17 articles published in JoVE
1Department of Oncological Sciences, University of Utah
Certain genetic perturbations or exposure to toxins can disrupt normal developmental processes leading to death of specific cell types. The analysis of activated Caspase 3 by whole-mount immunofluorescence in zebrafish embryos reveals stage- and tissue-specific localization of cells specifically undergoing apoptosis.
Published December 20, 2013. Keywords: Developmental Biology, zebrafish, embryo, apoptosis, Caspase 3, Immunofluorescence, whole-mount, cell death
1Department of Human Genetics, University of Utah
Here, we present a method for light microscopy analysis of tracheal terminal cells in Drosophila larvae. This method allows for quick examination of branch and lumen morphology in whole animals and would be useful for analysis of individual mutants or screens for mutations affecting terminal cell development.
Published July 9, 2013. Keywords: Developmental Biology, Genetics, Molecular Biology, Cellular Biology, Biochemistry, Biophysics, Bioengineering, Cellular Structures, Epithelial Cells, Drosophila melanogaster, Microscopy, Phase-Contrast Microscopy, Fluorescence Microscopy, genetics (animal and plant), animal biology, animal models, Respiratory System, trachea, terminal cell, intact animal, larvae, cell morphology, Drosophila, fluorescence, branching, lumen, fruit fly, animal model
1Department of Pathology, University of Utah School of Medicine
We describe a robust method for chromatin immunoprecipitation using primary T cells. The method is founded on standard approaches, but uses a specific set of conditions and reagents that improve efficiency for limited a quantities of cells. Importantly, a detailed description of the data analysis phase is presented.
Published May 1, 2013. Keywords: Molecular Biology, Genetics, Cellular Biology, Biomedical Engineering, Microbiology, Immunology, Biochemistry, Proteins, life sciences, animal models, chromatin immunoprecipitation, ChIP, chromatin, immunoprecipitation, gene regulation, T lymphocyte, transcription factor, chromatin modification, DNA, quantitative PCR, PCR, cells, isolation, animal model
1Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Utah
The system described herein employs a traditional optical trap as well as an independent holographic optical trapping line, capable of creating and manipulating multiple traps. This allows for the creation of complex geometric arrangements of refractive particles while also permitting simultaneous high-speed, high-resolution measurements of the activity of biological enzymes.
Published April 22, 2013. Keywords: Physics, Molecular Biology, Optics, refraction (optics), optical traps, Molecular motors, microtubules, motility, holographic mirror, wavelength, dual traps, microscopy, imaging
1Department of Cell and Developmental Biology, State University of New York, Upstate Medical University, 2Department of Neurobiology and Anatomy, Eccles Institute of Human Genetics, University of Utah
Cilia-generated fluid flow in Kupffer’s Vesicle (KV) controls left-right patterning of the zebrafish embryo. Here, we describe a technique to modulate gene function specifically in KV cells. In addition, we show how to deliver fluorescent beads into KV to visualize fluid flow.
Published March 31, 2013. Keywords: Developmental Biology, Genetics, Cellular Biology, Neurobiology, Neuroscience, Molecular Biology, Bioengineering, Biophysics, Anatomy, Physiology, Cilia, Zebrafish, Danio rerio, Gene Knockdown Techniques, Left-right asymmetry, cilia, Kupffer's Vesicle, morpholinos, microinjection, animal model
1Department of Anesthesiology, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, 2Department of Medicine, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, 3Department of Physiology, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, 4Department of Internal Medicine, Nora Eccles Harrison Cardiovascular Research and Training Institute, University of Utah
Advances in mass spectrometry have allowed the high throughput analysis of protein expression and modification in a host of tissues. Combined with subcellular fractionation and disease models, quantitative mass spectrometry and bioinformatics can reveal new properties in biological systems. The method described herein analyzes chromatin-associated proteins in the setting of heart disease and is readily applicable to other in vivo models of human disease.
Published December 28, 2012. Keywords: Medicine, Molecular Biology, Immunology, Genetics, Genomics, Physiology, Protein, DNA, Chromatin, cardiovascular disease, proteomics, mass spectrometry
1Department of Biology, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, University of Utah
We describe a method to localize fluorescently tagged proteins in electron micrographs. Fluorescence is first localized using photo-activated localization microscopy on ultrathin sections. These images are then aligned to electron micrographs of the same section.
Published December 3, 2012. Keywords: Molecular Biology, Cellular Biology, Genetics, Proteomics, Proteins, Protein localization, super-resolution fluorescence microscopy, fluorescence, electron microscopy, nano-fEM, EM, SEM, electron micrograph, imaging
1Department of Neurobiology and Anatomy, University of Utah School of Medicine, 2Department of Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology, UCSB, 3Howard Hughes Medical Institute, 4Stowers Institute for Medical Research
An effective method for grafting tissue of defined and consistent size between planaria is described. Also included is a description of how the immobilization technique used for transplantation can be adapted, in conjunction with lead shields, for the partial irradiation of live animals.
Published August 6, 2012. Keywords: Developmental Biology, Neuroscience, Molecular Biology, Medicine, transplantation, partial irradiation, rescue, immobilization, planaria, flatworm, stem cell, regeneration
1Departments of Chemistry and Materials Science and Engineering, University of Utah
This article will describe the procedure for synthesizing a hydrophobically modified Nafion enzyme immobilization membrane and how to immobilize proteins and/or enzymes within the membrane and test their specific activity.
Published July 11, 2012. Keywords: Bioengineering, Materials Science, Chemical Engineering, enzyme immobilization, polymer modification, Nafion, enzyme stabilization, enzyme activity assays
1Orflo Technologies, 2University of Utah
The Moxi Z miniature automated cell counter is a novel instrument that combines the Coulter Principle with patented thin-film sensor technology and a proprietary software algorithm to perform sizing and counting of a broad size range of particles as well as to determine the overall health of monodisperse mammalian cell cultures. This protocol describes the use of this instrument for counting and assessing the health of cell cultures.
Published June 21, 2012. Keywords: Cellular Biology, Molecular Biology, cell counting, coulter counting, cell culture health assessment, particle sizing, mammalian cells, Moxi Z
1John A. Moran Eye Center, University of Utah
The development of the multifocal electroretinogram (mfERG) is an important advance in the diagnosis and characterization of retinopathy. Multifocal electroretinograms are a mathematical average of an approximation of a b-wave. Software programs can derive ERGs from more than a hundred retinal areas in a few minutes per eye. Scotomas and retinal dysfunction can be mapped and quantified.
Published December 4, 2011. Keywords: Medicine, Multifocal electroretinogram, mfERG, electroretinogram, ERG
1Department of Biology, University of Utah
Laser axotomy followed by time-lapse imaging is a sensitive way to assay the effects of mutations in C. elegans on axon regeneration. A high quality, but inexpensive, laser ablation system can be easily added to most microscopes. Time lapse imaging over 15 hours requires careful immobilization of the worm.
Published November 15, 2011. Keywords: Neuroscience, laser axotomy, regeneration, growth cone, time lapse, C. elegans, neuroscience, Nd:Yag laser
1Department of Oncological Sciences, Huntsman Cancer Institute, University of Utah
Dying cells are extruded from epithelial tissues by concerted contraction of neighboring cells without disrupting barrier function. The optical clarity of developing zebrafish provides an excellent system to visualize extrusion in living epithelia. Here we describe methods to induce and image extrusion in the larval zebrafish epidermis at cellular resolution.
Published June 27, 2011. Keywords: Developmental Biology, Actin, Extrusion, Epithelia, Homeostasis, Zebrafish, Time-Lapse Imaging
1Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Utah
Techniques for measurement of electrical activity of the heart by electrocardiogram (ECG), and analysis of cardiac risk factors and susceptibility to arrhythmias following status epilepticus (SE) in the rat are described.
Published April 5, 2011. Keywords: Medicine, cardiac, seizure disorders, QTc, QTd, cardiac arrhythmias, rat
1Bioengineering, University of Utah
There are technical obstacles to measuring current flux through multiple ion channels simultaneously, and later discerning what portion of the transmembrane current is due to each channel type. To address this need, this method presents a way to generate the IV curve of individual channel types using specific frequency components.
Published February 8, 2011. Keywords: Biophysics, Ion channel, Kir2.1, impedance spectroscopy, frequency response, voltage clamp, electrophysiology
1Department of Oncological Sciences, Huntsman Cancer Institute, University of Utah, 2Fluorescence Microscopy Core Facility, University of Utah
Here we describe a basic protocol to image and quantify the mitotic timing of live mammalian tissue culture cells after siRNA transfection.
Published June 6, 2010. Keywords: Cellular Biology, microscopy, live imaging, mitosis, transfection, siRNA
1Department of Veteran Affairs, 2Department of Bioengineering, University of Utah, 3Scientific Computing and Imaging Institute , University of Utah, 4Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, University of Utah, 5Department of Orthopaedics, University of Utah
There is a need to develop alternative prosthesis attachment due to limb loss attributed to vascular occlusive diseases and trauma. The goal of the work is to introduce an osseointegrated intelligent implant design system to increase skeletal fixation and reduce periprosthetic infection rates for patients needing osseointegrated technology.
Published July 15, 2009. Keywords: Medicine, Osseointegration, Electrical Stimulation, Osteogenesis, Amputation, Percutaneous