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JoVE Science Education

General Laboratory Techniques

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Basic Methods in Cellular and Molecular Biology

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Essentials of Biology 1

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 JoVE Medicine

Using Quantitative Real-time PCR to Determine Donor Cell Engraftment in a Competitive Murine Bone Marrow Transplantation Model

1Division of Hematology-oncology, Department of Medicine, Medical University of South Carolina


JoVE 50193

Determining donor cell engraftment presents a challenge in mouse bone marrow transplant models that lack well-defined phenotypical markers. We described a methodology to quantify male donor cell engraftment in female transplant recipient mice. This method can be used in all mouse strains for the study of HSC functions.

 JoVE Biology

Tracking Dynamics of Muscle Engraftment in Small Animals by In Vivo Fluorescent Imaging

1Department of Anesthesia, Brigham and Woman's Hospital, 2Department of Radiology, Brigham and Woman's Hospital


JoVE 1388

We describe an in vivo fluorescence imaging protocol to monitor muscle regeneration by GFP-labeled myoblasts after transplantation into skeletal muscles of both healthy and dystrophic mice. This protocol can be adapted to study muscle regeneration by transplantation of other types of cells and in other muscular conditions as well.

 JoVE Medicine

Primary Orthotopic Glioma Xenografts Recapitulate Infiltrative Growth and Isocitrate Dehydrogenase I Mutation

1Department of Neurology, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, 2Vanderbilt Ingram Cancer Center, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, 3Neurology Service, Veteran Affairs TVHS


JoVE 50865

Malignant gliomas constitute a heterogeneous group of highly infiltrative glial neoplasms with distinct clinical and molecular features. Primary orthotopic xenografts recapitulate the histopathological and molecular features of malignant glioma subtypes in preclinical animal models.

 JoVE Immunology and Infection

Normal and Malignant Muscle Cell Transplantation into Immune Compromised Adult Zebrafish

1Molecular Pathology, Cancer Center and Center for Regenerative Medicine, Massachusetts General Hospital, 2Harvard Stem Cell Institute, 3GABBA - Instituto de Ciências Biomédicas Abel Salazar, Universidade do Porto


JoVE 52597

Here, we present a protocol for cell transplantation of zebrafish skeletal muscle and embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma (ERMS) into adult immune compromised rag2E450fs homozygous mutant zebrafish. This protocol allows for the efficient analysis of regeneration and malignant transformation of muscle cells.

 JoVE Bioengineering

Transplantation of Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell-derived Mesoangioblast-like Myogenic Progenitors in Mouse Models of Muscle Regeneration

1Department of Cell and Developmental Biology, University College London, 2Division of Regenerative Medicine, Stem Cells and Gene Therapy, San Raffaele Hospital


JoVE 50532

Induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC)-derived myogenic progenitors are promising candidates for cell therapy strategies to treat muscular dystrophies. This protocol describes transplantation and functional measurements required to evaluate the engraftment and differentiation of iPSC-derived mesoangioblasts (a type of muscle progenitors) in mouse models of acute and chronic muscle regeneration.

 JoVE Medicine

Generation of Subcutaneous and Intrahepatic Human Hepatocellular Carcinoma Xenografts in Immunodeficient Mice

1Toronto General Research Institute, University Health Network, 2Department of Pathology, University Health Network, 3Division of General Surgery, University Health Network


JoVE 50544

Human tumor xenografts in immunodeficient mice are valuable tools to study cancer biology. Specific protocols to generate subcutaneous and intrahepatic xenografts from human hepatocellular carcinoma cells or tumor fragments are described. Liver regeneration induced by partial hepatectomy in recipient mice is presented as a strategy to facilitate intrahepatic engraftment.

 JoVE Medicine

Busulfan as a Myelosuppressive Agent for Generating Stable High-level Bone Marrow Chimerism in Mice

1Department of Biomedical Physiology and Kinesiology, Simon Fraser University, 2The Biomedical Research Centre, University of British Columbia, 3Division of Neurology, Department of Medicine, Neuromuscular Disease Unit, VHHSC


JoVE 52553

We describe a protocol whereby busulfan conditioning permits the bone marrow of a recipient mouse to be replaced with bone marrow cells from donor mice ubiquitously expressing green fluorescent protein, in the absence of irradiation. This technique is useful to study bone marrow cell accumulation in the central nervous system.

 JoVE Biology

Transplantation of Cells Directly into the Kidney of Adult Zebrafish

1Center for Regenerative Medicine, Massachusetts General Hospital


JoVE 2725

Cell transplantation is an essential technique for studying tissue regeneration and for developing cell-based therapies of disease. We demonstrate here a microsurgical technique that permits the transplantation of genetically labeled cells directly into the kidney of adult zebrafish fish.

 JoVE Medicine

Quantitative Multispectral Analysis Following Fluorescent Tissue Transplant for Visualization of Cell Origins, Types, and Interactions

1Department of Leukemia, MD Anderson Cancer Center, 2Wake Forest Baptist Medical Center, Institute for Regenerative Medicine


JoVE 50385

Complex tissue masses, from organs to tumors, are composed of various cellular elements. We elucidated the contribution of cellular phenotypes within a tissue utilizing multi-labeled fluorescent transgenic mice in combination with multiparameter immunofluorescent staining followed by spectral unmixing to decipher cell origin as well as cell characteristics based on protein expression.

 JoVE Medicine

A Mouse Model of in Utero Transplantation

1Department of Surgery, University of California, 2Eli and Edythe Broad Center of Regeneration Medicine and Stem Cell Research, University of California, 3Biomedical Sciences Program, University of California


JoVE 2303

The mouse model of in utero transplantation is a versatile tool that can be used to study the potential clinical applications of stem cell transplantation and gene therapy in the fetus. In this protocol, we present a general approach to performing this technique

 JoVE Bioengineering

Development, Expansion, and In vivo Monitoring of Human NK Cells from Human Embryonic Stem Cells (hESCs) and Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells (iPSCs)

1Department of Medicine (Hematology, Oncology, and Transplant), University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, 2Stem Cell Institute, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis


JoVE 50337

This protocol describes the development, expansion, and in vivo imaging of NK cells derived from hESCs and iPSCs.

 JoVE Biology

In vivo Clonal Tracking of Hematopoietic Stem and Progenitor Cells Marked by Five Fluorescent Proteins using Confocal and Multiphoton Microscopy

1Light Microscopy Core Facility, NHLBI/NIH, 2Hematology Branch, NHLBI/NIH


JoVE 51669

Combinatorial 5 fluorescent proteins marking of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells allows in vivo clonal tracking via confocal and two-photon microscopy, providing insights into bone marrow hematopoietic architecture during regeneration. This method allows non-invasive fate mapping of spectrally-coded HSPCs-derived cells in intact tissues for extensive periods of time following transplantation.

 JoVE Medicine

Pre-clinical Evaluation of Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors for Treatment of Acute Leukemia

1Department of Pediatrics, University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus, 2Department of Bone Marrow Transplantation, University Hospital of Essen


JoVE 50720

Receptor tyrosine kinases are ectopically expressed in many cancers and have been identified as therapeutic targets in acute leukemia. This manuscript describes an efficient strategy for pre-clinical evaluation of tyrosine kinase inhibitors for the treatment of acute leukemia.

 JoVE Medicine

Murine Corneal Transplantation: A Model to Study the Most Common Form of Solid Organ Transplantation

1Department of Ophthalmology, Saint Louis University


JoVE 51830

Mice have been used as a model for studying many forms of transplantation, including corneal transplantation. We describe in this report a murine model for both acute and late-term corneal transplantation.

 JoVE Biology

Isolation, Culture, and Transplantation of Muscle Satellite Cells

1Stem Cell Institute, Paul and Sheila Wellstone Muscular Dystrophy Center, Department of Neurology, University of Minnesota Medical School


JoVE 50846

The isolation and culture of a pure population of quiescent satellite cells, a muscle stem cell population, is essential to the understanding of muscle stem cell biology and regeneration, as well as stem cell transplantation for therapies in muscular dystrophy and other degenerative diseases. 

 JoVE Medicine

Intramyocardial Cell Delivery: Observations in Murine Hearts

1Magdi Yacoub Institute, Imperial College London, 2National Heart and Lung Institute, Imperial College London, 3Australian Regenerative Medicine Institute, Monash University


JoVE 51064

Intramyocardial cell delivery in murine models of cardiovascular diseases, such as hypertension or myocardial infarction, is widely used to test the therapeutic potential of different cell types in regenerative studies. Therefore, a detailed description and a clear visualization of this surgical procedure will help to define the limits and advantages of cardiovascular cell therapeutic analyses in small rodents.

 JoVE Medicine

Screening for Melanoma Modifiers using a Zebrafish Autochthonous Tumor Model

1Program in Molecular Medicine and Department of Cancer Biology, University of Massachusetts Medical School, 2Departments of Surgery and Medicine, Weill Cornell Medical College, 3Departments of Surgery and Medicine, New York Presbyterian Hospital


JoVE 50086

A rapid way to screen for melanoma modifiers using a zebrafish autochthonous tumor model is presented. It takes advantage of the miniCoopR vector which allows for expression of candidate melanoma genes in melanocytes. A method to obtain melanoma-free survival curves, an invasion assay, a protocol for antibody staining of scale melanocytes and a melanoma transplantation assay are described.

 JoVE Bioengineering

Systematic Analysis of In Vitro Cell Rolling Using a Multi-well Plate Microfluidic System

1Division of Biomedical Engineering, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital, 2Center for Regenerative Therapeutics, Brigham and Women's Hospital, 3Harvard Medical School, Harvard University, 4Harvard Stem Cell Institute, Harvard University, 5Harvard-MIT Division of Health Sciences and Technology, 6Department of Mechanical Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology


JoVE 50866

This study used a multi-well plate microfluidic system, significantly increasing throughput of cell rolling studies under physiologically relevant shear flow. Given the importance of cell rolling in the multi-step cell homing cascade and the importance of cell homing following systemic delivery of exogenous populations of cells in patients, this system offers potential as a screening platform to improve cell-based therapy.

 JoVE Neuroscience

Flow Cytometry Protocols for Surface and Intracellular Antigen Analyses of Neural Cell Types

1Emmy Noether-Group for Stem Cell Biology, Department of Molecular Embryology, Institute of Anatomy and Cell Biology, University of Freiburg, 2Spemann Graduate School of Biology and Medicine and Faculty of Biology, University of Freiburg, 3School of Life Sciences, Keele University, 4Center for Biological Signaling Studies (BIOSS), University of Freiburg


JoVE 52241

We provide a detailed description of a protocol for flow cytometric analysis of surface antigens and/or intracellular antigens in neural cell types. Critical aspects of experimental planning, step-by-step methodological procedures, and fundamental principles of flow cytometry are explained in order to enable neurobiologists to exploit this powerful technology.

 JoVE Medicine

In vivo Dual Substrate Bioluminescent Imaging

1Case Comprehensive Cancer Center, Case Western Reserve University


JoVE 3245

Herein we describe the methods to construct, visualize, and quantify the bioluminescent reactions of both firefly and renilla luciferase enzymes expressed in metastatic breast cancer cells during their growth and metastasis in vivo.

 JoVE Medicine

Labeling Stem Cells with Ferumoxytol, an FDA-Approved Iron Oxide Nanoparticle

1Department of Radiology, Molecular Imaging Program at Stanford (MIPS), 2Stanford School of Medicine, Stanford University


JoVE 3482

We describe a technique for labeling and tracking stem cells with FDA-approved, superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO), ferumoxytol (Feraheme). This cellular imaging technique that utilizes magnetic resonance (MR) imaging for visualization, is readily accessible for long-term monitoring and diagnosis of successful or unsuccessful stem cell engraftments in patients.

 JoVE Medicine

The Polyvinyl Alcohol Sponge Model Implantation

1Department of Pathology, Microbiology and Immunology, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, 2The Department of Veterans Affairs Medical Center, 3Internal Medicine, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine


JoVE 3885

A useful tool to analyze the effects of drugs, growth factors, and/or manipulated cells in an animal model of wound repair is described. This technique utilizes the properties of a polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) sponge to deliver and contain the desired treatment and also provide a platform to be excised and analyzed.

 JoVE Medicine

Femoral Bone Marrow Aspiration in Live Mice

1Human Oncology and Pathogenesis Program, Department of Medicine, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center


JoVE 51660

This protocol describes a procedure for serial sampling of femoral bone marrow (BM) without requiring the sacrifice of mice. This procedure facilitates longitudinal studies of the BM composition of mice over time and provides serial access to cells within the BM for ex vivo and transplantation studies.

 JoVE Immunology and Infection

Differentiating Functional Roles of Gene Expression from Immune and Non-immune Cells in Mouse Colitis by Bone Marrow Transplantation

1Center for Inflammatory Bowel Diseases, Division of Digestive Diseases, David Geffen School of Medicine, The University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles


JoVE 4208

Bone marrow transplantation provides a way to change the genotype of the bone marrow derived cells. If the gene of interest is expressed in both bone marrow derived cells and non-bone marrow derived cells, bone marrow transplantation can change the bone marrow derived cells to a different genotype without changing the non-bone marrow derived cell genotype.

 JoVE Immunology and Infection

Tracking Mouse Bone Marrow Monocytes In Vivo

1Centre d'Immunologie et des Maladies Infectieuses (CIMI), INSERM, U1135, CNRS, ERL 8255, Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ Paris 06, CR7


JoVE 52476

Monocytes are key regulators of innate immunity and play a critical role in the renewal of the peripheral mononuclear phagocytic system and in case of inflammation. This manuscript describes the procedure of real time imaging of the mouse calvaria bone marrow to study the monocyte mobilisation mechanism.

 JoVE Biology

In Vivo 4-Dimensional Tracking of Hematopoietic Stem and Progenitor Cells in Adult Mouse Calvarial Bone Marrow

1Department of Life Science and Facility for Imaging by Light Microscopy, Imperial College London, 2Department of Life Sciences, Imperial College London


JoVE 51683

The nature of the interactions between hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) and bone marrow niches is poorly understood. Custom hardware modifications and a multi-step acquisition protocol allow the use of two-photon and confocal microscopy to image ex vivo labeled HSPCs homed within bone marrow areas, tracking interactions and movement.

 JoVE Medicine

Orthotopic Injection of Breast Cancer Cells into the Mammary Fat Pad of Mice to Study Tumor Growth.

1Department of Hemostasis and Thrombosis, Leiden University Medical Center


JoVE 51967

Cancer is a complex disease that is influenced by the tissue surrounding the tumor as well as local pro- and anti-inflammatory mediators. Therefore, orthotropic injection models, rather than subcutaneous models may be useful to study cancer progression in a manner that better mimics human pathology.

 JoVE Biology

Labeling hESCs and hMSCs with Iron Oxide Nanoparticles for Non-Invasive in vivo Tracking with MR Imaging

1Contrast Agent Research Group at the Center for Molecular and Functional Imaging, Department of Radiology, University of California San Francisco


JoVE 685

For the evaluation of new stem cell therapies it is important to non-invasively track the injected cells in vivo. This video will show you how to label human mesenchymal and embryonic stem cells with iron oxide based contrast agents in vivo for subsequent MR imaging in vivo.

 JoVE Biology

Intravital Microscopy of the Microcirculation in the Mouse Cremaster Muscle for the Analysis of Peripheral Stem Cell Migration

1Reference and Translation Centre for Cardiac Stem Cell Therapy (RTC), Department of Cardiac Surgery, University Rostock, 2Institute for Experimental Surgery, University of Rostock


JoVE 50485

Intravital microscopy of the mouse M. cremaster microcirculation offers a unique and well-standardized in vivo model for the analysis of peripheral bone marrow stem cell migration.

 JoVE Bioengineering

Engineering Skeletal Muscle Tissues from Murine Myoblast Progenitor Cells and Application of Electrical Stimulation

1Department of Biomedical Engineering, Soft Tissue Biomechanics and Engineering, Eindhoven University of Technology, The Netherlands


JoVE 4267

Engineered muscle tissue has great potential in regenerative medicine, as disease model and also as an alternative source for meat. Here we describe the engineering of a muscle construct, in this case from mouse myoblast progenitor cells, and the stimulation by electrical pulses.

 JoVE Biology

In vitro and in vivo Bioluminescence Reporter Gene Imaging of Human Embryonic Stem Cells

1Departments of Radiology and Medicine (Cardiology), Stanford University School of Medicine


JoVE 740

With the growing interest in stem cell therapies, molecular imaging techniques are ideal for monitoring stem cell behavior after transplantation. Luciferase reporter genes have enabled non-invasive, repetitive assessment of cell survival, location, and proliferation in vivo. This video will demonstrate how to track hESC proliferation in a living mouse.

 JoVE Biology

Tissue Triage and Freezing for Models of Skeletal Muscle Disease

1Division of Pediatric Pathology, Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Medical College of Wisconsin, 2Department of Physiology and Cell Biology, The Ohio State University, 3Department of Human Nutrition, Foods and Exercise, Virginia Tech, 4Division of Biomedical Informatics, Department of Biostatistics, Department of Computer Science, University of Kentucky, 5Division of Genetics and Genomics, The Manton Center for Orphan Disease Research, Boston Children's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, 6Cure Congenital Muscular Dystrophy, 7Joshua Frase Foundation, 8Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, University of Washington, 9Department of Physiology, University of Arizona


JoVE 51586

The analysis of skeletal muscle tissues to determine structural, functional, and biochemical properties is greatly facilitated by appropriate preparation. This protocol describes appropriate methods to prepare skeletal muscle tissue for a broad range of phenotyping studies.

 JoVE Medicine

Establishment of Human Epithelial Enteroids and Colonoids from Whole Tissue and Biopsy

1Department of Pediatric General and Thoracic Surgery, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, 2Department of Medicine, Section of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Baylor College of Medicine


JoVE 52483

We describe a method to establish human enteroids from small intestinal crypts and colonoids from colon crypts collected from both surgical tissue and biopsies. In this methodological article, we present the culture modalities that are essential for the successful growth and maintenance of human enteroids and colonoids.

 JoVE Developmental Biology

Mosaic Zebrafish Transgenesis for Functional Genomic Analysis of Candidate Cooperative Genes in Tumor Pathogenesis

1Department of Molecular Pharmacology & Experimental Therapeutics, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, Center for Individualized Medicine, 2Tufts University School of Medicine, 3Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Mayo Clinic


JoVE 52567

The goal of this study is to demonstrate how the mosaic transgenesis strategy can be used in zebrafish to rapidly and efficiently assess the relative contributions of multiple oncogenes in tumor initiation and progression in vivo.

 JoVE Medicine

Isolation, Cryopreservation and Culture of Human Amnion Epithelial Cells for Clinical Applications

1Wake Forest Institute for Regenerative Medicine, Wake Forest University Health Sciences, 2The Ritchie Centre, Monash Institute of Medical Research, Monash University


JoVE 52085

We describe a protocol to isolate and culture human amnion epithelial cells (hAECs) using animal product-free reagents in accordance with current good manufacturing practices (cGMP) guidelines.

 JoVE Neuroscience

The Specification of Telencephalic Glutamatergic Neurons from Human Pluripotent Stem Cells

1Department of Neuroscience, The University of Connecticut Health Center, 2Department of Genetics and Developmental Biology, The University of Connecticut Health Center, 3Stem Cell Institute, The University of Connecticut Health Center


JoVE 50321

This procedure yields telencephalic neurons by going through checkpoints which are similar to those observed during human development. The cells are allowed to spontaneously differentiate, are exposed to factors which push them towards the neural lineage, are isolated, and are plated onto coverslips to allow for terminal differentiation and maturation.

 JoVE Medicine

In vivo Measurement of the Mouse Pulmonary Endothelial Surface Layer

1Division of Pulmonary Sciences and Critical Care Medicine, University of Colorado School of Medicine


JoVE 50322

The endothelial glycocalyx/endothelial surface layer is ideally studied using intravital microscopy. Intravital microscopy is technically challenging in a moving organ such as the lung. We demonstrate how simultaneous brightfield and fluorescent microscopy may be used to estimate endothelial surface layer thickness in a freely-moving in vivo mouse lung.

 JoVE Medicine

Creating Anatomically Accurate and Reproducible Intracranial Xenografts of Human Brain Tumors

1Department of Pediatrics, University of Colorado School of Medicine


JoVE 52017

The brain is a unique site with qualities that are not well represented by in vitro or ectopic analyses. Orthotopic mouse models with reproducible location and growth characteristics can be reliably created with intracranial injections using a stereotaxic fixation instrument and a low pressure syringe pump.

 JoVE Biology

Retroviral Infection of Murine Embryonic Stem Cell Derived Embryoid Body Cells for Analysis of Hematopoietic Differentiation

1Harper Cancer Research Institute, 2Microbiology and Immunology, Indiana University School of Medicine, 3Department of Biological Sciences, University of Notre Dame


JoVE 52022

Manipulating temporal gene expression in differentiating embryonic stem cells (ESCs) can be achieved using inducible gene systems. However, generation of these cell lines is costly and time consuming. This protocol achieves rapid expression of a transgene in differentiating ES-derived cells and subsequent analysis of downstream hematopoietic differentiation.

 JoVE Medicine

Murine Model for Non-invasive Imaging to Detect and Monitor Ovarian Cancer Recurrence

1Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Sciences, Reproductive Immunology Unit, Yale University School of Medicine, 2NatureMost Laboratories, 3Bruker Preclinical Imaging


JoVE 51815

We describe a non-invasive animal imaging platform that allows the detection, quantification, and monitoring of ovarian cancer growth and recurrence. This intra-peritoneal xenograft model mimics the clinical profile of patients with ovarian cancer.

 JoVE Medicine

Intraspinal Cell Transplantation for Targeting Cervical Ventral Horn in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis and Traumatic Spinal Cord Injury

1Department of Neuroscience, Thomas Jefferson University Medical College


JoVE 3069

Neural precursor transplantation is a promising strategy for protecting and/or replacing lost/dysfunctional cervical phrenic motor neurons in spinal cord injury (SCI) and the motor neuron disorder, amyotrophic laterals sclerosis (ALS). We provide a protocol for cell delivery to cervical spinal cord ventral horn in rodent models of ALS and SCI.

 JoVE Medicine

High Throughput Characterization of Adult Stem Cells Engineered for Delivery of Therapeutic Factors for Neuroprotective Strategies

1Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Iowa State University, 2Department of Genetics, Development and Cell Biology, Iowa State University, 3Biology Program, Iowa State University


JoVE 52242

This study describes an experimental platform to rapidly characterize engineered stem cells and their behaviors before their application in long-term in vivo transplant studies for nervous system rescue and repair.

 JoVE Bioengineering

Generation and Grafting of Tissue-engineered Vessels in a Mouse Model

1Cardiovascular Division, King's College London BHF Centre


JoVE 52565

Here, we present a protocol to generate tissue engineered vessel grafts that are functional for grafting into mice by double seeding partially induced pluripotent stem cell (PiPSC) - derived smooth muscle cells and PiPSC - derived endothelial cells on a decellularized vessel scaffold bioreactor.

 JoVE Medicine

Ultrasound-guided Transthoracic Intramyocardial Injection in Mice

1Department of Cardiology, Boston Children's Hospital, 2Harvard Stem Cell Institute, Harvard University


JoVE 51566

Echocardiography-guided percutaneous intramyocardial injection represents an efficient, reliable, and targetable modality for the delivery of gene transfer agents or cells into the murine heart. Following the steps outlined in this protocol, the operator can quickly become competent in this versatile, minimally invasive technique.

 JoVE Chemistry

Preparation and Characterization of SDF-1α-Chitosan-Dextran Sulfate Nanoparticles

1Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital and Harvard Medical School, 2Laboratory for Biomaterials and Drug Delivery, Department of Anesthesiology, Division of Critical Care, Boston Children's Hospital


JoVE 52323

The objective of this protocol is to incorporate SDF-1α, a stem cell homing factor, into dextran sulfate-chitosan nanoparticles. The resultant particles are measured for their size and zeta potential, as well as the content, activity, and in vitro release rate of SDF-1α from the nanoparticles.

 JoVE Biology

Monitoring Functionality and Morphology of Vasculature Recruited by Factors Secreted by Fast-growing Tumor-generating Cells

1Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Sackler School of Medicine, Tel Aviv University


JoVE 51525

We describe a matrigel plug assay to illustrate angiogenic potential of a pool of factors secreted by cancer cells using two complementary imaging modalities, ultrasound and endomicroscopy. The matrigel, an extracellular matrix (ECM)-mimic gel, is utilized to introduce the host (mouse) with angiogenic factors secreted to the conditioned media (C.M.). 

 JoVE Bioengineering

Programming Stem Cells for Therapeutic Angiogenesis Using Biodegradable Polymeric Nanoparticles

1Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Stanford University, 2Department of Bioengineering, Stanford University


JoVE 50736

We describe the method of programming stem cells to overexpress therapeutic factors for angiogenesis using biodegradable polymeric nanoparticles. Processes described include polymer synthesis, transfecting adipose-derived stem cells in vitro, and validating the efficacy of programmed stem cells to promote angiogenesis in a murine hindlimb ischemia model.

 JoVE Biology

Efficient Derivation of Human Cardiac Precursors and Cardiomyocytes from Pluripotent Human Embryonic Stem Cells with Small Molecule Induction

1San Diego Regenerative Medicine Institute, 2Xcelthera, 3Department of Neurosurgery, Harvard Medical School, 4Division of SCI Research, VA Boston Healthcare System, 5Program in Stem Cell & Regenerative Biology, Sanford-Burnham Medical Research Institute, 6La Jolla IVF


JoVE 3274

We have established a protocol for induction of cardioblasts direct from pluripotent human embryonic stem cells maintained under defined conditions with small molecules, which enables derivation of a large supply of human cardiac progenitors and functional cardiomyocytes for cardiovascular repair.

 JoVE Neuroscience

Efficient Derivation of Human Neuronal Progenitors and Neurons from Pluripotent Human Embryonic Stem Cells with Small Molecule Induction

1San Diego Regenerative Medicine Institute, 2Xcelthera, 3Department of Neurosurgery, Harvard Medical School, 4Division of SCI Research, VA Boston Healthcare System, 5Program in Stem Cell & Regenerative Biology, Sanford-Burnham Medical Research Institute, 6La Jolla IVF


JoVE 3273

We have established a protocol for induction of neuroblasts direct from pluripotent human embryonic stem cells maintained under defined conditions with small molecules, which enables derivation of a large supply of human neuronal progenitors and neuronal cell types in the developing CNS for neural repair.

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