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JoVE Science Education

General Laboratory Techniques

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Basic Methods in Cellular and Molecular Biology

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Essentials of Biology 1

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 JoVE Bioengineering

Models and Methods to Evaluate Transport of Drug Delivery Systems Across Cellular Barriers

1Fischell Department of Bioengineering, University of Maryland, 2Institute for Bioscience and Biotechnology Research, University of Maryland


JoVE 50638

Many therapeutic applications require safe and efficient transport of drug carriers and their cargoes across cellular barriers in the body. This article describes an adaptation of established methods to evaluate the rate and mechanism of transport of drug nanocarriers (NCs) across cellular barriers, such as the gastrointestinal (GI) epithelium.

 JoVE Medicine

Slow-release Drug Delivery through Elvax 40W to the Rat Retina: Implications for the Treatment of Chronic Conditions

1Biotechnology and Applied Clinical Sciences Department, University of L'Aquila, 2ARC Centre of Excellence in Vision Science, 3John Curtin School of Medical Research, Australian National University, 4ANU Medical School, Australian National University


JoVE 51563

This paper details how Elvax 40W can be used as a slow-release method for drug delivery to the adult rat retina. The protocol for preparing, loading, and delivering the drug-resin complex to the eye is described.

 JoVE Medicine

Heterotopic Mucosal Engrafting Procedure for Direct Drug Delivery to the Brain in Mice

1Department of Biomedical Engineering, Boston University, 2Department of Otology and Laryngology, Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary, Harvard Medical School


JoVE 51452

A mouse model of human endoscopic skull base reconstruction has been developed that creates a semipermeable interface between the brain and nose using nasal mucosal grafts. This method allows researchers to study delivery to the central nervous system of high molecular weight therapeutics which are otherwise excluded by the blood-brain barrier when administered systemically.

 JoVE Medicine

Murine Model of Femoral Artery Wire Injury with Implantation of a Perivascular Drug Delivery Patch

1Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Texas at Austin


JoVE 52403

We describe a surgical technique that produces wire injury in the femoral artery of mice to induce neointimal hyperplasia to serve as a model testing system for the perivascular delivery of therapeutic compounds for the inhibition of restenosis.

 JoVE Neuroscience

Systemic and Local Drug Delivery for Treating Diseases of the Central Nervous System in Rodent Models

1Department of Neurological Surgery, University of California, San Francisco - UCSF


JoVE 1992

Thorough preclinical testing of drugs that act in the central nervous system often involves assessing and comparing drug biodistribution in association with specific routes of administration. Here, three commonly used methods of systemic delivery (intravenous, intraperitoneal, and oral) as well as a method for local delivery (convection-enhanced delivery) are demonstrated in mice.

 JoVE Medicine

Osmotic Drug Delivery to Ischemic Hindlimbs and Perfusion of Vasculature with Microfil for Micro-Computed Tomography Imaging

1The Texas Heart Institute at St. Luke's Episcopal Hospital, 2Department of Vascular Surgery, The Ninth People's Hospital, School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiao Tong University


JoVE 50364

We show here the in vivo insertion of an osmotic pump for constant local drug delivery and the creation of hindlimb ischemia in a mouse model. Moreover, the hindlimb vasculature is perfused with Microfil, a silicone radiopaque agent, to prepare for micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) imaging.

 JoVE Biology

Intraductal Injection for Localized Drug Delivery to the Mouse Mammary Gland

1Vascular Biology Program, Department of Surgery, Boston Children's Hospital and Harvard Medical School, 2Wyss Institute for Biologically Inspired Engineering, Harvard University, 3Harvard School of Engineering and Applied Sciences


JoVE 50692

A protocol for the non-invasive intraductal delivery of aqueous reagents to the mouse mammary gland is described. The method takes advantage of localized injection into the nipples of mammary glands targeting mammary ducts specifically. This technique is adaptable for a variety of compounds including siRNA, chemotherapeutic agents and small molecules.

 JoVE Immunology and Infection

The Mesenteric Lymph Duct Cannulated Rat Model: Application to the Assessment of Intestinal Lymphatic Drug Transport

1Drug Delivery, Disposition, and Dynamics, Monash Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Monash University (Parkville Campus)


JoVE 52389

Here we describe a technique to cannulate the mesenteric lymph duct in rats which enables quantification of lipid and drug transport via the lymphatic system following intestinal delivery. The technique can be adapted to assess mesenteric lymph concentrations and/or transport of fluid, immune cells, peptides, proteins and lipophilic molecules.

 JoVE Chemistry

Polymalic Acid-based Nano Biopolymers for Targeting of Multiple Tumor Markers: An Opportunity for Personalized Medicine?

1Nanomedicine Research Center, Department of Neurosurgery, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center


JoVE 50668

An example of a nano drug based on polymalic acid is presented towards the rational design of personalized medicine that is applicable to cancer. It describes the synthesis of a nano drug to treat Her2-positive human breast cancer in a nude mouse.

 JoVE Bioengineering

Porous Silicon Microparticles for Delivery of siRNA Therapeutics

1Department of Nanomedicine, Houston Methodist Research Institute, 2MOE Key Laboratory of Bioinorganic and Synthetic Chemistry, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Sun Yat-sen University, 3Pediatrics Department of Union Hospital, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, 4CAS Key Laboratory for Biomedical Effects of Nanomaterials & Nanosafety, National Center for Nanoscience & Technology of China, 5Department of Medicine, Weill Cornell Medical College, 6Department of Cell and Developmental Biology, Weill Cornell Medical College


JoVE 52075

Delivery remains the main challenge for the therapeutic implementation of small interfering RNA (siRNA). This protocol involves the use of a multifunctional and biocompatible siRNA delivery platform, consisting of arginine and polyethylenimine grafted porous silicon microparticles.

 JoVE Medicine

Setting-up an In Vitro Model of Rat Blood-brain Barrier (BBB): A Focus on BBB Impermeability and Receptor-mediated Transport

1VECT-HORUS SAS, 2Aix-Marseille Université, CNRS, NICN UMR 7259


JoVE 51278

The aim of the present study was to validate the reproducibility of an in vitro BBB model involving a rat syngeneic co-culture of endothelial cells and astrocytes. The endothelial cell monolayer presented high TEER and low LY permeability. Expression of specific TJ proteins, functional responses to inflammation and functionality of transporters and receptors were assessed.

 JoVE Medicine

Intranasal Administration of CNS Therapeutics to Awake Mice

1Alzheimer’s Research Center at Region’s Hospital, HealthPartners Institute for Education and Research


JoVE 4440

A method to intranasally administer drugs to awake mice for the purpose of targeting the brain is described. This method allows for repeat dosing over long periods using intranasal administration of drug without anesthesia, and nose-to-brain delivery with minimal systemic exposure.

 JoVE Chemistry

Microwave-assisted Functionalization of Poly(ethylene glycol) and On-resin Peptides for Use in Chain Polymerizations and Hydrogel Formation

1Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Rochester, 2Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Rochester, 3Center for Musculoskeletal Research, University of Rochester Medical Center


JoVE 50890

This video will illustrate a rapid, efficient method to methacrylate poly(ethylene glycol), enabling chain polymerizations and hydrogel synthesis. It will demonstrate how to similarly introduce methacrylamide functionalities into peptides, detail common analytical methods to assess functionalization efficiency, provide suggestions for troubleshooting and advanced modifications, and demonstrate typical hydrogel characterization techniques.

 JoVE Immunology and Infection

Ex Vivo Red Blood Cell Hemolysis Assay for the Evaluation of pH-responsive Endosomolytic Agents for Cytosolic Delivery of Biomacromolecular Drugs

1Department of Biomedical Engineering, Vanderbilt University, 2Vanderbilt Institute for Nanoscale Science & Engineering, Vanderbilt University, 3Interdisciplinary Materials Science Program, Vanderbilt University, 4Monroe Carell Jr. Children's Hospital, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, 5Department of Chemical & Biomolecular Engineering, Vanderbilt University, 6Department of Cancer Biology, Vanderbilt University


JoVE 50166

A hemolysis assay can be used as a rapid, high-throughput screen of drug delivery systems' cytocompatibility and endosomolytic activity for intracellular cargo delivery. The assay measures the disruption of erythrocyte membranes as a function of environmental pH.

 JoVE Bioengineering

PLGA Nanoparticles Formed by Single- or Double-emulsion with Vitamin E-TPGS

1Barrow Brain Tumor Research Center, Barrow Neurological Institute


JoVE 51015

We describe the production and characterization of nanoparticles and microparticles composed of poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) using vitamin E-TPGS as an emulsifier. By varying formulation parameters such as the concentration of emulsifier, it is possible to produce nanoparticles with mean diameters ranging from 220 nm to 1.98 µm.

 JoVE Medicine

Image-guided Convection-enhanced Delivery into Agarose Gel Models of the Brain

1University of Tennessee Health Science Center, 2Semmes-Murphey Clinic, 3University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, 4Restorative Neurosciences Foundation


JoVE 51466

Convection-enhanced delivery (CED) has been proposed as a treatment option for a wide range of neurological diseases. In order to prepare health care professionals for adoption of CED, accessible training models are needed. We describe the use of agarose gel as such a model of the human brain for testing, research, and training.

 JoVE Bioengineering

Cell Squeezing as a Robust, Microfluidic Intracellular Delivery Platform

1Department of Chemical Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 2David H. Koch Institute for Integrative Cancer Research, Massachusetts Institute of Technology


JoVE 50980

Rapid mechanical deformation of cells has emerged as a promising, vector-free method for intracellular delivery of macromolecules and nanomaterials. This protocol provides detailed steps on how to use the system for a broad range of applications.

 JoVE Behavior

A Procedure to Observe Context-induced Renewal of Pavlovian-conditioned Alcohol-seeking Behavior in Rats

1Department of Psychology, Center for Studies in Behavioral Neurobiology, Concordia University


JoVE 51898

A procedure to study the capacity of an alcohol associated environmental context to trigger the renewal of alcohol-seeking behavior in rats is described.

 JoVE Neuroscience

A Procedure for Studying the Footshock-Induced Reinstatement of Cocaine Seeking in Laboratory Rats

1Psychology, University of Toronto Scarborough


JoVE 2265

Animal models of relapse, known as reinstatement procedures, have been used extensively to study the role of stress in relapse to drug seeking. Here, we report on a method for inducing the reinstatement of cocaine seeking in laboratory rats via acute exposures to mild, intermittent electric footshock.

 JoVE Bioengineering

Fluorescence-quenching of a Liposomal-encapsulated Near-infrared Fluorophore as a Tool for In Vivo Optical Imaging

1Experimental Radiology, Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology I, Jena University Hospital, 2Department of Pharmaceutical Technology, Friedrich-Schiller-University Jena, 3Center for Electron Microscopy, Jena University Hospital


JoVE 52136

The use of fluorophores for in vivo imaging can be greatly limited by opsonization, rapid clearance, low detection sensitivity and cytotoxic effects on the host. Encapsulation of fluorophores in liposomes by film hydration and extrusion leads to fluorescence quenching and protection which enables in vivo imaging with high detection sensitivity.

 JoVE Medicine

Live Imaging of Drug Responses in the Tumor Microenvironment in Mouse Models of Breast Cancer

1Watson School of Biological Sciences, 2Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, 3Departments of Medical Genetics, University of Oslo and Oslo University Hospital


JoVE 50088

We describe a method for imaging response to anti-cancer treatment in vivo and at single cell resolution.

 JoVE Biology

Chitosan/Interfering RNA Nanoparticle Mediated Gene Silencing in Disease Vector Mosquito Larvae

1Division of Biology, Kansas State University, 2Department of Medical and Molecular Genetics, Indiana University School of Medicine, 3Eck Institute for Global Health, University of Notre Dame, 4Department of Biological Sciences, University of Notre Dame, 5Department of Entomology, Kansas State University


JoVE 52523

Here we describe a procedure for inhibiting gene function in disease vector mosquitoes through the use of chitosan/interfering RNA nanoparticles that are ingested by larvae.

 JoVE Bioengineering

Manufacture of Concentrated, Lipid-based Oxygen Microbubble Emulsions by High Shear Homogenization and Serial Concentration

1Department of Cardiology, Boston Children's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, 2Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care, Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, University of Pennsylvania


JoVE 51467

We describe methods for the manufacture of large volumes of lipid-based oxygen microbubbles (LOMs) designed for intravenous oxygen delivery using high-shear homogenization and serial concentration.

 JoVE Bioengineering

Designing Silk-silk Protein Alloy Materials for Biomedical Applications

1Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rowan University, 2Department of Biomedical and Translational Sciences, Rowan University, 3Department of Biomedical Sciences, Cooper Medical School of Rowan University, 4Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Rowan University


JoVE 50891

Blending is an efficient approach to generate biomaterials with a broad range of properties and combined features. By predicting the molecular interactions between different natural silk proteins, new silk-silk protein alloy platforms with tunable mechanical resiliency, electrical response, optical transparency, chemical processability, biodegradability, or thermal stability can be designed.

 JoVE Bioengineering

Self-reporting Scaffolds for 3-Dimensional Cell Culture

1School of Molecular Medical Sciences, University of Nottingham, 2Division of Drug Delivery and Tissue Engineering, University of Nottingham, 3Laboratory of Biophysics and Surface Analysis, University of Nottingham


JoVE 50608

Biocompatible pH responsive sol-gel nanosensors can be incorporated into poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) electrospun scaffolds. The produced self-reporting scaffolds can be used for in situ monitoring of microenvironmental conditions whilst culturing cells upon the scaffold. This is beneficial as the 3D cellular construct can be monitored in real-time without disturbing the experiment.

 JoVE Bioengineering

Methods Development for Blood Borne Macrophage Carriage of Nanoformulated Antiretroviral Drugs

1Department of Pharmacology and Experimental Neuroscience, University of Nebraska Medical Center


JoVE 2460

Nanoparticles of indinavir, ritonavir, efavirenz and atazanavir were manufactured using wet milling, homogenization and ultrasonication. These nanoformulations, collectively termed nanoformulated antiretroviral therapy (nanoART), assessed macrophage-based drug delivery. Monocyte-derived macrophage nanoART uptake, retention and sustained release were determined. These preliminary studies suggest the potential of nanoART for clinical use.

 JoVE Bioengineering

Determination of the Transport Rate of Xenobiotics and Nanomaterials Across the Placenta using the ex vivo Human Placental Perfusion Model

1Department of Obstetrics, Perinatal Pharmacology, University Hospital Zurich, 2Laboratory for Materials - Biology Interactions, EMPA Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Testing and Research, 3Graduate School for Cellular and Biomedical Sciences, University of Bern


JoVE 50401

The ex vivo dual recirculating human placental perfusion model can be used to investigate the transfer of xenobiotics and nanoparticles across the human placenta. In this video protocol we describe the equipment and techniques required for a successful execution of a placenta perfusion.

 JoVE Medicine

Creating Anatomically Accurate and Reproducible Intracranial Xenografts of Human Brain Tumors

1Department of Pediatrics, University of Colorado School of Medicine


JoVE 52017

The brain is a unique site with qualities that are not well represented by in vitro or ectopic analyses. Orthotopic mouse models with reproducible location and growth characteristics can be reliably created with intracranial injections using a stereotaxic fixation instrument and a low pressure syringe pump.

 JoVE Bioengineering

Contrast Ultrasound Targeted Treatment of Gliomas in Mice via Drug-Bearing Nanoparticle Delivery and Microvascular Ablation

1Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Virginia, 2Neurological Surgery , University of Virginia


JoVE 2145

Insonation of microbubbles is a promising strategy for tumor ablation at reduced time-averaged acoustic powers, as well as for the targeted delivery of therapeutics. The purpose of the present study is to develop low duty cycle ultrasound pulsing strategies and nanocarriers to maximize non-thermal microvascular ablation and payload delivery to subcutaneous C6 gliomas.

 JoVE Bioengineering

Analysis of Targeted Viral Protein Nanoparticles Delivered to HER2+ Tumors

1Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Southern California, 2Department of Biomedical Sciences, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, 3Geffen School of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles


JoVE 50396

This article details the procedures for optical imaging analysis of the tumor-targeted nanoparticle, HerDox. In particular, detailed use of the multimode imaging device for detecting tumor targeting and assessing tumor penetration is described here.

 JoVE Neuroscience

Direct Intraventricular Delivery of Drugs to the Rodent Central Nervous System

1Department of Neurology, Washington University in St. Louis School of Medicine


JoVE 50326

We describe a method to target drugs to the central nervous system by either implanting a catheter or performing a bolus injection into the right lateral ventricle in mice. We focus specifically on the delivery of antisense oligonucleotides. This technique is readily adaptable to other drugs and to rats.

 JoVE Bioengineering

Characteristics of Precipitation-formed Polyethylene Glycol Microgels Are Controlled by Molecular Weight of Reactants

1Department of Biomedical Engineering, The University of Akron, 2Saint Vincent Saint Mary's High School


JoVE 51002

This work describes the formation of poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) microgels via a photopolymerized precipitation reaction. Increasing the PEG molecular weight increased microgel diameter and swelling ratio. Simple adaptations to the PEG microgel precipitation reaction are explored for future applications of microgels as drug delivery vehicles and tissue engineering scaffolds.

 JoVE Biology

Direct Protein Delivery to Mammalian Cells Using Cell-permeable Cys2-His2 Zinc-finger Domains

1Departments of Chemistry and Cell and Molecular Biology, The Scripps Research Institute, 2Shanghai Institute for Advanced Immunochemical Studies, ShanghaiTech University


JoVE 52814

Zinc-finger domains are intrinsically cell-permeable and capable of mediating protein delivery into a broad range of mammalian cell types. Here, a detailed step-by-step protocol for implementing zinc-finger technology for intracellular protein delivery is presented.

 JoVE Bioengineering

Formulation of Diblock Polymeric Nanoparticles through Nanoprecipitation Technique

1Laboratory of Nano- and Translational Medicine, Department of Radiation Oncology, Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of North Carolina School of Medicine, 2Carolina Center for Nanotechnology Excellence, University of North Carolina


JoVE 3398

This article describes a nanoprecipitation method to synthesize polymer-based nanoparticles using diblock co-polymers. We will discuss the synthesis of diblock co-polymers, the nanoprecipitation technique, and potential applications.

 JoVE Bioengineering

Microscale Vortex-assisted Electroporator for Sequential Molecular Delivery

1The Rowland Institute, Harvard University


JoVE 51702

A microfluidic vortex assisted electroporation platform was developed for sequential delivery of multiple molecules into identical cell populations with precise and independent dosage control. The system’s size based target cell purification step preceding electroporation aided to enhance molecular delivery efficiency and processed cell viability.

 JoVE Chemistry

Particles without a Box: Brush-first Synthesis of Photodegradable PEG Star Polymers under Ambient Conditions

1Department of Chemistry, Massachusetts Institute of Technology


JoVE 50874

Poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) brush-arm star polymers (BASPs) with narrow mass distributions and tunable nanoscopic sizes are synthesized in via ring opening metathesis polymerization (ROMP) of a PEG-norbornene macromonomer followed by transfer of portions of the resulting living brush initiator to vials containing varied amounts of a rigid, photo-cleavable bis-norbornene crosslinker.

 JoVE Bioengineering

Evaluation of Polymeric Gene Delivery Nanoparticles by Nanoparticle Tracking Analysis and High-throughput Flow Cytometry

1Biomedical Engineering Department, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, 2Translational Tissue Engineering Center, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, 3Wilmer Eye Institute, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, 4Institute for Nanobiotechnology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine


JoVE 50176

A protocol for nanoparticle tracking analysis (NTA) and high-throughput flow cytometry to evaluate polymeric gene delivery nanoparticles is described. NTA is utilized to characterize the nanoparticle particle size distribution and the plasmid per particle distribution. High-throughput flow cytometry enables quantitative transfection efficacy evaluation for a library of gene delivery biomaterials.

 JoVE Medicine

A Methodological Approach to Non-invasive Assessments of Vascular Function and Morphology

1School of Sport, Health and Exercise Sciences, Bangor University, 2Department of Rheumatology, Dudley Group of Hospitals NHS Trust, Russells Hall Hospital, 3Arthritis Research UK Epidemiology Unit, University of Manchester


JoVE 52339

The present article describes the methodological considerations for several non-invasive assessments of vascular function and morphology that are commonly used in medical research to assess different stages of atherosclerosis.

 JoVE Medicine

Dual-phase Cone-beam Computed Tomography to See, Reach, and Treat Hepatocellular Carcinoma during Drug-eluting Beads Transarterial Chemo-embolization

1Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Division of Vascular and Interventional Radiology, The Johns Hopkins Hospital, 2Clinical Informatics, Interventional, and Translational Solutions (CIITS), Philips Research North America, 3Center for Interventional Oncology, Interventional Radiology Section, National Institutes of Health, 4Interventional X-ray, Philips Healthcare


JoVE 50795

Dual-phase cone-beam computed tomography (DP-CBCT) is a useful intraprocedural imaging technique for transarterial chemo-embolization treatment with drug-eluting beads of hepatocellular carcinoma. DP-CBCT has been used to perform three major steps in oncologic interventional radiology: tumor localization (see), navigation and intraprocedural catheter guidance (reach), and intraprocedural evaluation of treatment success (treat).

 JoVE Bioengineering

Intra-lymph Node Injection of Biodegradable Polymer Particles

1Fischell Department of Bioengineering, University of Maryland, College Park


JoVE 50984

Lymph nodes are the immunological tissues that orchestrate immune response and are a critical target for vaccines. Biomaterials have been employed to better target lymph nodes and to control delivery of antigens or adjuvants. This paper describes a technique combining these ideas to inject biocompatible polymer particles into lymph nodes.

 JoVE Medicine

Assessing Changes in Volatile General Anesthetic Sensitivity of Mice after Local or Systemic Pharmacological Intervention

1Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, 2Department of Pharmacology, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, 3Department of Neuroscience, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, 4Center for Sleep and Circadian Neurobiology, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania


JoVE 51079

Loss of the righting reflex has long served as a standard behavioral surrogate for unconsciousness, also called hypnosis, in laboratory animals. Alterations in volatile anesthetic sensitivity caused by pharmacological interventions can be detected with a carefully controlled high-throughput assessment system, which may be adapted for delivery of any inhaled therapeutic.

 JoVE Medicine

Technique and Considerations in the Use of 4x1 Ring High-definition Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (HD-tDCS)

1Laboratory of Neuromodulation, Department of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation, Spaulding Rehabilitation Hospital and Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, 2School of Medicine, Pontifical Catholic University of Ecuador, 3Charité University Medicine Berlin, 4The City College of The City University of New York, 5Headache & Orofacial Pain Effort (H.O.P.E.), Biologic & Materials Sciences, School of Dentistry, University of Michigan


JoVE 50309

High-definition transcranial direct current stimulation (HD-tDCS), with its 4x1-ring montage, is a noninvasive brain stimulation technique that combines both the neuromodulatory effects of conventional tDCS with increased focality. This article provides a systematic demonstration of the use of 4x1 HD-tDCS, and the considerations needed for safe and effective stimulation.

 JoVE Bioengineering

Quantification and Size-profiling of Extracellular Vesicles Using Tunable Resistive Pulse Sensing

1Department of Neurosurgery, University Medical Center Utrecht, 2Brain Center Rudolf Magnus, University Medical Center Utrecht


JoVE 51623

Extracellular vesicles play important roles in physiological and pathological processes, including coagulation, immune responses, and cancer or as potential therapeutic agents in drug delivery or regenerative medicine. This protocol presents methods for the quantification and size characterization of isolated and non-isolated extracellular vesicles in various fluids using tunable resistive pulse sensing.

 JoVE Biology

Non-chromatographic Purification of Recombinant Elastin-like Polypeptides and their Fusions with Peptides and Proteins from Escherichia coli

1Department of Biomedical Engineering, Duke University, 2Research Triangle MRSEC, Duke University


JoVE 51583

Elastin-like polypeptides are stimulus-responsive biopolymers with applications ranging from recombinant protein purification to drug delivery. This protocol describes the purification and characterization of elastin-like polypeptides and their peptide or protein fusions from Escherichia coli using their lower critical solution temperature phase transition behavior as a simple alternative to chromatography.

 JoVE Neuroscience

Regioselective Biolistic Targeting in Organotypic Brain Slices Using a Modified Gene Gun

1Leslie Dan Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Toronto, 2MRC-Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Cambridge, UK


JoVE 52148

Recent improvements in organotypic brain slice preparations have permitted their exploitation for biotechnological applications. Organotypic slices maintain local structural characteristics of in vivo biology, including functional synaptic connections. Here we present a regioselective biolistic delivery method to label and genetically manipulate these slices.

 JoVE Engineering

Synthesis and Functionalization of Nitrogen-doped Carbon Nanotube Cups with Gold Nanoparticles as Cork Stoppers

1Department of Chemistry, University of Pittsburgh


JoVE 50383

We discussed the synthesis of individual graphitic nanocups using a series of techniques including chemical vapor deposition, acid oxidation and probe-tip sonication. By citrate reduction of HAuCl4, the graphitic nanocups were effectively corked with gold nanoparticles due to the chemically reactive edges of the cups.

 JoVE Immunology and Infection

Detection of Fluorescent Nanoparticle Interactions with Primary Immune Cell Subpopulations by Flow Cytometry

1Center for Micro-BioRobotics @SSSA, Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, 2Department of Biology, University of Pisa, 3Center for Biomolecular Nanotechnologies @UniLe, Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia


JoVE 51345

Analysis of nanoparticle interaction with defined subpopulations of immune cells by flow cytometry.

 JoVE Bioengineering

The Submerged Printing of Cells onto a Modified Surface Using a Continuous Flow Microspotter

1Wasatch Microfluidics, 2Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Utah


JoVE 51273

This 3D microfluidic printing technology prints arrays of cells onto submerged surfaces. We describe how arrays of cells are delivered microfluidically in 3D flow cells onto submerged surfaces. By printing onto submerged surfaces, cell microarrays were produced that allow for drug screening and cytotoxicity assessment in a multitude of areas.

 JoVE Chemistry

Confocal Imaging of Confined Quiescent and Flowing Colloid-polymer Mixtures

1Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering Department, University of Houston


JoVE 51461

Confocal microscopy is used to image quiescent and flowing colloid-polymer mixtures, which are studied as model systems for attractive suspensions. Image analysis algorithms are used to calculate structural and dynamic metrics for the colloidal particles that measure changes due to geometric confinement.

 JoVE Neuroscience

Non-invasive Parenchymal, Vascular and Metabolic High-frequency Ultrasound and Photoacoustic Rat Deep Brain Imaging

1Center for Preclinical Imaging, Department of Molecular Biotechnology and Health Sciences, University of Turin, 2Molecular Imaging Center, Department of Molecular Biotechnology and Health Sciences, University of Turin, 3Bracco Research Center, Bracco Imaging SpA


JoVE 52162

The present work describes a new protocol to perform non-invasive high-frequency ultrasound and photoacoustic based imaging on rat brain, to efficiently visualize deep subcortical regions and their vascular patterns by directing signals on skull foramina naturally present on animal cranium.

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