JoVE Chemistry surveys a broad scope of chemical disciplines. This collection includes fundamental and applied research that investigates molecular interactions, properties, and structure spanning in the following core divisions: analytical, organic, organometallic, inorganic, bioinorganic, and biochemistry. This section also includes the design and preparation of materials and small molecules for advanced or unique applications.
1Department of Industrial and Physical Pharmacy, Purdue University
Here, we present detailed protocols for solid-state amide hydrogen/deuterium exchange mass spectrometry (ssHDX-MS) and solid-state photolytic labeling mass spectrometry (ssPL-MS) for proteins in solid powders. The methods provide high-resolution information on protein conformation and interactions in the amorphous solid-state, which may be useful in formulation design.
Published April 14, 2015. Keywords: Chemistry, Amide hydrogen/deuterium exchange, photolytic labeling, mass spectrometry, lyophilized formulations, photo-leucine, solid-state, protein structure, protein conformation, protein dynamics, secondary structure, protein stability, excipients
1Department of Chemistry, Imperial College London
Ruthenium phosphine complexes are widely used for homogeneous catalytic reactions such as hydrogenations. The synthesis of a series of novel tridentate ruthenium complexes bearing the N-triphos ligand N(CH2PPh2)3 is reported. Additionally, the stoichiometric reaction of a dihydride Ru–N-triphos complex with levulinic acid is described.
Published April 10, 2015. Keywords: Chemistry, ligand, phosphine, coordination, complex, catalysis, ruthenium, biomass, levulinic acid
1School of Biological Sciences, Nanyang Technological University
Sedimentation equilibrium (SE) can be used to study protein-protein interactions in a physiological environment. This manuscript describes the use of this technique to determine the effect of pH on the stability of a homo-pentamer formed by the small hydrophobic (SH) protein encoded by the human syncytial respiratory virus (hRSV).
Published April 2, 2015. Keywords: Chemistry, Analytical ultracentrifugation, sedimentation equilibrium, molecular weight, membrane proteins, small hydrophobic, respiratory syncytial virus, detergent, density matching, oligomeric size, histidine protonation, oligomer stability
1School of Ecology and Environmental Studies, Nalanda University, 2Department of Earth Sciences, Uppsala University
Surface properties of a nanoparticle are important for their interaction with the surrounding medium. Therefore the surface modification of carbon nanotubes can be critical for their transport and retention through porous media. Here, lab scale column experiments are used to understand the possible transport and retention of these nanoparticles.
Published April 2, 2015. Keywords: Chemistry, Carbon nanotubes, functionalization of carbon nanotubes, solution chemistry, flow rate, porous media
1Department of Chemistry, Texas Christian University
The synthesis of asymmetric species of ferrocene is challenging using solution techniques. This report focuses on the methods carried out to produce a ferrocene-biotin bioconjugate using facile and clean reactions accomplished via solid-phase synthesis. Incorporation of a thiolate moiety is shown to impart the ability for immobilization on gold surfaces.
Published March 12, 2015. Keywords: Chemistry, Ferrocene, biotin, bio-conjugate, solid phase peptide synthesis, resin, asymmetric, peptide, amino-acid, gold
1X-ray Science Division, Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, 2Department of Physics and Astronomy, Northwestern University
Here, we present a protocol on how to determine the quantity and distribution of metals in a sample using synchrotron X-ray fluorescence. We focus on adherent cells, and describe the chemical fixation method to prepare this sample. We then describe how to mount and image the sample using synchrotron X-rays.
Published March 12, 2015. Keywords: Chemistry, X-ray, fluorescence, imaging, metals, chemical biology, microscopy, synchrotron
1Faculty of Science, University of Ontario Institute of Technology
The goal of this manuscript is to demonstrate a straightforward method for the preparation of ynones from acyl chloride and potassium alkynyltrifluoroborate salt starting materials. The one-pot reaction proceeds rapidly in the presence of boron trichloride without exclusion of air and moisture.
Published February 24, 2015. Keywords: Chemistry, Organic synthesis, trifluoroborates, ketones, ynones, Lewis acid, boron, acyl chlorides
1Department of Radiology, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center
Due to its multi-day radioactive half-life and favorable decay properties, the positron-emitting radiometal 89Zr is extremely well-suited for use in antibody-based radiopharmaceuticals for PET imaging. In this protocol, the bioconjugation, radiosynthesis, and preclinical application of 89Zr-labeled antibodies will be described.
Published February 12, 2015. Keywords: Chemistry, Positron Emission Tomography, Antibody, Bioconjugation, Immunoconjugates, Desferrioxamine, 89Zr
1Department of Chemistry, Virginia Military Institute
A procedure for performing reductive electropolymerization of vinyl-containing compounds onto glassy carbon and fluorine doped tin-oxide coated electrodes is presented. Recommendations on electrochemical cell configurations and troubleshooting procedures are included. Although not explicitly described here, oxidative electropolymerization of pyrrole-containing compounds follows similar procedures to vinyl-based reductive electropolymerization.
Published January 30, 2015. Keywords: Chemistry, electrochemistry, electropolymerization, electrodeposition, fluorine doped tin oxide, glassy carbon, cyclic voltammetry, potentiostat, vinyl, pyrrole, ruthenium, controlled potential electrolysis, 3-compartment cell
1Laboratory of Microbial Ecology and Technology (LabMET), Ghent University, 2Department of Environmental Sciences, Rutgers University
We demonstrate the extraction of ammonium from an ammonium-rich stream using an electrochemical and a bioelectrochemical system. The reactor setup, operation and data analysis are discussed.
Published January 22, 2015. Keywords: Chemistry, Electrochemical extraction, bioelectrochemical system, bioanode, ammonium recovery, microbial electrocatalysis, nutrient recovery, electrolysis cell