The recorded electrical responses from nerve, muscle, Sensory receptor
, or area of the Central nervous system
following stimulation. They range from less than a microvolt to several microvolts. The evoked potential can be auditory (Evoked potentials
), somatosensory (Evoked potentials
), visual (Evoked potentials
), or motor (Evoked potentials
), or other modalities that have been reported. Often used synonymously to event-related potentials which are associated with higher level cognitive processes.
1Department of Psychology, McGill University, 2Department of Cognitive Science, McGill University, 3Douglas Institute, Department of Psychiatry, McGill University, 4Neurology and Neurosurgery Department, McGill University
Using event-related EEG potentials (ERPs), we investigate the effects of antipsychotic medications on abnormal semantic brain activations in healthy individuals with schizotypal traits. We use ERPs to track distinct changes in brain activity, shedding insight into the cognitive processes associated with semantic categorization.
Published November 19, 2014. Keywords: Behavior, Electrical brain activity, Semantic categorization, Event-related brain potentials, Neuroscience, Cognition, Psychiatry, Antipsychotic medication, N400, Schizotypy, Schizophrenia.
1Rotman Research Institute, Baycrest
Neuroimaging researchers typically consider the brain's response as the mean activity across repeated experimental trials and disregard signal variability over time as "noise". However, it is becoming clear that there is signal in that noise. This article describes the novel method of multiscale entropy for quantifying brain signal variability in the time domain.
Published June 27, 2013. Keywords: Neuroscience, Neurobiology, Anatomy, Physiology, Medicine, Biomedical Engineering, Electroencephalography, EEG, electroencephalogram, Multiscale entropy, sample entropy, MEG, neuroimaging, variability, noise, timescale, non-linear, brain signal, information theory, brain, imaging
1Department of Neurology, Vanderbilt University
The methodology for collecting high-density event-related potential data while patients with Alzheimer's disease perform a recognition memory task is reviewed. This protocol will include subject preparation, quality assurance, data acquisition, and data analysis.
Published August 30, 2011. Keywords: Medicine, recognition memory, episodic memory, event-related potentials, dual process, Alzheimer's disease, amnestic mild cognitive impairment
1Cognitive Neuroscience & Neuropsychiatry Section, UCL Institute of Child Health, 2Academic Division of Neonatology, Institute for Women's Health, University College London
In recent years, there has been increasing interest in estimating the cortical sources of scalp measured electrical activity for cognitive neuroscience experiments. This article describes how high density EEG is acquired and how recordings are processed for cortical source estimation in children from the age of 2 years at the London Baby Lab.
Published June 30, 2014. Keywords: Behavior, EEG, electroencephalogram, development, source analysis, pediatric, minimum-norm estimation, cognitive neuroscience, event-related potentials
1Psychology Department, Illinois Wesleyan University
Research on social exclusion has grown tremendously in recent years. As the field expands, it is imperative to develop sophisticated methodologies allowing for the simultaneous measurement of neural and behavioral outcomes during social exclusion. This protocol utilizes event-related brain potentials to record ongoing neural activity during computerized social interactions.
Published November 15, 2014. Keywords: Behavior, Event-related brain potentials (ERPs), Social Exclusion, Neuroscience, N2, P3, Cognitive Control
1School of Psychological Sciences, Tel-Aviv University, 2Sagol School of Neuroscience, Tel-Aviv University
This paper describes a method for collecting and analyzing electroencephalography (EEG) data during concurrent transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) guided by activations revealed with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). A method for TMS artifact removal and extraction of event related potentials is described as well as considerations in paradigm design and experimental setup.
Published May 12, 2014. Keywords: Neuroscience, Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation, Neuroimaging, Neuronavigation, Visual Perception, Evoked Potentials, Electroencephalography, Event-related potential, fMRI, Combined Neuroimaging Methods, Face perception, Body Perception
1Department of Exercise Science, Elon University, 2Department of Physical Therapy Education, Elon University, 3Department of Physical Therapy, Duquesne University, 4Department of Sports Medicine, Elon University
There is great variability in an individual’s risk for concussion and their corresponding recovery. A multifaceted approach to concussion evaluation is warranted; including baseline testing of athletes before participation in sport and timely evaluation post injury. The goal of this protocol is to provide an appropriate multifaceted approach to examine concussions.
Published December 8, 2014. Keywords: Medicine, Concussions, Student-Athletes, Mild Traumatic Brain Injury, Genetics, Cognitive Function, Balance, Gait, Somatosensory
1Department of Human Development, Cornell University, 2Social Sciences Division, University of Chicago, 3National Brain Research Centre, Manesar, India
Procedures for recording high-density EEG and gaze data during computer game-based cognitive tasks are described. Using a video game to present cognitive tasks enhances ecological validity without sacrificing experimental control.
Published December 16, 2010. Keywords: Neuroscience, High-density EEG, ERP, ICA, gaze tracking, computer game, ecological validity
1Medical Imaging Physics (INM-4), Institute of Neuroscience and Medicine, Research Centre Jülich GmbH, 2Computational and Systems Neuroscience (INM-6), Institute of Neuroscience and Medicine, Research Centre Jülich GmbH
Transferring a paradigm with a history of use in EEG experiments to an fMRI experiment is considered. It is demonstrated that manipulating the task demands in the visual oddball task resulted in different patterns of BOLD activation and illustrated how task design is crucial in fMRI experiments.
Published September 22, 2014. Keywords: Behavior, fMRI, task design, data interpretation, cognitive neuroscience, visual oddball task, target detection
1Department of Psychology, University of Wisconsin-Madison
Potentiation of the startle reflex is measured via electromyography of the orbicularis oculi muscle during low (uncertain) and high (certain) probability electric shock threat in the Threat Probability Task. This provides an objective measure of distinct negative emotional states (fear/anxiety) for research on psychopathology, substance use/abuse, and broad affective science.
Published September 12, 2014. Keywords: Behavior, Startle; electromyography; shock; addiction; uncertainty; fear; anxiety; humans; psychophysiology; translational
1Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciências Médica, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, 2Coordenacao de Aperfeicoamento de Pessoal de Nivel Superior (CAPES), 3Laboratory of Neuromodulation, Department of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation, Spaulding Rehabilitation Hospital and Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, 4De Montfort University
Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a non-invasive brain stimulation technique that has shown initial therapeutic effects in several neurological conditions. The main mechanism underlying these therapeutic effects is the modulation of cortical excitability. Therefore, online monitoring of cortical excitability would help guide stimulation parameters and optimize its therapeutic effects. In the present article we review the use of a novel device that combines simultaneous tDCS and EEG monitoring in real time.
Published June 17, 2013. Keywords: Behavior, Medicine, Neuroscience, Neurobiology, Anatomy, Physiology, Biomedical Engineering, Psychology, electroencephalography, electroencephalogram, EEG, transcranial direct current stimulation, tDCS, noninvasive brain stimulation, neuromodulation, closed-loop system, brain, imaging, clinical techniques
1Psychosomatic Medicine and Psychotherapy, University Hospital Tübingen, 2Department of Psychology, Clemson University
An experimental rotation chair paradigm is used to investigate whether a placebo intervention on motion sickness affects subjective outcome measures only or also affects behavioral and objective measures in a balanced placebo design.
Published December 14, 2014. Keywords: Neuroscience, motion sickness, nausea, placebo response, placebo effect, expectancy, electrogastrography, gastric myoelectric activity, rotation tolerance, balanced placebo design
1School of Psychological Sciences, Tel-Aviv University, 2Sagol School of Neuroscience, Tel-Aviv University
The goal of the protocol described in this paper is to induce compulsive-like behavior in rats for the study of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). This behavior is precipitated by attenuating a signal indicating that a lever-press response was effective in producing food.
Published January 9, 2015. Keywords: Behavior, Obsessive-compulsive disorder, OCD, signal attenuation, rat, animal model, pharmacology, lever-press, behavioral neuroscience
1Department of Psychology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, 2Department of Psychology, University of Toronto Scarborough
Here we describe a data collection and data analysis method for functional Near Infrared Spectroscopy (fNIRS), a novel non-invasive brain imaging system used in cognitive neuroscience, particularly in studying child brain development. This method provides a universal standard of data acquisition and analysis vital to data interpretation and scientific discovery.
Published July 28, 2009. Keywords: Neuroscience, infant, child, Near Infrared Spectroscopy, fNIRS, optical tomography, cognitive neuroscience, psychology, brain, developmental cognitive neuroscience, analysis
1Department of Psychology, Boston College
Event-related potential (ERP) recording is under utilized in Cognitive Neuroscience because data acquisition techniques are not readily available and this method often has poor spatial resolution. To foster the increased use of ERPs in Cognitive Neuroscience, the present article details key techniques involved in high density ERP data acquisition.
Published April 16, 2010. Keywords: Neuroscience, ERP, electrodes, methods, setup
1Centre for Neuroscience, University of Alberta, 2Neuroscience Program, University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, 3Center for Cognitive Neuroscience, Duke University, 4Psychology Department, Neuroscience Program, & Beckman Institute, University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign
We present a protocol that uses functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate the neural correlates of the memory-enhancing effect of emotion. This protocol allows identification of brain activity specifically linked to memory-related processing, contrary to more general perceptual processing, and can be used with healthy and clinical populations.
Published May 4, 2011. Keywords: Neuroscience, Affect, Recognition, Recollection, Dm Effect, Neuroimaging
Here are some highlights from the August 2011 Issue of Journal of Visualized Experiments (JoVE).
Published August 1, 2011. Keywords: This Month in JoVE,