1Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, SUNY Upstate Medical University
Vacuolar and cytosolic pH can be measured in live yeast (S. cerevisiae) cells using ratiometric fluorescent dyes localized to specific cellular compartments. We describe procedures for measuring vacuolar pH with BCECF-AM, which localizes to the vacuole in yeast, and cytosolic pH with a cytosolic ratiometric pH-sensitive GFP (yeast pHluorin).
1Department of Neuroscience and Physiology, SUNY Upstate Medical University
This protocol describes an improved explant procedure that involves ex utero electroporation, dissection and culture of entire cerebral hemispheres from the embryonic mouse. The preparation facilitates pharmacological studies and assays of gene function during early cortical development.
1Department of Cell and Developmental Biology, State University of New York, Upstate Medical University, 2Department of Neurobiology and Anatomy, Eccles Institute of Human Genetics, University of Utah
Cilia-generated fluid flow in Kupffer’s Vesicle (KV) controls left-right patterning of the zebrafish embryo. Here, we describe a technique to modulate gene function specifically in KV cells. In addition, we show how to deliver fluorescent beads into KV to visualize fluid flow.
JoVE Clinical and Translational Medicine
1Department of Neurosurgery, SUNY Upstate Medical University, 2Department of Neuroscience and Physiology, SUNY Upstate Medical University
Aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is bleeding that occurs into the subarachnoid space when an aneurysm ruptures. While the morbidity and mortality from this event has been on a decline due to improved treatment approaches, the risk of vasospasm after subarachnoid hemorrhage continues to be the same as it was several years ago. The importance of establishing a comprehensive and reproducible animal model to identify initiating events of cerebral vasospasm has been the focus of research since the first use of rats in an experimental vasospasm model in 1979 by Barry et al. Early work in rats demonstrated that a single injection of autologous blood into the cisterna magna led to acute (within minutes) but not delayed cerebral vasospasm 3, 6, 14. Here we characterize a low mortality SAH rat model that results in reproducible delayed vasospasm.
JoVE Immunology and Infection
1Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center, 2Center for Molecular and Tumor Virology, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center, 3Department of Microbiology and Immunology, SUNY Upstate Medical University, 4Feist-Weiller Cancer Center, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center
The phagokinetic motility track assay is a method used to assess the movement of cells. Specifically, the assay measures chemokinesis (random cell motility) over time in a quantitative manner. The assay takes advantage of the ability of cells to create a measurable track of their movement on colloidal gold-coated coverslips.
1Department of Ophthalmology, SUNY Upstate Medical University
Animal caps overexpressing gene product(s) are transplanted to the flank of developing Xenopus laevis embryos in order to establish whether tissue is determined.