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 JoVE Neuroscience

Functional Imaging of Auditory Cortex in Adult Cats using High-field fMRI

1Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, University of Western Ontario, 2Department of Psychology, University of Western Ontario, 3Department of Medical Biophysics, University of Western Ontario, 4Brain and Mind Institute, University of Western Ontario, 5Centre for Functional and Metabolic Mapping, Robarts Research Institute, University of Western Ontario, 6Cerebral Systems Laboratory, University of Western Ontario, 7National Centre for Audiology, University of Western Ontario

JoVE 50872

Functional studies of the auditory system in mammals have traditionally been conducted using spatially-focused techniques such as electrophysiological recordings. The following protocol describes a method of visualizing large-scale patterns of evoked hemodynamic activity in the cat auditory cortex using functional magnetic resonance imaging.

 JoVE Biology

Mapping the After-effects of Theta Burst Stimulation on the Human Auditory Cortex with Functional Imaging

1Montreal Neurological Institute and International laboratory for Brain, Music, and Sound (BRAMS), McGill University

JoVE 3985

Auditory processing is the basis of speech and music-related processing. Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) has been used successfully to study cognitive, sensory and motor systems but has rarely been applied to audition. Here we investigated TMS combined with functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging to understand the functional organization of auditory cortex.

 JoVE Neuroscience

Selective Tracing of Auditory Fibers in the Avian Embryonic Vestibulocochlear Nerve

1Department of Neurobiology and Behavior, University of California, Irvine

JoVE 50305

Here we describe a microdissection technique followed by fluorescent dye injection into the acoustic ganglion of early chick embryos for selective tracing of auditory axon fibers in the nerve and hindbrain.

 JoVE Neuroscience

Behavioral Determination of Stimulus Pair Discrimination of Auditory Acoustic and Electrical Stimuli Using a Classical Conditioning and Heart-rate Approach

1School of Psychological Science, La Trobe University

JoVE 3598

The application of a classical fear conditioning behavioral paradigm for auditory prosthetic research in rats is described. This paradigm provides a mechanism for identifying both detection of, and discrimination between, distinct acoustic and electrical stimuli using heart-rate as an outcome measure.

 JoVE Behavior

Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) with Auditory Stimulation in Songbirds

1Bio-Imaging Lab, University of Antwerp

JoVE 4369

This article shows an optimized procedure for imaging of the neural substrates of auditory stimulation in the songbird brain using functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI). It describes the preparation of the sound stimuli, the positioning of the subject and the acquisition and subsequent analysis of the fMRI data.

 JoVE Neuroscience

A Lightweight, Headphones-based System for Manipulating Auditory Feedback in Songbirds

1Department of Biology, Emory University, 2Neuroscience Graduate Program, Emory University, 3Program in Neuroscience and Behavioral Biology, Emory University

JoVE 50027

We describe the design and assembly of miniaturized headphones suitable for replacing a songbird’s natural auditory feedback with a manipulated acoustic signal. Online sound processing hardware is used to manipulate song output, introduce real-time errors in auditory feedback via the headphones, and drive vocal motor learning.

 JoVE Neuroscience

Optogenetic Stimulation of the Auditory Nerve

1InnerEarLab, Department of Otolaryngology, University Medical Center Goettingen, 2Bernstein Focus for Neurotechnology, University of Goettingen, 3Auditory Systems Physiology Group, Department of Otolaryngology, University Medical Center Goettingen, 4Center for Nanoscale Microscopy and Molecular Physiology of the Brain, University of Goettingen, 5Department of Chemical, Electronic, and Biomedical Engineering, University of Guanajuato

JoVE 52069

Cochlear implants (CIs) enable hearing by direct electrical stimulation of the auditory nerve. However, poor frequency and intensity resolution limits the quality of hearing with CIs. Here we describe optogenetic stimulation of the auditory nerve in mice as an alternative strategy for auditory research and developing future CIs.

 JoVE Behavior

Quantitative Assessment of Cortical Auditory-tactile Processing in Children with Disabilities

1Department of Pediatrics, Monroe Carell Jr. Children's Hospital at Vanderbilt, Vanderbilt University, 2Vanderbilt Kennedy Center, Vanderbilt University, 3Department of Hearing and Speech Sciences, Vanderbilt University

JoVE 51054

Objective and easy measurement of sensory processing is extremely difficult in nonverbal or vulnerable pediatric patients. We developed a new methodology to quantitatively assess infants and children's cortical processing of light touch, speech sounds, and the multisensory processing of the 2 stimuli, without requiring active subject participation or causing discomfort in vulnerable patients.

 JoVE Neuroscience

Direct Visualization of the Murine Dorsal Cochlear Nucleus for Optogenetic Stimulation of the Auditory Pathway

1Department of Otology and Laryngology, Harvard Medical School, 2Department of Communication Sciences and Disorders, Worcester State University

JoVE 52426

The goal of this protocol is to outline a surgical approach to provide direct access to the dorsal cochlear nucleus in a murine model.

 JoVE Neuroscience

Preparation and Culture of Chicken Auditory Brainstem Slices

1Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Virginia Merrill Bloedel Hearing Research Center, University of Washington, 2Department of Physiology and Biophysics, Virginia Merrill Bloedel Hearing Research Center, University of Washington

JoVE 2527

The chicken auditory brainstem is comprised of nuclei responsible for binaural sound processing. A single coronal slice preparation maintains the entire circuitry while the cultured approach provides a unique preparation to study the development of neuronal structure and auditory function at the molecular, cellular and network levels.

 JoVE Neuroscience

Mapping Cortical Dynamics Using Simultaneous MEG/EEG and Anatomically-constrained Minimum-norm Estimates: an Auditory Attention Example

1Department of Speech & Hearing Sciences, Institute for Learning and Brain Sciences, University of Washington

JoVE 4262

We use magneto- and electroencephalography (MEG/EEG), combined with anatomical information captured by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), to map the dynamics of the cortical network associated with auditory attention.

 JoVE Behavior

Uncovering Beat Deafness: Detecting Rhythm Disorders with Synchronized Finger Tapping and Perceptual Timing Tasks

1Movement to Health Laboratory (EuroMov), University of Montpellier, 2Institut Universitaire de France, 3Department of Cognitive Psychology, University of Finance and Management in Warsaw, 4International Laboratory for Brain, Music, and Sound Research (BRAMS)

JoVE 51761

Behavioral tasks that allow for the assessment of perceptual and sensorimotor timing abilities in the general population (i.e., non-musicians) are presented. Synchronization of finger tapping to the beat of an auditory stimuli and detecting rhythmic irregularities provides a means of uncovering rhythm disorders.

 JoVE Behavior

Contextual and Cued Fear Conditioning Test Using a Video Analyzing System in Mice

1Division of Systems Medical Science, Institute for Comprehensive Medical Science, Fujita Health University, 2Japan Science and Technology Agency, Core Research for Evolutionary Science and Technology (CREST), 3Center for Genetic Analysis of Behavior, National Institute for Physiological Sciences, National Institutes of Natural Sciences

JoVE 50871

This article presents a protocol for a contextual and cued fear conditioning test using a video analyzing system to assess fear learning and memory in mice.

 JoVE Behavior

Modulating Cognition Using Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation of the Cerebellum

1School of Psychology, University of Birmingham

JoVE 52302

Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) over the cerebellum exerts a remote effect on the prefrontal cortex, which can modulate cognition and performance. This was demonstrated using two information-processing tasks of varying complexity, whereby only cathodal tDCS improved performance when the task was difficult, but not easy.

 JoVE Neuroscience

Whole Cell Patch Clamp for Investigating the Mechanisms of Infrared Neural Stimulation

1Biotactical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Industrial Science, Swinburne University of Technology, 2Department of Otolaryngology, The University of Melbourne

JoVE 50444

Infrared nerve stimulation has been proposed as an alternative to electrical stimulation in a range of nerve types, including those associated with the auditory system. This protocol describes a patch clamp method for studying the mechanism of infrared nerve stimulation in a culture of primary auditory neurons.

 JoVE Medicine

Making Sense of Listening: The IMAP Test Battery

1MRC Institute of Hearing Research, 2NIHR, National Biomedical Research Unit in Hearing

JoVE 2139

A test battery (IMAP) for performing an in-depth assessment of auditory and cognitive abilities contributing to listening skills is described. It is quick to administer, child-friendly and free from linguistic confounds. Stimulus generation and protocol management are controlled via a software platform (IHR-STAR) to ensure replicable procedures.

 JoVE Behavior

A Procedure to Observe Context-induced Renewal of Pavlovian-conditioned Alcohol-seeking Behavior in Rats

1Department of Psychology, Center for Studies in Behavioral Neurobiology, Concordia University

JoVE 51898

A procedure to study the capacity of an alcohol associated environmental context to trigger the renewal of alcohol-seeking behavior in rats is described.

 JoVE Behavior

Stimulating the Lip Motor Cortex with Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation

1Department of Experimental Psychology, University of Oxford

JoVE 51665

Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) has proven to be a useful tool in investigating the role of the articulatory motor cortex in speech perception.  This article describes how to record motor evoked potentials (MEPs) from the lip muscles and how to disrupt the motor lip representation using repetitive TMS.

 JoVE Behavior

Irrelevant Stimuli and Action Control: Analyzing the Influence of Ignored Stimuli via the Distractor-Response Binding Paradigm

1Cognitive Psychology Unit, Institute of Psychology, Trier University, 2Clinical Psychophysiology Unit, Institute of Psychobiology, Trier University

JoVE 51571

The distractor-response binding paradigm is described. It can be used to shed light on the influence irrelevant stimuli, competing with targets for a response, can have on human action. Both response retrieval effects and distractor inhibition effects can be analyzed within the paradigm.

 JoVE Neuroscience

Surgical Method for Virally Mediated Gene Delivery to the Mouse Inner Ear through the Round Window Membrane

1Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, University of California, San Francisco

JoVE 52187

The described post-auricular surgical approach allows rapid and direct delivery into the mouse cochlear scala tympani while minimizing blood loss and animal mortality. This method can be used for cochlear therapy using molecular, pharmacologic and viral delivery to postnatal mice through the round window membrane.

 JoVE Behavior

P50 Sensory Gating in Infants

1Department of Psychiatry, University of Colorado School of Medicine, 2Colorado State University

JoVE 50065

Methods to record auditory P50 sensory gating, a physiological marker of cerebral inhibition which reflects early stages of attention, are described.

 JoVE Behavior

A Fully Automated Rodent Conditioning Protocol for Sensorimotor Integration and Cognitive Control Experiments

1Electrical and Computer Engineering, Michigan State University, 2Neuroscience Program, Michigan State University, 3Cognitive Science Program, Michigan State University

JoVE 51128

A fully automated protocol for rodent operant conditioning is proposed. The protocol relies on precise temporal control of behavioral events to investigate the extent to which this control influences neural activity underlying sensorimotor integration and cognitive control experiments.

 JoVE Medicine

A Neuroscientific Approach to the Examination of Concussions in Student-Athletes

1Department of Exercise Science, Elon University, 2Department of Physical Therapy Education, Elon University, 3Department of Physical Therapy, Duquesne University, 4Department of Sports Medicine, Elon University

JoVE 52046

There is great variability in an individual’s risk for concussion and their corresponding recovery. A multifaceted approach to concussion evaluation is warranted; including baseline testing of athletes before participation in sport and timely evaluation post injury. The goal of this protocol is to provide an appropriate multifaceted approach to examine concussions.

 JoVE Neuroscience

Manufacturing and Using Piggy-back Multibarrel Electrodes for In vivo Pharmacological Manipulations of Neural Responses

1Department of Physiology & Biophysics, University of Colorado Medical Campus

JoVE 4358

Iontophoresis of neural agonists and antagonists during extracellular in vivo recordings is a powerful way to manipulate a neuron’s microenvironment. These manipulations can most easily be done via piggy-back multibarrel electrodes. Here we describe how to manufacture them and use them during auditory recordings.

 JoVE Neuroscience

A Method to Make a Craniotomy on the Ventral Skull of Neonate Rodents

1Department of Biology, The City University of New York, City College, 2Department of Biomedical Engineering, The City University of New York, City College

JoVE 51350

A surgical method is described to expose the ventral skull in neonate rats. Using this approach it is possible to open a craniotomy to perform acute electrophysiology and two-photon microscopy experiments in the brainstem of anesthetized pups.

 JoVE Medicine

Non-invasive Imaging and Analysis of Cerebral Ischemia in Living Rats Using Positron Emission Tomography with 18F-FDG

1W. M. Keck Center for Transgene Research, University of Notre Dame, 2Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Notre Dame, 3Notre Dame Integrated Imaging Facility, University of Notre Dame, 4Department of Biological Sciences, University of Notre Dame, 5Harper Cancer Research Institute, University of Notre Dame

JoVE 51495

Brain damage resulting from cerebral ischemia may be non-invasively imaged and studied in rats using pre-clinical positron emission tomography coupled with the injectable radioactive probe, 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose. Further, the use of modern software tools that include volume of interest (VOI) brain templates dramatically increase the quantitative information gleaned from these studies.

 JoVE Neuroscience

Dissection of Adult Mouse Utricle and Adenovirus-mediated Supporting-cell Infection

1Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Medical University of South Carolina, 2Department of Microbiology & Immunology, Medical University of South Carolina, 3National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders, National Institutes of Health

JoVE 3734

Mechanosensory hair cells are the receptor cells of the inner ear. The best-characterized in vitro model system of mature mammalian hair cells utilizes organ cultures of utricles from adult mice. We present the dissection of the adult mouse utricle, and we demonstrate adenovirus-mediated infection of supporting cells in cultured utricles.

 JoVE Neuroscience

Preparation of an Awake Mouse for Recording Neural Responses and Injecting Tracers

1Department of Neuroscience, Johns Hopkins University, 2Garvan Institute of Medical Research, 3School of Biological Sciences, Washington State University, 4Department of Otolaryngology-HNS, Johns Hopkins University

JoVE 3755

Electrophysiological characterization of neuronal responses is important for understanding brain function and for guiding the placement of dyes for pathway tracing. However, many studies are performed in anesthetized animals. To understand brain function without anesthetics, we developed a method to record neuronal response properties and inject dyes in awake mouse.

 JoVE Behavior

Functional Near Infrared Spectroscopy of the Sensory and Motor Brain Regions with Simultaneous Kinematic and EMG Monitoring During Motor Tasks

1Functional and Applied Biomechanics Section, Rehabilitation Medicine Department, Clinical Center, National Institutes of Health

JoVE 52391

Monitoring brain activity during upright motor tasks is of great value when investigating the neural source of movement disorders. Here, we demonstrate a protocol that combines functional near infrared spectroscopy with continuous monitoring of muscle and kinematic activity during 4 types of motor tasks.

 JoVE Neuroscience

Surgical Implantation of Chronic Neural Electrodes for Recording Single Unit Activity and Electrocorticographic Signals

1Biomedical Engineering, University of Michigan, 2Biomedical Engineering, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 3NeuroNexus Technologies

JoVE 3565

We provide useful information for surgeons who are learning the process of implanting chronic neural recording electrodes. Techniques for both penetrating and surface electrode systems are described in a rodent animal model.

 JoVE Neuroscience

A Guide to In vivo Single-unit Recording from Optogenetically Identified Cortical Inhibitory Interneurons

1Institute of Neuroscience, University of Oregon

JoVE 51757

Here we describe our strategy for obtaining stable, well-isolated single-unit recordings from identified inhibitory interneurons in the anesthetized mouse cortex. Neurons expressing ChR2 are identified by their response to blue light. The method uses standard extracellular recording equipment, and serves as an inexpensive alternative to calcium imaging or visually-guided patching.

 JoVE Medicine

An Investigation of the Effects of Sports-related Concussion in Youth Using Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging and the Head Impact Telemetry System

1Graduate Department of Rehabilitation Science, University of Toronto, 2Occupational Science and Occupational Therapy, University of Toronto, 3Department of Psychology, University of Toronto, 4Bloorview Kids Rehab, 5Toronto Rehab, 6Cognitive Neurology, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, 7Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto

JoVE 2226

This article provides an overview of a multi-modal approach to mild traumatic brain injury diagnosis and recovery in youth. This approach combines neuropsychological testing with functional magnetic resonance imaging and the Head Impact Telemetry System to monitor the relationship between head impacts and brain activity during cognitive testing.

 JoVE Behavior

Assessment and Evaluation of the High Risk Neonate: The NICU Network Neurobehavioral Scale

1Center for the Study of Children at Risk, Alpert Medical School, Brown University, 2Women & Infants Hospital of Rhode Island, 3University of Massachusetts, Boston

JoVE 3368

The NICU Network Neurobehavioral Scale (NNNS) was developed as an assessment for the at-risk infant. The purpose of this article is to describe the NNNS, provide video examples of the NNNS procedures and discuss the ways in which the exam has been used.

 JoVE Neuroscience

Recording Single Neurons' Action Potentials from Freely Moving Pigeons Across Three Stages of Learning

1Faculty of Psychology, Department of Biopsychology, Ruhr-University Bochum

JoVE 51283

Learning new stimulus-response associations engages a wide range of neural processes which are ultimately reflected in changing spike output of individual neurons. Here we describe a behavioral protocol allowing for the continuous registration of single-neuron activity while animals acquire, extinguish, and reacquire a conditioned response within a single experimental session.

 JoVE Behavior

Community-based Adapted Tango Dancing for Individuals with Parkinson's Disease and Older Adults

1Center for Visual and Neurocognitive Rehabilitation, Atlanta VAMC, Department of Medicine, Division of General Medicine and Geriatrics, Emory University School of Medicine, 2Harvard Neurology Residency Program, Brigham and Woman‘s Hospital and Massachusetts General Hospital

JoVE 52066

Adapted tango has demonstrated efficacy for improving mobility and balance. We describe the dissemination of adapted tango teaching methods to dance instructor trainees and the implementation of adapted tango by the trainees in the community for improving mobility and balance in older adults and individuals with Parkinson’s disease.

 JoVE Neuroscience

Postsynaptic Recordings at Afferent Dendrites Contacting Cochlear Inner Hair Cells: Monitoring Multivesicular Release at a Ribbon Synapse

1Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery., The Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, 2Instituto de Investigaciones en Ingeniería Genética y Biología Molecular, Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas

JoVE 2442

Whole-cell patch-clamp recordings from auditory nerve fiber dendrites at the inner hair cell ribbon synapse in the mammalian cochlea.

 JoVE Behavior

Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation for Investigating Causal Brain-behavioral Relationships and their Time Course

1Cognitive, Perceptual & Brain Sciences, University College London

JoVE 51735

Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is a technique for non-invasively disrupting neural information processing and measuring its effect on behavior. When TMS interferes with a task, it indicates that the stimulated brain region is necessary for normal task performance, allowing one to systematically relate brain regions to cognitive functions.

 JoVE Behavior

Disrupting Reconsolidation of Fear Memory in Humans by a Noradrenergic β-Blocker

1Department of Clinical Psychology, University of Amsterdam

JoVE 52151

Disrupting reconsolidation is a promising approach to dampen the behavioral expression of fear memory in patients with anxiety disorders or posttraumatic stress disorder. In a series of human fear conditioning studies we showed that disrupting reconsolidation by the noradrenergic β-blocker propranolol is very effective in erasing conditioned fear responding.

 JoVE Neuroscience

MPI CyberMotion Simulator: Implementation of a Novel Motion Simulator to Investigate Multisensory Path Integration in Three Dimensions

1Department of Human Perception, Cognition and Action, Max Planck Institute for Biological Cybernetics, 2Laboratoire de Physiologie de la Perception et de l'Action, Collège de France - CNRS, 3Department of Brain and Cognitive Engineering, Korea University

JoVE 3436

An efficient way to gain insight into how humans navigate themselves in three dimensions is described. The method takes advantage of a motion simulator capable of moving observers in ways unattainable by traditional simulators. Results confirm that movement in the horizontal plane is underestimated, while vertical movement is overestimated.

 JoVE Neuroscience

Habituation and Prepulse Inhibition of Acoustic Startle in Rodents

1Anatomy and Cell Biology, Schulich School of Medicine and Dentistry, University of Western Ontario

JoVE 3446

Habituation and prepulse inhibition of startle are operational measures of sensory gating. Sensory gating is disrupted in schizophrenia, and some other mental disorders and neurodegenerative diseases. We here describe a standard protocol to assess short-term and long-term habituation as well as prepulse inhibition of acoustic startle responses in rats and mice.

 JoVE Neuroscience

A Visual Description of the Dissection of the Cerebral Surface Vasculature and Associated Meninges and the Choroid Plexus from Rat Brain

1Division of Neurotoxicology, National Center for Toxicological Research, 2Division of Personalized Nutrition and Medicine, National Center for Toxicological Research, 3Office of Planning, Finance, and Information Technology, National Center for Toxicological Research

JoVE 4285

This video presentation shows a method of harvesting the two most important highly vascular structures that support forebrain function. They are the cerebral surface (superficial) vasculature along with associated meninges (MAV) and the choroid plexus which are necessary for cerebral blood flow and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) homeostasis.

 JoVE Neuroscience

Extracting Visual Evoked Potentials from EEG Data Recorded During fMRI-guided Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation

1School of Psychological Sciences, Tel-Aviv University, 2Sagol School of Neuroscience, Tel-Aviv University

JoVE 51063

This paper describes a method for collecting and analyzing electroencephalography (EEG) data during concurrent transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) guided by activations revealed with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). A method for TMS artifact removal and extraction of event related potentials is described as well as considerations in paradigm design and experimental setup.

 JoVE Behavior

Training Synesthetic Letter-color Associations by Reading in Color

1Brain and Cognition, University of Amsterdam

JoVE 50893

Reading in color is a new method for training letter-color associations that are typically found only in grapheme-color synesthetes. It involves an implicit form of training that has potential for long-term associative training methods because the training is a byproduct of reading and any text can be colored.

 JoVE Neuroscience

Operant Sensation Seeking in the Mouse

1Department of Molecular Physiology and Biophysics, Center for Molecular Neuroscience, Kennedy Center for Human Development, Vanderbilt University Medical Center

JoVE 2292

In this protocol we describe a method of operant learning using sensory stimuli as a reinforcer in the mouse. It requires no prior training or food restriction, and it allows the study of motivated behavior without the use of a pharmacological or natural reinforcer such as food.

 JoVE Neuroscience

Gene Transfer to the Developing Mouse Inner Ear by In Vivo Electroporation

1Oregon Hearing Research Center, Oregon Health & Science University

JoVE 3653

The mouse inner ear is a placode-derived sensory organ whose developmental program is elaborated during gestation. We define an in utero gene transfer technique consisting of three steps: mouse ventral laparotomy, transuterine microinjection, and in vivo electroporation. We use digital video microscopy to demonstrate the critical experimental embryological techniques.

 JoVE Medicine

Development of an Audio-based Virtual Gaming Environment to Assist with Navigation Skills in the Blind

1Laboratory for Visual Neuroplasticity, Department of Ophthalmology, Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary, Harvard Medical School, 2Department of Computer Science and Center for Advanced Research in Education (CARE), University of Chile

JoVE 50272

Audio-based Environment Simulator (AbES) is virtual environment software designed to improve real world navigation skills in the blind.

 JoVE Neuroscience

Double Fluorescence in situ Hybridization in Fresh Brain Sections

1Department of Brain and Cognitive Sciences, University of Rochester, 2Center for Visual Science, University of Rochester

JoVE 2102

This protocol involves a non-radioactive in-situ hybridization procedure that enables the simultaneous identification of two transcript species, at a single cell resolution, in thin sections of the vertebrate brain.

 JoVE Neuroscience

Retrograde Fluorescent Labeling Allows for Targeted Extracellular Single-unit Recording from Identified Neurons In vivo

1Department of Biology, Washington University in St. Louis, 2Division of Biological Science, Graduate School of Science, Nagoya University, 3Department of Psychiatry, Washington University in St. Louis

JoVE 3921

Retrograde transport of fluorescent dye labels a sub-population of neurons based on anatomical projection. Labeled axons can be visually targeted in vivo, permitting extracellular recording from identified axons. This technique facilitates recording when neurons cannot be labeled through genetic manipulation or are difficult to isolate using 'blind' in vivo approaches.

 JoVE Behavior

Use of an Eight-arm Radial Water Maze to Assess Working and Reference Memory Following Neonatal Brain Injury

1Department of Psychology, Rhode Island College, 2Department of Biology, Rhode Island College

JoVE 50940

The eight-arm radial water maze is designed to evaluate reference and working memory performance simultaneously by requiring subjects to use extra-maze cues to locate escape platforms and remedies the limitations observed in land based radial arm maze designs.

 JoVE Medicine

EEG Mu Rhythm in Typical and Atypical Development

1Department of Psychiatry, University of Washington, 2Department of Educational Psychology, University of Washington

JoVE 51412

Assessment of the EEG mu rhythm provides a unique methodology for examining brain activity and when combined with behaviorally based assays, can be a powerful tool for elucidating aspects of social cognition, such as imitation, in clinical populations.

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