JoVE Chemistry surveys a broad scope of chemical disciplines. This collection includes fundamental and applied research that investigates molecular interactions, properties, and structure spanning in the following core divisions: analytical, organic, organometallic, inorganic, bioinorganic, and biochemistry. This section also includes the design and preparation of materials and small molecules for advanced or unique applications.
1Laboratory of Microbial Ecology and Technology (LabMET), Ghent University, 2Department of Environmental Sciences, Rutgers University
We demonstrate the extraction of ammonium from an ammonium-rich stream using an electrochemical and a bioelectrochemical system. The reactor setup, operation and data analysis are discussed.
Published January 22, 2015. Keywords: Chemistry, Electrochemical extraction, bioelectrochemical system, bioanode, ammonium recovery, microbial electrocatalysis, nutrient recovery, electrolysis cell
1Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital and Harvard Medical School, 2Laboratory for Biomaterials and Drug Delivery, Department of Anesthesiology, Division of Critical Care, Boston Children's Hospital
The objective of this protocol is to incorporate SDF-1α, a stem cell homing factor, into dextran sulfate-chitosan nanoparticles. The resultant particles are measured for their size and zeta potential, as well as the content, activity, and in vitro release rate of SDF-1α from the nanoparticles.
Published January 22, 2015. Keywords: Chemistry, Dextran sulfate, chitosan, glycan, SDF-1α, nanoparticle, polyelectrolyte complex
1MESA+ Institute for Nanotechnology, University of Twente
Various procedures are outlined to prepare atomically defined templates for epitaxial growth of complex oxide thin films. Chemical treatments of single crystalline SrTiO3 (001) and DyScO3 (110) substrates were performed to obtain atomically smooth, single terminated surfaces. Ca2 Nb3 O10- nanosheets were used to create atomically defined templates on arbitrary substrates.
Published December 4, 2014. Keywords: Chemistry, Substrates, oxides, perovskites, epitaxy, thin films, single termination, surface treatment, nanosheets, Langmuir-Blodgett
1Cancer Immunology Program, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre
We describe a simple, quantitative colorimetric assay that specifically measures the proteolytic activity of human, mouse or rat Granzyme B (GzmB). This protocol can be easily adapted for determining protease activity of other granule serine proteases by the hydrolysis of other synthetic peptide substrates with an appropriate recognition sequence.
Published November 28, 2014. Keywords: Chemistry, Granzyme B, serine protease, peptide thioesters, BOC-Ala-Ala-Asp-S-Bzl, colorimetric substrate, hydrolysis, asp-ase activity
1Complex Carbohydrate Research Center, University of Georgia, 2Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Georgia, 3Research Institute for Bioresources and Biotechnology, Ishikawa Prefectural University
In order to comprehensively explore the diversity of O-linked glycans, a new procedure for in-gel reductive β-elimination, combined with permethylation and a rapid phase-partition method, is applied to the analysis of O-linked glycans directly released from glycoproteins resolved by SDS-PAGE and amenable to subsequent glycomic analysis by mass spectrometry.
Published November 20, 2014. Keywords: Chemistry, glycoprotein, glycosylation, in-gel reductive β-elimination, O-linked glycan, sulfated glycan, mass spectrometry, protein ID, SDS-PAGE, glycomics, sulfoglycomics
1Department of Chemistry, Lehigh University
PAD4 is an enzyme responsible for the conversion of peptidyl-arginine to peptidyl-citrulline. Dysregulation of PAD4 has been implicated in a number of human diseases. A facile and high-throughput compatible fluorescence based PAD4 assay is described.
Published November 5, 2014. Keywords: Chemistry, PAD4, PADI4, citrullination, arginine, post-translational modification, HTS, assay, fluorescence, citrulline
1School of Life Sciences, University of Nottingham
Kinesins are characterized by nucleotide-dependent interaction with microtubules: a cycle of ATP turnover coupled to a cycle of microtubule interaction. Here, we describe protocols to analyze the kinetics of individual nucleotide transitions in the ATP turnover cycle of a kinesin using fluorescently labeled nucleotides and stopped-flow fluorescence.
Published October 17, 2014. Keywords: Chemistry, Kinesin, ATP turnover, mantATP, mantADP, stopped-flow fluorescence, microtubules, enzyme kinetics, nucleotide
1Chemistry and Biochemistry, Texas State University
Here, we present a protocol for the synthesis of two carbonyl-decorated carbenes. The protocol makes these interesting compounds readily available to chemists of all skill levels. In addition to the synthesis of these two carbenes, their use in the activation of white phosphorus is also described.
Published October 3, 2014. Keywords: Chemistry, electrophilic carbenes, white phosphorus, activation, organophosphorus, phosphaalkene, carbonyl
1MRC Centre for Regenerative Medicine, University of Edinburgh, 2School of Chemistry, University of Edinburgh, 3MRC Centre for Inflammation Research, University of Edinburgh
This article will focus on developing polymer coated surfaces for long-term, stable culture of stem cell derived human hepatocytes.
Published September 26, 2014. Keywords: Chemistry, Pluripotent stem cell, polyurethane, polymer coating, p450 metabolism, stable phenotype, gamma irradiation, ultraviolet irradiation.
1Department of Chemistry, Northwestern University, 2Department of Chemistry, Warsaw University of Technology, 3Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, King Abdulaziz University
Synthesis, activation, and characterization of intentionally designed metal-organic framework materials is challenging, especially when building blocks are incompatible or unwanted polymorphs are thermodynamically favored over desired forms. We describe how applications of solvent-assisted linker exchange, powder X-ray diffraction in capillaries and activation via supercritical CO2 drying, can address some of these challenges.
Published September 5, 2014. Keywords: Chemistry, Metal-organic frameworks, porous coordination polymers, supercritical CO2 activation, crystallography, solvothermal, sorption, solvent-assisted linker exchange