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October, 2006
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Evoked Potentials: The recorded electrical responses from nerve, muscle, Sensory receptor, or area of the Central nervous system following stimulation. They range from less than a microvolt to several microvolts. The evoked potential can be auditory (Evoked potentials, Auditory), somatosensory (Evoked potentials, Somatosensory), visual (Evoked potentials, Visual), or motor (Evoked potentials, Motor), or other modalities that have been reported. Often used synonymously to event-related potentials which are associated with higher level cognitive processes.
 JoVE Behavior

Investigating the Effects of Antipsychotics and Schizotypy on the N400 Using Event-Related Potentials and Semantic Categorization

1Department of Psychology, McGill University, 2Department of Cognitive Science, McGill University, 3Douglas Institute, Department of Psychiatry, McGill University, 4Neurology and Neurosurgery Department, McGill University

JoVE 52082

Using event-related EEG potentials (ERPs), we investigate the effects of antipsychotic medications on abnormal semantic brain activations in healthy individuals with schizotypal traits. We use ERPs to track distinct changes in brain activity, shedding insight into the cognitive processes associated with semantic categorization.

 JoVE Neuroscience

Applications of EEG Neuroimaging Data: Event-related Potentials, Spectral Power, and Multiscale Entropy

1Rotman Research Institute, Baycrest

JoVE 50131

Neuroimaging researchers typically consider the brain's response as the mean activity across repeated experimental trials and disregard signal variability over time as "noise". However, it is becoming clear that there is signal in that noise. This article describes the novel method of multiscale entropy for quantifying brain signal variability in the time domain.

 JoVE Medicine

Examining the Characteristics of Episodic Memory using Event-related Potentials in Patients with Alzheimer's Disease

1Department of Neurology, Vanderbilt University

JoVE 2715

The methodology for collecting high-density event-related potential data while patients with Alzheimer's disease perform a recognition memory task is reviewed. This protocol will include subject preparation, quality assurance, data acquisition, and data analysis.

 JoVE Behavior

Cortical Source Analysis of High-Density EEG Recordings in Children

1Cognitive Neuroscience & Neuropsychiatry Section, UCL Institute of Child Health, 2Academic Division of Neonatology, Institute for Women's Health, University College London

JoVE 51705

In recent years, there has been increasing interest in estimating the cortical sources of scalp measured electrical activity for cognitive neuroscience experiments. This article describes how high density EEG is acquired and how recordings are processed for cortical source estimation in children from the age of 2 years at the London Baby Lab.

 JoVE Behavior

Measuring Neural and Behavioral Activity During Ongoing Computerized Social Interactions: An Examination of Event-Related Brain Potentials

1Psychology Department, Illinois Wesleyan University

JoVE 52060

Research on social exclusion has grown tremendously in recent years. As the field expands, it is imperative to develop sophisticated methodologies allowing for the simultaneous measurement of neural and behavioral outcomes during social exclusion. This protocol utilizes event-related brain potentials to record ongoing neural activity during computerized social interactions.

 JoVE Behavior

Infant Auditory Processing and Event-related Brain Oscillations

1Center for Molecular & Behavioral Neuroscience, Rutgers University, State University of New Jersey, Newark, 2Department of Audiology, University of the Pacific, 3Department of Otolaryngology, Head & Neck Surgery, Stanford University

JoVE 52420

High-density electroencephalography (dEEG) is being used increasingly to study brain development and plasticity in the early years of life. Here we present an application of sophisticated analysis techniques that builds on traditional EEG recording to understand the oscillatory dynamics of rapid auditory processing in the infant brain.

 JoVE Neuroscience

Extracting Visual Evoked Potentials from EEG Data Recorded During fMRI-guided Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation

1School of Psychological Sciences, Tel-Aviv University, 2Sagol School of Neuroscience, Tel-Aviv University

JoVE 51063

This paper describes a method for collecting and analyzing electroencephalography (EEG) data during concurrent transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) guided by activations revealed with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). A method for TMS artifact removal and extraction of event related potentials is described as well as considerations in paradigm design and experimental setup.

 JoVE Medicine

A Neuroscientific Approach to the Examination of Concussions in Student-Athletes

1Department of Exercise Science, Elon University, 2Department of Physical Therapy Education, Elon University, 3Department of Physical Therapy, Duquesne University, 4Department of Sports Medicine, Elon University

JoVE 52046

There is great variability in an individual’s risk for concussion and their corresponding recovery. A multifaceted approach to concussion evaluation is warranted; including baseline testing of athletes before participation in sport and timely evaluation post injury. The goal of this protocol is to provide an appropriate multifaceted approach to examine concussions.

 JoVE Neuroscience

Combining Computer Game-Based Behavioural Experiments With High-Density EEG and Infrared Gaze Tracking

1Department of Human Development, Cornell University, 2Social Sciences Division, University of Chicago, 3National Brain Research Centre, Manesar, India

JoVE 2320

Procedures for recording high-density EEG and gaze data during computer game-based cognitive tasks are described. Using a video game to present cognitive tasks enhances ecological validity without sacrificing experimental control.

 JoVE Behavior

Measurement of Neurophysiological Signals of Ignoring and Attending Processes in Attention Control

1Department of Psychiatry, University of California Los Angeles, 2Attention Research Institute, 3Departments of Psychiatry, Radiology, Neurology, Biomedical Physics, Psychology and Bioengineering, University of California Los Angeles

JoVE 52958

Attention control comprises enhancement of target signals and attenuation of distractor signals. We describe an approach to measure separately but concurrently, the neurophysiology of attending and ignoring in sustained intermodal attention, utilizing a passive control condition during which neither process is continuously engaged.

 JoVE Behavior

Transferring Cognitive Tasks Between Brain Imaging Modalities: Implications for Task Design and Results Interpretation in fMRI Studies

1Medical Imaging Physics (INM-4), Institute of Neuroscience and Medicine, Research Centre Jülich GmbH, 2Computational and Systems Neuroscience (INM-6), Institute of Neuroscience and Medicine, Research Centre Jülich GmbH

JoVE 51793

Transferring a paradigm with a history of use in EEG experiments to an fMRI experiment is considered. It is demonstrated that manipulating the task demands in the visual oddball task resulted in different patterns of BOLD activation and illustrated how task design is crucial in fMRI experiments.

 JoVE Behavior

Using the Threat Probability Task to Assess Anxiety and Fear During Uncertain and Certain Threat

1Department of Psychology, University of Wisconsin-Madison

JoVE 51905

Potentiation of the startle reflex is measured via electromyography of the orbicularis oculi muscle during low (uncertain) and high (certain) probability electric shock threat in the Threat Probability Task. This provides an objective measure of distinct negative emotional states (fear/anxiety) for research on psychopathology, substance use/abuse, and broad affective science.

 JoVE Behavior

The Double-H Maze: A Robust Behavioral Test for Learning and Memory in Rodents

1Section of Neuroelectronic Systems, Dept. of Neurosurgery, University Hospital Freiburg, 2Laboratoire d'Imagerie et de Neurosciences Cognitives, UMR 7364 Université de Strasbourg, CNRS, 3Faculté de Psychologie, Neuropôle de Strasbourg

JoVE 52667

The goal of this protocol is to investigate spatial cognition in rodents. The double-H water maze is a novel test, which is particularly useful to elucidate the different components of learning, consolidation and memory, as well as the interplay of memory systems.

 JoVE Behavior

Simultaneous EEG Monitoring During Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation

1Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciências Médica, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, 2Coordenacao de Aperfeicoamento de Pessoal de Nivel Superior (CAPES), 3Laboratory of Neuromodulation, Department of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation, Spaulding Rehabilitation Hospital and Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, 4De Montfort University

JoVE 50426

Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a non-invasive brain stimulation technique that has shown initial therapeutic effects in several neurological conditions. The main mechanism underlying these therapeutic effects is the modulation of cortical excitability. Therefore, online monitoring of cortical excitability would help guide stimulation parameters and optimize its therapeutic effects. In the present article we review the use of a novel device that combines simultaneous tDCS and EEG monitoring in real time.

 JoVE Behavior

How to Study Placebo Responses in Motion Sickness with a Rotation Chair Paradigm in Healthy Participants

1Psychosomatic Medicine and Psychotherapy, University Hospital Tübingen, 2Department of Psychology, Clemson University

JoVE 52471

An experimental rotation chair paradigm is used to investigate whether a placebo intervention on motion sickness affects subjective outcome measures only or also affects behavioral and objective measures in a balanced placebo design.

 JoVE Behavior

Signal Attenuation as a Rat Model of Obsessive Compulsive Disorder

1School of Psychological Sciences, Tel-Aviv University, 2Sagol School of Neuroscience, Tel-Aviv University

JoVE 52287

The goal of the protocol described in this paper is to induce compulsive-like behavior in rats for the study of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). This behavior is precipitated by attenuating a signal indicating that a lever-press response was effective in producing food.

 JoVE Biology

Exploring Cognitive Functions in Babies, Children & Adults with Near Infrared Spectroscopy

1Department of Psychology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, 2Department of Psychology, University of Toronto Scarborough

JoVE 1268

Here we describe a data collection and data analysis method for functional Near Infrared Spectroscopy (fNIRS), a novel non-invasive brain imaging system used in cognitive neuroscience, particularly in studying child brain development. This method provides a universal standard of data acquisition and analysis vital to data interpretation and scientific discovery.

 JoVE Neuroscience

High Density Event-related Potential Data Acquisition in Cognitive Neuroscience

1Department of Psychology, Boston College

JoVE 1945

Event-related potential (ERP) recording is under utilized in Cognitive Neuroscience because data acquisition techniques are not readily available and this method often has poor spatial resolution. To foster the increased use of ERPs in Cognitive Neuroscience, the present article details key techniques involved in high density ERP data acquisition.

 JoVE Neuroscience

Brain Imaging Investigation of the Memory-Enhancing Effect of Emotion

1Centre for Neuroscience, University of Alberta, 2Neuroscience Program, University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, 3Center for Cognitive Neuroscience, Duke University, 4Psychology Department, Neuroscience Program, & Beckman Institute, University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign

JoVE 2433

We present a protocol that uses functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate the neural correlates of the memory-enhancing effect of emotion. This protocol allows identification of brain activity specifically linked to memory-related processing, contrary to more general perceptual processing, and can be used with healthy and clinical populations.

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