical disciplines. This collection includes fundamental and applied research that investigates molecular interactions, properties, and structure spanning in the following core divisions: analytical, organic, organometallic, inorganic, bioinorganic, and biochemistry. This section also includes the design and preparation of materials and small molecules for advanced or unique applications.
1Department of Biochemistry, University of Missouri, 2Department of Biological Sciences, University of Missouri, 3Department of Molecular Microbiology & Immunology, University of Missouri, 4Department of Child Health, University of Missouri
An efficient, three-step synthesis of RAFT-based fluorescent glycopolymers, consisting of glycomonomer preparation, copolymerization, and post-modification, is demonstrated. This protocol can be used to prepare RAFT-based statistical glycopolymers with desired structures.
Published June 19, 2015. Keywords: Chemistry, reversible addition-fragmentation chain-transfer agents, RAFT, glycopolymer, radical polymerization, carbohydrate, pendant sugar, multivalency, copolymerization, lectin, carbohydrate binding
1Department of Earth Science, University of Toronto, 2Geophysical Laboratory, Carnegie Institution of Washington
We present a procedure to determine the metal-silicate partitioning of siderophile elements, emphasizing techniques that suppress the formation of metal inclusions in experiments for the noble metals. The results of these experiments are used to demonstrate the effect of core-formation on the highly siderophile element composition of the mantle.
Published June 13, 2015. Keywords: Chemistry, siderophile elements, geoengineering, primitive upper mantle (PUM), HSEs, terrestrial accretion
1Physical and Life Sciences Directorate, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory
We describe a method for the fabrication of large-area (up to 13 cm diameter) and ultrathin (as thin as 8 nm) polymer films. Instead of using a sacrificial interlayer to delaminate the film from its substrate, we use a self-limiting surface treatment suitable for arbitrarily large areas.
Published June 3, 2015. Keywords: Chemistry, Ultrathin films, free-standing, surface modification, polymers, large-area, fabrication
1Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, University of Hamburg
Indoxyl glycosides are well-established and widely used tools for enzyme screening and enzyme activity monitoring. Especially for glucose type structures previous syntheses proved to be challenging and low yielding. Our novel approach employs indoxylic acid esters as precious intermediates to yield a considerable number of indoxyl glycosides in good yields.
Published May 27, 2015. Keywords: Chemistry, Carbohydrates, Indoxyl-Glycosides, Indoxylic Acid Esters, Decarboxylation, Dyes/Pigments, Enzyme Activity, Nitrogen Heterocycles
1Institut de Physique du Globe de Paris, Institut Universitaire de France, Université Paris Diderot, 2INSERM (Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale), U1148: Laboratory for Vascular Translational Science, Université Paris Diderot
We present the technique to measure with high precision zinc isotope ratios in mouse organs.
Published May 22, 2015. Keywords: Chemistry, Zinc, isotopes, MC-ICP-MS, chromatography, mice, purification
1Hydrogen and Energy Laboratory, Empa, Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology
Nitrogen is an effective supercritical fluid for extraction or drying processes due to its small molecular size, high density in the near-liquid supercritical regime, and chemical inertness. We present a supercritical nitrogen drying protocol for the purification treatment of reactive, porous materials.
Published May 15, 2015. Keywords: Chemistry, supercritical, purification, drying, extraction, solvent, nitrogen, activation, microporous materials, surface area, reactive materials, complex hydrides, hydrogen storage
1Department of Chemistry, New York City College of Technology, City University of New York (CUNY)
Formulation of stable, functional inks is critical to expanding the applications of additive manufacturing. In turn, knowledge of the mechanisms of dispersant/particle bonding is required for effective ink formulation. Diffuse Reflectance Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (DRIFTS) is presented as a simple, inexpensive way to gain insight into these mechanisms.
Published May 8, 2015. Keywords: Chemistry, Additive manufacture, digital fabrication, inkjet printing, ceramic inks, ink dispersants, nanoparticle inks, ink dispersion, diffuse reflectance infrared spectroscopy, centrifugation
1Tsinghua-Peking Center for Life Sciences, School of Life Sciences, Tsinghua University, 2Wyss Institute for Biologically Inspired Engineering, Harvard University, 3Department of Systems Biology, Harvard Medical School
DNA tiling is an effective approach to make programmable nanostructures. We describe the protocols to construct complex two-dimensional shapes by the self-assembly of single-stranded DNA tiles.
Published May 8, 2015. Keywords: Chemistry, self-assembly, DNA tiles, single-stranded tiles, molecular canvas, molecular pixel, programmable nanostructures, DNA nanotechnology
1Department of Industrial and Physical Pharmacy, Purdue University
Here, we present detailed protocols for solid-state amide hydrogen/deuterium exchange mass spectrometry (ssHDX-MS) and solid-state photolytic labeling mass spectrometry (ssPL-MS) for proteins in solid powders. The methods provide high-resolution information on protein conformation and interactions in the amorphous solid-state, which may be useful in formulation design.
Published April 14, 2015. Keywords: Chemistry, Amide hydrogen/deuterium exchange, photolytic labeling, mass spectrometry, lyophilized formulations, photo-leucine, solid-state, protein structure, protein conformation, protein dynamics, secondary structure, protein stability, excipients
1Department of Chemistry, Imperial College London
Ruthenium phosphine complexes are widely used for homogeneous catalytic reactions such as hydrogenations. The synthesis of a series of novel tridentate ruthenium complexes bearing the N-triphos ligand N(CH2PPh2)3 is reported. Additionally, the stoichiometric reaction of a dihydride Ru–N-triphos complex with levulinic acid is described.…
Published April 10, 2015. Keywords: Chemistry, ligand, phosphine, coordination, complex, catalysis, ruthenium, biomass, levulinic acid