1Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, University of Western Ontario, 2Department of Psychology, University of Western Ontario, 3Department of Medical Biophysics, University of Western Ontario, 4Brain and Mind Institute, University of Western Ontario, 5Centre for Functional and Metabolic Mapping, Robarts Research Institute, University of Western Ontario, 6Cerebral Systems Laboratory, University of Western Ontario, 7National Centre for Audiology, University of Western Ontario
Functional studies of the auditory system in mammals have traditionally been conducted using spatially-focused techniques such as electrophysiological recordings. The following protocol describes a method of visualizing large-scale patterns of evoked hemodynamic activity in the cat auditory cortex using functional magnetic resonance imaging.
Published February 19, 2014. Keywords: Neuroscience, Central Nervous System, Ear, Animal Experimentation, Models, Animal, Functional Neuroimaging, Brain Mapping, Nervous System, Sense Organs, auditory cortex, BOLD signal change, hemodynamic response, hearing, acoustic stimuli
1Montreal Neurological Institute and International laboratory for Brain, Music, and Sound (BRAMS), McGill University
Auditory processing is the basis of speech and music-related processing. Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) has been used successfully to study cognitive, sensory and motor systems but has rarely been applied to audition. Here we investigated TMS combined with functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging to understand the functional organization of auditory cortex.
Published September 12, 2012. Keywords: Neuroscience, Physiology, Physics, Theta burst stimulation, functional magnetic resonance imaging, MRI, auditory cortex, frameless stereotaxy, sound, transcranial magnetic stimulation
1Department of Neurobiology and Behavior, University of California, Irvine
Here we describe a microdissection technique followed by fluorescent dye injection into the acoustic ganglion of early chick embryos for selective tracing of auditory axon fibers in the nerve and hindbrain.
Published March 18, 2013. Keywords: Neurobiology, Neuroscience, Behavior, Developmental Biology, Anatomy, Biomedical Engineering, Surgery, Development, Inner Ear, Cochlea, Auditory, Chick, Axon Tracing, VIIIth Cranial Nerve, nerve, ganglion, fiber, cochlear duct, basilar papilla, embryo, microinjection, animal model
1School of Psychological Science, La Trobe University
The application of a classical fear conditioning behavioral paradigm for auditory prosthetic research in rats is described. This paradigm provides a mechanism for identifying both detection of, and discrimination between, distinct acoustic and electrical stimuli using heart-rate as an outcome measure.
Published June 6, 2012. Keywords: Neuroscience, Physiology, auditory, hearing, brainstem, stimulation, rat, abi
1Bio-Imaging Lab, University of Antwerp
This article shows an optimized procedure for imaging of the neural substrates of auditory stimulation in the songbird brain using functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI). It describes the preparation of the sound stimuli, the positioning of the subject and the acquisition and subsequent analysis of the fMRI data.
Published June 3, 2013. Keywords: Behavior, Neuroscience, Neurobiology, Molecular Biology, Medicine, Biophysics, Physiology, Anatomy, Functional MRI, fMRI, Magnetic Resonance Imaging, MRI, blood oxygenation level dependent fMRI, BOLD fMRI, Brain, Songbird, zebra finches, Taeniopygia guttata, Auditory Stimulation, stimuli, animal model, imaging
1Department of Biology, Emory University, 2Neuroscience Graduate Program, Emory University, 3Program in Neuroscience and Behavioral Biology, Emory University
We describe the design and assembly of miniaturized headphones suitable for replacing a songbird’s natural auditory feedback with a manipulated acoustic signal. Online sound processing hardware is used to manipulate song output, introduce real-time errors in auditory feedback via the headphones, and drive vocal motor learning.
Published November 26, 2012. Keywords: Neuroscience, Anatomy, Physiology, Zoology, Behavior, Songbird, psychophysics, auditory feedback, biology, sensorimotor learning
1InnerEarLab, Department of Otolaryngology, University Medical Center Goettingen, 2Bernstein Focus for Neurotechnology, University of Goettingen, 3Auditory Systems Physiology Group, Department of Otolaryngology, University Medical Center Goettingen, 4Center for Nanoscale Microscopy and Molecular Physiology of the Brain, University of Goettingen, 5Department of Chemical, Electronic, and Biomedical Engineering, University of Guanajuato
Cochlear implants (CIs) enable hearing by direct electrical stimulation of the auditory nerve. However, poor frequency and intensity resolution limits the quality of hearing with CIs. Here we describe optogenetic stimulation of the auditory nerve in mice as an alternative strategy for auditory research and developing future CIs.
Published October 8, 2014. Keywords: Neuroscience, hearing, cochlear implant, optogenetics, channelrhodopsin, optical stimulation, deafness
1Department of Pediatrics, Monroe Carell Jr. Children's Hospital at Vanderbilt, Vanderbilt University, 2Vanderbilt Kennedy Center, Vanderbilt University, 3Department of Hearing and Speech Sciences, Vanderbilt University
Objective and easy measurement of sensory processing is extremely difficult in nonverbal or vulnerable pediatric patients. We developed a new methodology to quantitatively assess infants and children's cortical processing of light touch, speech sounds, and the multisensory processing of the 2 stimuli, without requiring active subject participation or causing discomfort in vulnerable patients.
Published January 29, 2014. Keywords: Behavior, somatosensory, event related potential, auditory-tactile, multisensory, cortical response, child
1Department of Otology and Laryngology, Harvard Medical School, 2Department of Communication Sciences and Disorders, Worcester State University
The goal of this protocol is to outline a surgical approach to provide direct access to the dorsal cochlear nucleus in a murine model.
Published January 20, 2015. Keywords: Neuroscience, Optogenetics, dorsal cochlear nucleus, virus-mediated gene transfer, auditory system
1Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Virginia Merrill Bloedel Hearing Research Center, University of Washington, 2Department of Physiology and Biophysics, Virginia Merrill Bloedel Hearing Research Center, University of Washington
The chicken auditory brainstem is comprised of nuclei responsible for binaural sound processing. A single coronal slice preparation maintains the entire circuitry while the cultured approach provides a unique preparation to study the development of neuronal structure and auditory function at the molecular, cellular and network levels.
Published March 21, 2011. Keywords: Neuroscience, slice preparation, chicken auditory brainstem, organotypic cultures, nucleus laminaris, nucleus magnocellularis
1Department of Speech & Hearing Sciences, Institute for Learning and Brain Sciences, University of Washington
We use magneto- and electroencephalography (MEG/EEG), combined with anatomical information captured by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), to map the dynamics of the cortical network associated with auditory attention.
Published October 24, 2012. Keywords: Neuroscience, Magnetoencephalography, MEG, Electroencephalography, EEG, audition, attention, inverse imaging
1Movement to Health Laboratory (EuroMov), University of Montpellier, 2Institut Universitaire de France, 3Department of Cognitive Psychology, University of Finance and Management in Warsaw, 4International Laboratory for Brain, Music, and Sound Research (BRAMS)
Behavioral tasks that allow for the assessment of perceptual and sensorimotor timing abilities in the general population (i.e., non-musicians) are presented. Synchronization of finger tapping to the beat of an auditory stimuli and detecting rhythmic irregularities provides a means of uncovering rhythm disorders.
Published March 16, 2015. Keywords: Behavior, rhythm, timing, synchronization, disorders, beat deafness, perception and action
1Division of Systems Medical Science, Institute for Comprehensive Medical Science, Fujita Health University, 2Japan Science and Technology Agency, Core Research for Evolutionary Science and Technology (CREST), 3Center for Genetic Analysis of Behavior, National Institute for Physiological Sciences, National Institutes of Natural Sciences
This article presents a protocol for a contextual and cued fear conditioning test using a video analyzing system to assess fear learning and memory in mice.
Published March 1, 2014. Keywords: Behavior, Fear, Learning, Memory, ImageFZ program, Mouse, contextual fear, cued fear
1School of Psychology, University of Birmingham
Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) over the cerebellum exerts a remote effect on the prefrontal cortex, which can modulate cognition and performance. This was demonstrated using two information-processing tasks of varying complexity, whereby only cathodal tDCS improved performance when the task was difficult, but not easy.
Published February 15, 2015. Keywords: Behavior, Cognition, working memory, tDCS, cerebellum, brain stimulation, neuro-modulation, neuro-enhancement
1Biotactical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Industrial Science, Swinburne University of Technology, 2Department of Otolaryngology, The University of Melbourne
Infrared nerve stimulation has been proposed as an alternative to electrical stimulation in a range of nerve types, including those associated with the auditory system. This protocol describes a patch clamp method for studying the mechanism of infrared nerve stimulation in a culture of primary auditory neurons.
Published July 31, 2013. Keywords: Neuroscience, Biomedical Engineering, Neurobiology, Molecular Biology, Cellular Biology, Physiology, Primary Cell Culture, Biophysics, Electrophysiology, fiber optics, infrared neural stimulation, patch clamp, in vitro models, spiral ganglion neurons, neurons, patch clamp recordings, cell culture
1MRC Institute of Hearing Research, 2NIHR, National Biomedical Research Unit in Hearing
A test battery (IMAP) for performing an in-depth assessment of auditory and cognitive abilities contributing to listening skills is described. It is quick to administer, child-friendly and free from linguistic confounds. Stimulus generation and protocol management are controlled via a software platform (IHR-STAR) to ensure replicable procedures.
Published October 11, 2010. Keywords: Neuroscience, Listening skills, auditory processing, auditory psychophysics, clinical assessment, child-friendly testing
1Department of Psychology, Center for Studies in Behavioral Neurobiology, Concordia University
A procedure to study the capacity of an alcohol associated environmental context to trigger the renewal of alcohol-seeking behavior in rats is described.
Published September 19, 2014. Keywords: Behavior, Behavioral neuroscience, alcoholism, relapse, addiction, Pavlovian conditioning, ethanol, reinstatement, discrimination, conditioned approach
1Department of Experimental Psychology, University of Oxford
Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) has proven to be a useful tool in investigating the role of the articulatory motor cortex in speech perception. This article describes how to record motor evoked potentials (MEPs) from the lip muscles and how to disrupt the motor lip representation using repetitive TMS.
Published June 14, 2014. Keywords: Behavior, electromyography, motor cortex, motor evoked potential, motor excitability, speech, repetitive TMS, rTMS, virtual lesion, transcranial magnetic stimulation
1Cognitive Psychology Unit, Institute of Psychology, Trier University, 2Clinical Psychophysiology Unit, Institute of Psychobiology, Trier University
The distractor-response binding paradigm is described. It can be used to shed light on the influence irrelevant stimuli, competing with targets for a response, can have on human action. Both response retrieval effects and distractor inhibition effects can be analyzed within the paradigm.
Published May 14, 2014. Keywords: Behavior, stimulus-response binding, distractor-response binding, response retrieval, distractor inhibition, event file, action control, selection task
1Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, University of California, San Francisco
The described post-auricular surgical approach allows rapid and direct delivery into the mouse cochlear scala tympani while minimizing blood loss and animal mortality. This method can be used for cochlear therapy using molecular, pharmacologic and viral delivery to postnatal mice through the round window membrane.
Published March 16, 2015. Keywords: Neuroscience, Gene therapy, Transfection, Adeno-associated virus (AAV), Mouse, Cochlea, Inner hair cells (IHC), Vesicular glutamate transporter 3 (VGLUT3).
1Department of Psychiatry, University of Colorado School of Medicine, 2Colorado State University
Methods to record auditory P50 sensory gating, a physiological marker of cerebral inhibition which reflects early stages of attention, are described.
Published December 26, 2013. Keywords: Behavior, Child Development, Psychophysiology, Attention Deficit and Disruptive Behavior Disorders, Evoked Potentials, Auditory, auditory evoked potential, sensory gating, infant, attention, electrophysiology, infants, sensory gating, endophenotype, attention, P50
1Electrical and Computer Engineering, Michigan State University, 2Neuroscience Program, Michigan State University, 3Cognitive Science Program, Michigan State University
A fully automated protocol for rodent operant conditioning is proposed. The protocol relies on precise temporal control of behavioral events to investigate the extent to which this control influences neural activity underlying sensorimotor integration and cognitive control experiments.
Published April 15, 2014. Keywords: Behavior, operant conditioning, cognitive function, sensorimotor integration, decision making, Neurophysiology
1Department of Exercise Science, Elon University, 2Department of Physical Therapy Education, Elon University, 3Department of Physical Therapy, Duquesne University, 4Department of Sports Medicine, Elon University
There is great variability in an individual’s risk for concussion and their corresponding recovery. A multifaceted approach to concussion evaluation is warranted; including baseline testing of athletes before participation in sport and timely evaluation post injury. The goal of this protocol is to provide an appropriate multifaceted approach to examine concussions.
Published December 8, 2014. Keywords: Medicine, Concussions, Student-Athletes, Mild Traumatic Brain Injury, Genetics, Cognitive Function, Balance, Gait, Somatosensory
1Department of Physiology & Biophysics, University of Colorado Medical Campus
Iontophoresis of neural agonists and antagonists during extracellular in vivo recordings is a powerful way to manipulate a neuron’s microenvironment. These manipulations can most easily be done via piggy-back multibarrel electrodes. Here we describe how to manufacture them and use them during auditory recordings.
Published January 18, 2013. Keywords: Neuroscience, Biophysics, Physiology, Neurobiology, Medicine, Pharmacology, Mechanical Engineering, Electrical Engineering, Piggyback electrode, iontophoresis, iontophoresis pump, single cell recording, neural excitation, neural inhibition, in vivo electrophysiology
1Department of Biology, The City University of New York, City College, 2Department of Biomedical Engineering, The City University of New York, City College
A surgical method is described to expose the ventral skull in neonate rats. Using this approach it is possible to open a craniotomy to perform acute electrophysiology and two-photon microscopy experiments in the brainstem of anesthetized pups.
Published May 22, 2014. Keywords: Neuroscience, auditory system; blood brain barrier permeability; development; neurophysiology; two-photon microscopy, electrophysiology,
1W. M. Keck Center for Transgene Research, University of Notre Dame, 2Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Notre Dame, 3Notre Dame Integrated Imaging Facility, University of Notre Dame, 4Department of Biological Sciences, University of Notre Dame, 5Harper Cancer Research Institute, University of Notre Dame
Brain damage resulting from cerebral ischemia may be non-invasively imaged and studied in rats using pre-clinical positron emission tomography coupled with the injectable radioactive probe, 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose. Further, the use of modern software tools that include volume of interest (VOI) brain templates dramatically increase the quantitative information gleaned from these studies.
Published December 28, 2014. Keywords: Medicine, PET, Positron Emission Tomography, Stroke, Cerebral Ischemia, FDG, Brain template, brain atlas, VOI analysis
1Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Medical University of South Carolina, 2Department of Microbiology & Immunology, Medical University of South Carolina, 3National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders, National Institutes of Health
Mechanosensory hair cells are the receptor cells of the inner ear. The best-characterized in vitro model system of mature mammalian hair cells utilizes organ cultures of utricles from adult mice. We present the dissection of the adult mouse utricle, and we demonstrate adenovirus-mediated infection of supporting cells in cultured utricles.
Published March 28, 2012. Keywords: Neuroscience, Hair cell, ototoxicity, hearing loss, organ culture
1Department of Neuroscience, Johns Hopkins University, 2Garvan Institute of Medical Research, 3School of Biological Sciences, Washington State University, 4Department of Otolaryngology-HNS, Johns Hopkins University
Electrophysiological characterization of neuronal responses is important for understanding brain function and for guiding the placement of dyes for pathway tracing. However, many studies are performed in anesthetized animals. To understand brain function without anesthetics, we developed a method to record neuronal response properties and inject dyes in awake mouse.
Published June 26, 2012. Keywords: Neuroscience, Physiology, brain, auditory system, mouse, electrophysiology, recordings, dye injections, neuron labeling
1Functional and Applied Biomechanics Section, Rehabilitation Medicine Department, Clinical Center, National Institutes of Health
Monitoring brain activity during upright motor tasks is of great value when investigating the neural source of movement disorders. Here, we demonstrate a protocol that combines functional near infrared spectroscopy with continuous monitoring of muscle and kinematic activity during 4 types of motor tasks.
Published December 5, 2014. Keywords: Behavior, functional near infrared spectroscopy, fNIRS, brain activity, gait, motor tasks, cerebral palsy, coordination
1Biomedical Engineering, University of Michigan, 2Biomedical Engineering, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 3NeuroNexus Technologies
We provide useful information for surgeons who are learning the process of implanting chronic neural recording electrodes. Techniques for both penetrating and surface electrode systems are described in a rodent animal model.
Published February 24, 2012. Keywords: Neuroscience, chronic, silicon electrode, thin film surface electrode, microECoG, surgery, survival, electrophysiology
1Institute of Neuroscience, University of Oregon
Here we describe our strategy for obtaining stable, well-isolated single-unit recordings from identified inhibitory interneurons in the anesthetized mouse cortex. Neurons expressing ChR2 are identified by their response to blue light. The method uses standard extracellular recording equipment, and serves as an inexpensive alternative to calcium imaging or visually-guided patching.
Published November 7, 2014. Keywords: Neuroscience, Optogenetics, Channelrhodopsin, ChR2, cortex, in vivo recording, extracellular, Parvalbumin, interneuron, mouse, electrophysiology
1Graduate Department of Rehabilitation Science, University of Toronto, 2Occupational Science and Occupational Therapy, University of Toronto, 3Department of Psychology, University of Toronto, 4Bloorview Kids Rehab, 5Toronto Rehab, 6Cognitive Neurology, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, 7Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto
This article provides an overview of a multi-modal approach to mild traumatic brain injury diagnosis and recovery in youth. This approach combines neuropsychological testing with functional magnetic resonance imaging and the Head Impact Telemetry System to monitor the relationship between head impacts and brain activity during cognitive testing.
Published January 12, 2011. Keywords: Medicine, Mild traumatic brain injury, concussion, fMRI, youth, Head Impact Telemetry System
1Center for the Study of Children at Risk, Alpert Medical School, Brown University, 2Women & Infants Hospital of Rhode Island, 3University of Massachusetts, Boston
The NICU Network Neurobehavioral Scale (NNNS) was developed as an assessment for the at-risk infant. The purpose of this article is to describe the NNNS, provide video examples of the NNNS procedures and discuss the ways in which the exam has been used.
Published August 25, 2014. Keywords: Behavior, NICU Network Neurobehavioral Scale, NNNS, High risk infant, Assessment, Evaluation, Prediction, Long term outcome
1Faculty of Psychology, Department of Biopsychology, Ruhr-University Bochum
Learning new stimulus-response associations engages a wide range of neural processes which are ultimately reflected in changing spike output of individual neurons. Here we describe a behavioral protocol allowing for the continuous registration of single-neuron activity while animals acquire, extinguish, and reacquire a conditioned response within a single experimental session.
Published June 2, 2014. Keywords: Neuroscience, pigeon, single unit recording, learning, memory, extinction, spike sorting, operant conditioning, reward, electrophysiology, animal cognition, model species
1Center for Visual and Neurocognitive Rehabilitation, Atlanta VAMC, Department of Medicine, Division of General Medicine and Geriatrics, Emory University School of Medicine, 2Harvard Neurology Residency Program, Brigham and Woman‘s Hospital and Massachusetts General Hospital
Adapted tango has demonstrated efficacy for improving mobility and balance. We describe the dissemination of adapted tango teaching methods to dance instructor trainees and the implementation of adapted tango by the trainees in the community for improving mobility and balance in older adults and individuals with Parkinson’s disease.
Published December 9, 2014. Keywords: Behavior, Dance, tango, balance, pedagogy, dissemination, exercise, older adults, Parkinson's Disease, mobility impairments, falls
1Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery., The Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, 2Instituto de Investigaciones en Ingeniería Genética y Biología Molecular, Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas
Whole-cell patch-clamp recordings from auditory nerve fiber dendrites at the inner hair cell ribbon synapse in the mammalian cochlea.
Published February 10, 2011. Keywords: Neuroscience, electrophysiology, whole-cell recording, patch clamp, synaptic transmission, ribbon synapse, multivesicular, dendrite, auditory nerve, hearing, hair cell.
1Cognitive, Perceptual & Brain Sciences, University College London
Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is a technique for non-invasively disrupting neural information processing and measuring its effect on behavior. When TMS interferes with a task, it indicates that the stimulated brain region is necessary for normal task performance, allowing one to systematically relate brain regions to cognitive functions.
Published July 18, 2014. Keywords: Behavior, Transcranial magnetic stimulation, virtual lesion, chronometric, cognition, brain, behavior
1Department of Clinical Psychology, University of Amsterdam
Disrupting reconsolidation is a promising approach to dampen the behavioral expression of fear memory in patients with anxiety disorders or posttraumatic stress disorder. In a series of human fear conditioning studies we showed that disrupting reconsolidation by the noradrenergic β-blocker propranolol is very effective in erasing conditioned fear responding.
Published December 18, 2014. Keywords: Behavior, Fear memory, reconsolidation, noradrenergic β-blocker, human fear conditioning, startle potentiation, translational research.
1Department of Human Perception, Cognition and Action, Max Planck Institute for Biological Cybernetics, 2Laboratoire de Physiologie de la Perception et de l'Action, Collège de France - CNRS, 3Department of Brain and Cognitive Engineering, Korea University
An efficient way to gain insight into how humans navigate themselves in three dimensions is described. The method takes advantage of a motion simulator capable of moving observers in ways unattainable by traditional simulators. Results confirm that movement in the horizontal plane is underestimated, while vertical movement is overestimated.
Published May 10, 2012. Keywords: Neuroscience, Motion simulator, multisensory integration, path integration, space perception, vestibular, vision, robotics, cybernetics
1Anatomy and Cell Biology, Schulich School of Medicine and Dentistry, University of Western Ontario
Habituation and prepulse inhibition of startle are operational measures of sensory gating. Sensory gating is disrupted in schizophrenia, and some other mental disorders and neurodegenerative diseases. We here describe a standard protocol to assess short-term and long-term habituation as well as prepulse inhibition of acoustic startle responses in rats and mice.
Published September 1, 2011. Keywords: Neuroscience, Startle responses, rat, mouse, sensory gating, sensory filtering, short-term habituation, long-term habituation, prepulse inhibition
1Division of Neurotoxicology, National Center for Toxicological Research, 2Division of Personalized Nutrition and Medicine, National Center for Toxicological Research, 3Office of Planning, Finance, and Information Technology, National Center for Toxicological Research
This video presentation shows a method of harvesting the two most important highly vascular structures that support forebrain function. They are the cerebral surface (superficial) vasculature along with associated meninges (MAV) and the choroid plexus which are necessary for cerebral blood flow and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) homeostasis.
Published November 14, 2012. Keywords: Neuroscience, Medicine, Anatomy, Physiology, Toxicology, brain, dissection, choroid plexus, meninges and associated vasculature
1School of Psychological Sciences, Tel-Aviv University, 2Sagol School of Neuroscience, Tel-Aviv University
This paper describes a method for collecting and analyzing electroencephalography (EEG) data during concurrent transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) guided by activations revealed with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). A method for TMS artifact removal and extraction of event related potentials is described as well as considerations in paradigm design and experimental setup.
Published May 12, 2014. Keywords: Neuroscience, Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation, Neuroimaging, Neuronavigation, Visual Perception, Evoked Potentials, Electroencephalography, Event-related potential, fMRI, Combined Neuroimaging Methods, Face perception, Body Perception
1Brain and Cognition, University of Amsterdam
Reading in color is a new method for training letter-color associations that are typically found only in grapheme-color synesthetes. It involves an implicit form of training that has potential for long-term associative training methods because the training is a byproduct of reading and any text can be colored.
Published February 20, 2014. Keywords: Behavior, synesthesia, training, learning, reading, vision, memory, cognition
1Department of Molecular Physiology and Biophysics, Center for Molecular Neuroscience, Kennedy Center for Human Development, Vanderbilt University Medical Center
In this protocol we describe a method of operant learning using sensory stimuli as a reinforcer in the mouse. It requires no prior training or food restriction, and it allows the study of motivated behavior without the use of a pharmacological or natural reinforcer such as food.
Published November 10, 2010. Keywords: Neuroscience, novelty seeking, self-administration, addiction, motivation, reinforcement
1Oregon Hearing Research Center, Oregon Health & Science University
The mouse inner ear is a placode-derived sensory organ whose developmental program is elaborated during gestation. We define an in utero gene transfer technique consisting of three steps: mouse ventral laparotomy, transuterine microinjection, and in vivo electroporation. We use digital video microscopy to demonstrate the critical experimental embryological techniques.
Published June 30, 2012. Keywords: Neuroscience, Developmental Biology, Physiology, Genetics, Inner ear, otocyst, in vivo electroporation, ventral laparotomy, transuterine microinjection, video microscopy
1Laboratory for Visual Neuroplasticity, Department of Ophthalmology, Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary, Harvard Medical School, 2Department of Computer Science and Center for Advanced Research in Education (CARE), University of Chile
Audio-based Environment Simulator (AbES) is virtual environment software designed to improve real world navigation skills in the blind.
Published March 27, 2013. Keywords: Medicine, Behavior, Neuroscience, Anatomy, Physiology, Neurobiology, Ophthalmology, Psychology, Behavior and Behavior Mechanisms, Technology, Industry, virtual environments, action video games, blind, audio, rehabilitation, indoor navigation, spatial cognitive map, Audio-based Environment Simulator, virtual reality, cognitive psychology, clinical techniques
1Department of Brain and Cognitive Sciences, University of Rochester, 2Center for Visual Science, University of Rochester
This protocol involves a non-radioactive in-situ hybridization procedure that enables the simultaneous identification of two transcript species, at a single cell resolution, in thin sections of the vertebrate brain.
Published August 14, 2010. Keywords: Neuroscience, Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), double FISH (dFISH), digoxigenin, biotin, non-radioactive riboprobes, vertebrate brain
1Department of Biology, Washington University in St. Louis, 2Division of Biological Science, Graduate School of Science, Nagoya University, 3Department of Psychiatry, Washington University in St. Louis
Retrograde transport of fluorescent dye labels a sub-population of neurons based on anatomical projection. Labeled axons can be visually targeted in vivo, permitting extracellular recording from identified axons. This technique facilitates recording when neurons cannot be labeled through genetic manipulation or are difficult to isolate using 'blind' in vivo approaches.
Published June 26, 2013. Keywords: Neuroscience, Neurobiology, Physiology, Cellular Biology, Molecular Biology, Fluorescent imaging, weakly electric fish, sensory processing, tract-tracing, electrophysiology, neuron, individual axons, labeling, injection, surgery, recording, mormyrids, animal model
1Department of Psychology, Rhode Island College, 2Department of Biology, Rhode Island College
The eight-arm radial water maze is designed to evaluate reference and working memory performance simultaneously by requiring subjects to use extra-maze cues to locate escape platforms and remedies the limitations observed in land based radial arm maze designs.
Published December 4, 2013. Keywords: Behavior, working memory, reference memory, hypoxia-ischemia, radial arm maze, water maze
1Department of Psychiatry, University of Washington, 2Department of Educational Psychology, University of Washington
Assessment of the EEG mu rhythm provides a unique methodology for examining brain activity and when combined with behaviorally based assays, can be a powerful tool for elucidating aspects of social cognition, such as imitation, in clinical populations.
Published April 9, 2014. Keywords: Medicine, Electroencephalography (EEG), mu rhythm, imitation, autism spectrum disorder, social cognition, mirror neuron system