Proteins can either adopt a native structure or misfold into insoluble amyloid. Conditions that favor the misfolding pathway lead to the formation of different types of amyloid fibrils. The methods described here allow rapid conversion of native proteins into amyloid in vitro.
1Department of Physics and Atmospheric Science, Dalhousie University, 2Department of Physics, University of Notre Dame
The technique of femtosecond four-wave mixing is described, including spectrally-resolved and time-resolved configurations. We illustrate the utility of this technique for the investigation of crucial physical properties in the III-V diluted magnetic semiconductors, afforded by its nonlinearity and high temporal resolution.
1Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, University of Iowa Carver College of Medicine
Stage-specific isolation of mid-to-late Drosophila follicles is useful for a variety of purposes. Such follicles develop in culture, which allows for genetic and/or pharmacologic manipulations to be coupled with in vitro development assays and live imaging. Additionally, follicles can be used for molecular studies, such as isolating mRNA and protein.
1Department of Microbiology & Immunology, Medical University of South Carolina
Implantation of cancer cells into the organ of origin can serve as a useful preclinical model to evaluate novel therapies. MB49 bladder carcinoma cells can be grown within the bladder following intravesical instillation. This protocol demonstrates catheterization of the mouse bladder for the purpose of tumor implantation and adenoviral delivery.
Ultra-high frequency ultrasound is a powerful live imaging tool to examine cardiac abnormalities in small animals. Its noninvasiveness allows maintaining the physiologic state of embryos. Herein, we show the use of M-mode ultrasound to measure the heart rates of embryos at E18.5 in utero.
This article provides a protocol for the echocardiographic assessment of right ventricular size and pulmonary hypertension in mice. Applications include phenotype determination and serial assessment in transgenic and toxin-induced mouse models of cardiomyopathy and pulmonary vascular disease.
Rapid Synthesis and Screening of Chemically Activated Transcription Factors with GFP-based Reporters
1The Lewis-Sigler Institute for Integrative Genomics, Princeton University, 2Department of Molecular Biology, Princeton University, 3Division of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, California Institute of Technology
This protocol describes an experimental procedure for the rapid construction of artificial transcription factors (ATFs) with cognate GFP reporters and quantification of the ATFs ability to stimulate GFP expression via flow cytometry.
In vivo Postnatal Electroporation and Time-lapse Imaging of Neuroblast Migration in Mouse Acute Brain Slices
Neuroblast migration is a fundamental event in postnatal neurogenesis. We describe a protocol for efficient labeling of neuroblasts by in vivo postnatal electroporation and subsequent visualization of their migration using time-lapse imaging of acute brain slices. We include a description for the quantitative analysis of neuroblast dynamics by video tracking.
High-throughput Flow Cytometry Cell-based Assay to Detect Antibodies to N-Methyl-D-aspartate Receptor or Dopamine-2 Receptor in Human Serum
1Institute for Neuroscience and Muscle Research, The Kids Research Institute at the Children's Hospital at Westmead, The University of Sydney, 2Flow Cytometry Centre, Westmead Millennium Institute for Medical Research
Over the recent years, live cell-based assays have been used successfully to detect antibodies against surface and conformational antigens. Here, we describe a method using high-throughput flow cytometry enabling the analysis of large cohorts of patients. Detection of novel antibodies will improve diagnosis and treatment of immune-mediated disorders.