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Decompression, Surgical: A surgical operation for the relief of pressure in a body compartment or on a body part. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
 Science Education: Inactive Collection

Tube Thoracostomy

JoVE Science Education

Source: Rachel Liu, BAO, MBBCh, Emergency Medicine, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut, USA

Tube thoracostomy (chest tube placement) is a procedure during which a hollow tube is inserted into the thoracic cavity for drainage of fluid or air. Emergency chest tube insertion is performed for definitive treatment of tension pneumothoraces, traumatic hemothoraces, large volume pleural effusions and empyemas. Irrespective of the cause of air and fluid accumulation in the pleural space, the drainage relieves lung compression and enables lung re-expansion. In pneumothoraces, air accumulation in the pleural cavity separates pleural layers, which prevents lung expansion during the respiration. Abnormal fluid accumulation, such as in case of hemothorax or empyema, causes separation of the visceral pleura that adheres to lung tissue from the parietal pleura that forms the lining of the chest cavity. The uncoupling of the pleural layers leads to disconnection of chest wall movement from the lung movement causing respiratory distress. In addition, an excessive pressure from overwhelming amounts of air or fluid in the pleura may push the mediastinum away from the central chest, causing inability of blood to return to the heart. In the trauma setting, a chest t

 Science Education: Inactive Collection

Emergent Lateral Canthotomy and Inferior Catholysis

JoVE Science Education

Source: James W Bonz, MD, Emergency Medicine, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut, USA

Lateral canthotomy is a potentially eyesight saving procedure when performed emergently for an orbital compartment syndrome. An orbital compartment syndrome results from a buildup of pressure behind the eye; as pressure mounts both the optic nerve and its vascular supply are compressed, rapidly leading to nerve damage and blindness if the pressure is not quickly relieved. The medial and lateral canthal tendons hold the eyelids firmly in place forming an anatomical compartment with limited space for the globe. In an orbital compartment syndrome pressure rapidly increases as the globe is forced against the eyelids. Lateral canthotomy is the procedure by which the lateral canthal tendon is severed, thereby releasing the globe from its fixed position. Often, severing of the lateral canthal tendon alone is not enough to release the globe and the inferior portion (inferior crus) of the lateral canthal tendon also needs to be severed (inferior cantholysis). This increases precious space behind the eye by allowing the globe to become more proptotic and resulting in decompression. Most frequently, orbital compartment syndrome is the result of acute facial trauma with the subsequent development of a retrobulba

 JoVE Neuroscience

Kinematics and Ground Reaction Force Determination: A Demonstration Quantifying Locomotor Abilities of Young Adult, Middle-aged, and Geriatric Rats

1CullenWebb Animal Neurology & Ophthalmology Center, Riverview, NB, 2Department of Clinical Neurosciences, Faculty of Medicine, University of Calgary, 3Department of Comparative Biology and Experimental Medicine, University of Calgary, 4Department of Neuroscience, University of Calgary


JoVE 2138

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 Science Education: Inactive Collection

Needle Thoracostomy

JoVE Science Education

Source: Rachel Liu, BAO, MBBCh, Emergency Medicine, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut, USA

A tension pneumothorax is a life-threatening situation in which excess air is introduced into the pleural space surrounding the lung, either through trauma to the chest cavity or as a spontaneous leak of air from the lung itself. Air trapped within the pleural space causes separation of the lung from the chest wall, disrupting normal breathing mechanisms. Pneumothoraces may be small without conversion to tension, but when there is a significant and expanding amount of air trapped in the pleural cavity, the increasing pressure from this abnormal air causes the lung to shrink and collapse, leading to respiratory distress. This pressure also pushes the mediastinum (including the heart and great vessels) away from its central position, causing inability of blood to return to the heart and diminishing the cardiac output. Tension pneumothoraces cause chest pain, extreme shortness of breath, respiratory failure, hypoxia, tachycardia and hypotension. They need to be relieved emergently when a patient is in extremis. Tension pneumothoraces are definitively managed by insertion of a chest tube or other procedures that allow removal of trapped air. However, materials for chest tube placement are typically

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 Science Education: Essentials of Earth Science

Igneous Intrusive Rock

JoVE Science Education

Source: Laboratory of Alan Lester - University of Colorado Boulder

Igneous rocks are products of the cooling and crystallization of high temperature liquid rock, called magma. Magmatic temperatures typically range from approximately 800 °C to 1,200 °C. Molten rock is, perhaps luckily for humans, an anomaly on planet Earth. If a random and imaginary drill hole were made in the Earth, it would most likely not reach a region of truly and totally molten material until the outer core, at nearly 2,900 km beneath the surface (Earth's radius is 6,370 km). Even there, this molten material would predominantly consist of liquid iron, not true silicate rock, and be incapable of ever reaching Earth's surface. Volcanic eruptions and igneous rocks do occur though, and they are evidence that there are indeed isolated regions of melting and magma generation within the Earth.

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 Science Education: Essentials of Earth Science

Igneous Volcanic Rock

JoVE Science Education

Source: Laboratory of Alan Lester - University of Colorado Boulder

Igneous rocks are the products of cooling and crystallization of magma. Volcanic rocks are a particular variety of igneous rock, forming as a consequence of magma breaching the surface, then cooling and crystallizing in the subaerial environment. 

Magma is liquid rock that typically ranges in temperature from approximately 800 °C to 1,200 °C (Figure 1). Magma itself is produced within the Earth via three primary melting mechanisms, namely the addition of heat, addition of volatiles, and decompression. Each mode of melt generation tends to produce specific types of magma and, therefore, distinct eruptive styles and structures. Figure 1. Fresh lava breakout on Kilauea, Hawaii. Lava is the term for magma that is on Earth’s surface.

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 Science Education: Essentials of Lab Animal Research

Considerations for Rodent Surgery

JoVE Science Education

Source: Kay Stewart, RVT, RLATG, CMAR; Valerie A. Schroeder, RVT, RLATG. University of Notre Dame, IN

The Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals1 dictates that rodent survival surgery be performed aseptically. Aseptic technique utilizes specific practices that minimize the contamination of the surgical site, including patient preparation, surgeon preparation, sterilization of instruments and other supplies, and the use of a clean and controlled environment. Presurgical planning, intraoperative monitoring, and postoperative care are essential for successful recovery of animals from survival surgeries.

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 JoVE Medicine

Surgical Fixation of Sternal Fractures: Preoperative Planning and a Safe Surgical Technique Using Locked Titanium Plates and Depth Limited Drilling

1Orthopedic and Trauma Surgery, University Hospital Erlangen, 2Pediatric Surgery, University Hospital Erlangen, 3Orthopedic and Trauma Surgery, St.-Theresien Hospital, 4Institute of Anatomy I, University Erlangen-Nuremberg


JoVE 52124

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 JoVE Medicine

Renal Capsule Xenografting and Subcutaneous Pellet Implantation for the Evaluation of Prostate Carcinogenesis and Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia

1Department of Urology, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 2Medical Scientist (MD/PhD) Training Program, University of Rochester School of Medicine & Dentistry, 3Molecular and Environmental Toxicology Center, University of Wisconsin-Madison


JoVE 50574

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 JoVE Immunology and Infection

Long Term Intravital Multiphoton Microscopy Imaging of Immune Cells in Healthy and Diseased Liver Using CXCR6.Gfp Reporter Mice

1Department of Medicine III, RWTH University-Hospital Aachen, 2IZKF Aachen Core Facility "Two-Photon Imaging", RWTH University-Hospital Aachen, 3Institute for Laboratory Animal Science & Experimental Surgery, RWTH Aachen University, 4Institute for Pharmacology, RWTH University-Hospital Aachen


JoVE 52607

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 JoVE Medicine

A Mouse Tumor Model of Surgical Stress to Explore the Mechanisms of Postoperative Immunosuppression and Evaluate Novel Perioperative Immunotherapies

1Centre for Innovative Cancer Research, Ottawa Hospital Research Institute, 2Department of Cellular and Molecular Medicine, University of Ottawa, 3Department of Biochemistry, Microbiology and Immunology, University of Ottawa, 4Department of Neurosurgery, The Second Hospital of Shandong University, 5Department of Medical Laboratory Technology, University of Tabuk, 6Department of Surgery, Ottawa General Hospital


JoVE 51253

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 Science Education: Essentials of Lab Animal Research

Anesthesia Induction and Maintenance

JoVE Science Education

Source: Kay Stewart, RVT, RLATG, CMAR; Valerie A. Schroeder, RVT, RLATG. University of Notre Dame, IN

The Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals ("The Guide") states that pain assessment and alleviation are integral components of the veterinary care of laboratory animals.1 The definition of anesthesia is the loss of feeling or sensation. It is a dynamic event involving changes in anesthetic depth with respect to an animal's metabolism, surgical stimulation, or variations in the external environment.

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 JoVE Medicine

Heterotopic Renal Autotransplantation in a Porcine Model: A Step-by-Step Protocol

1Multi Organ Transplant Program, Department of Surgery, Toronto General Hospital, 2Division of Nephrology, The Hospital for Sick Children, 3Programa de Doctorat en Medicina, La Universitat Autónoma de Barcelona, 4Laboratory Medicine and Pathobiology, Toronto General Hospital, 5Department of Medicine, Toronto General Hospital, 6Departments of Surgery (Urology) & Physiology, Developmental & Stem Cell Biology, The Hospital for Sick Children


JoVE 53765

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 JoVE Neuroscience

Efficient Gene Delivery into Multiple CNS Territories Using In Utero Electroporation

1Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Hotchkiss Brain Institute, Alberta Children’s Hospital Research Institute, University of Calgary, 2Department of Medical Genetics, Alberta Children’s Hospital Research Institute, Hotchkiss Brain Institute, University of Calgary


JoVE 2957

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