1Fischell Department of Bioengineering, University of Maryland, 2Institute for Bioscience and Biotechnology Research, University of Maryland
Many therapeutic applications require safe and efficient transport of drug carriers and their cargoes across cellular barriers in the body. This article describes an adaptation of established methods to evaluate the rate and mechanism of transport of drug nanocarriers (NCs) across cellular barriers, such as the gastrointestinal (GI) epithelium.
Published October 17, 2013. Keywords: Bioengineering, Antigens, Enzymes, Biological Therapy, bioengineering (general), Pharmaceutical Preparations, Macromolecular Substances, Therapeutics, Digestive System and Oral Physiological Phenomena, Biological Phenomena, Cell Physiological Phenomena, drug delivery systems, targeted nanocarriers, transcellular transport, epithelial cells, tight junctions, transepithelial electrical resistance, endocytosis, transcytosis, radioisotope tracing, immunostaining
1Department of Neurological Surgery, University of California, San Francisco - UCSF
Thorough preclinical testing of drugs that act in the central nervous system often involves assessing and comparing drug biodistribution in association with specific routes of administration. Here, three commonly used methods of systemic delivery (intravenous, intraperitoneal, and oral) as well as a method for local delivery (convection-enhanced delivery) are demonstrated in mice.
Published August 16, 2010. Keywords: Neuroscience, mouse, in vivo optical imaging, preclinical, central nervous system, fluorescent imaging, convection-enhanced delivery, oral gavage, intravenous injection, intraperitoneal injection
1Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Virginia, 2Neurological Surgery , University of Virginia
Insonation of microbubbles is a promising strategy for tumor ablation at reduced time-averaged acoustic powers, as well as for the targeted delivery of therapeutics. The purpose of the present study is to develop low duty cycle ultrasound pulsing strategies and nanocarriers to maximize non-thermal microvascular ablation and payload delivery to subcutaneous C6 gliomas.
Published December 15, 2010. Keywords: Medicine, microbubbles, targeted drug delivery, nanoparticles, ultrasound
JoVE Clinical and Translational Medicine
1The Texas Heart Institute at St. Luke's Episcopal Hospital, 2Department of Vascular Surgery, The Ninth People's Hospital, School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiao Tong University
We show here the in vivo insertion of an osmotic pump for constant local drug delivery and the creation of hindlimb ischemia in a mouse model. Moreover, the hindlimb vasculature is perfused with Microfil, a silicone radiopaque agent, to prepare for micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) imaging.
Published June 29, 2013. Keywords: Medicine, Immunology, Biomedical Engineering, Bioengineering, Molecular Biology, Cellular Biology, Pharmacology, Cardiovascular Diseases, Therapeutics, Hindlimb ischemia, ischemia, osmotic pump, drug delivery, Microfil, micro-computed tomography, 3D vessel imaging, vascular medicine, vasculature, CT, tomography, imaging, animal model
1Vascular Biology Program, Department of Surgery, Boston Children's Hospital and Harvard Medical School, 2Wyss Institute for Biologically Inspired Engineering, Harvard University, 3Harvard School of Engineering and Applied Sciences
A protocol for the non-invasive intraductal delivery of aqueous reagents to the mouse mammary gland is described. The method takes advantage of localized injection into the nipples of mammary glands targeting mammary ducts specifically. This technique is adaptable for a variety of compounds including siRNA, chemotherapeutic agents and small molecules.
Published October 4, 2013. Keywords: Developmental Biology, Mammary Glands, Animal, Drug Administration Routes, intraductal injection, local drug delivery, siRNA
JoVE Clinical and Translational Medicine
1Alzheimer’s Research Center at Region’s Hospital, HealthPartners Institute for Education and Research
A method to intranasally administer drugs to awake mice for the purpose of targeting the brain is described. This method allows for repeat dosing over long periods using intranasal administration of drug without anesthesia, and nose-to-brain delivery with minimal systemic exposure.
Published April 8, 2013. Keywords: Medicine, Biomedical Engineering, Neuroscience, Anatomy, Physiology, Bioengineering, Neurobiology, Pharmacology, Intranasal, nasal, awake, mice, drug delivery, brain targeting, CNS, mouse acclimation, animal model, therapeutics, clinical techniques
1Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Rochester, 2Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Rochester, 3Center for Musculoskeletal Research, University of Rochester Medical Center
This video will illustrate a rapid, efficient method to methacrylate poly(ethylene glycol), enabling chain polymerizations and hydrogel synthesis. It will demonstrate how to similarly introduce methacrylamide functionalities into peptides, detail common analytical methods to assess functionalization efficiency, provide suggestions for troubleshooting and advanced modifications, and demonstrate typical hydrogel characterization techniques.
Published October 29, 2013. Keywords: Chemistry, Poly(ethylene glycol), peptides, polymerization, polymers, methacrylation, peptide functionalization, 1H-NMR, MALDI-ToF, hydrogels, macromer synthesis
JoVE Immunology and Infection
1Department of Biomedical Engineering, Vanderbilt University, 2Vanderbilt Institute for Nanoscale Science & Engineering, Vanderbilt University, 3Interdisciplinary Materials Science Program, Vanderbilt University, 4Monroe Carell Jr. Children's Hospital, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, 5Department of Chemical & Biomolecular Engineering, Vanderbilt University, 6Department of Cancer Biology, Vanderbilt University
A hemolysis assay can be used as a rapid, high-throughput screen of drug delivery systems' cytocompatibility and endosomolytic activity for intracellular cargo delivery. The assay measures the disruption of erythrocyte membranes as a function of environmental pH.
Published March 9, 2013. Keywords: Immunology, Cellular Biology, Medicine, Biomedical Engineering, Bioengineering, Cancer Biology, Molecular Biology, Erythrocytes, Endosomes, Small Interfering RNA, Gene Therapy, Nanomedicine, Gene delivery, Nanoparticles, Endosome Escape, Intracellular Trafficking, Cytosolic Drug Delivery, red blood cells, assay
1Barrow Brain Tumor Research Center, Barrow Neurological Institute
We describe the production and characterization of nanoparticles and microparticles composed of poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) using vitamin E-TPGS as an emulsifier. By varying formulation parameters such as the concentration of emulsifier, it is possible to produce nanoparticles with mean diameters ranging from 220 nm to 1.98 µm.
Published December 27, 2013. Keywords: Chemistry, Nanoparticles, Microparticles, PLGA, TPGS, drug delivery, scanning electron microscopy, emulsion, polymers
1Psychology, University of Toronto Scarborough
Animal models of relapse, known as reinstatement procedures, have been used extensively to study the role of stress in relapse to drug seeking. Here, we report on a method for inducing the reinstatement of cocaine seeking in laboratory rats via acute exposures to mild, intermittent electric footshock.
Published January 6, 2011. Keywords: Neuroscience, Relapse, Reinstatement, Cocaine, Rat, Footshock, Stress, Intravenous, Self-administration, Operant Conditioning