Event-related potential (ERP) recording is under utilized in Cognitive Neuroscience because data acquisition techniques are not readily available and this method often has poor spatial resolution. To foster the increased use of ERPs in Cognitive Neuroscience, the present article details key techniques involved in high density ERP data acquisition.
Modeling Biological Membranes with Circuit Boards and Measuring Electrical Signals in Axons: Student Laboratory Exercises
This is a demonstration of how biological membranes can be understood using electrical models. We also demonstrate procedures for recording action potentials from the ventral nerve cord of the crayfish for student orientated laboratories.
1NRW Research Group 'Dendritic integration in the CNS', Department of Epileptology, University of Bonn, 2Neuronal Networks Group, Deutsches Zentrum für Neurodegenerative Erkrankungen e.V. (DZNE)
In this article we introduce fast micro-iontophoresis of neurotransmitters as a technique to investigate integration of postsynaptic signals with high spatial and temporal precision.
Published July 31, 2013. Keywords: Neuroscience, Neurobiology, Molecular Biology, Cellular Biology, Physiology, Biomedical Engineering, Biophysics, Biochemistry, biology (general), animal biology, Nervous System, Life Sciences (General), Neurosciences, brain slices, dendrites, inhibition, excitation, glutamate, GABA, micro-iontophoresis, iontophoresis, neurons, patch clamp, whole cell recordings
Membrane Potentials, Synaptic Responses, Neuronal Circuitry, Neuromodulation and Muscle Histology Using the Crayfish: Student Laboratory Exercises
The experiments demonstrate an easy approach for students to gain experience in examining muscle structure, synaptic responses, the effects of ion gradients and permeability on membrane potentials. Also, a sensory-CNS-motor-muscle circuit is presented to show a means to test effects of compounds on a neuronal circuit.
Waste Water Derived Electroactive Microbial Biofilms: Growth, Maintenance, and Basic Characterization
1Department of Environmental Microbiology, UFZ - Helmholtz-Centre for Environmental Research
Chronoamperometric growth of anodic electroactive microbial biofilms in a fed-batch reactor using a three-electrode setup, controlled by a potentiostat, is demonstrated. The extracellular electron transfer is characterized using cyclic voltammetry in the presence of the electron donor and in the absence of the electron donor. Fundamental data analysis is demonstrated.
Published December 29, 2013. Keywords: Environmental Sciences, Electrochemistry, Microbial fuel cell, microbial bioelectrochemical system, cyclic voltammetry, electroactive bacteria, microbial bioelectrochemistry, bioelectrocatalysis
Modeling Neural Immune Signaling of Episodic and Chronic Migraine Using Spreading Depression In Vitro
Migraine and its transformation to chronic migraine are immense healthcare burdens in need of improved treatment options. We seek to define how neural immune signaling modulates the susceptibility to migraine, modeled in vitro using spreading depression in hippocampal slice cultures, as a means to develop novel therapeutic targets.
Published June 13, 2011. Keywords: Neuroscience, innate immunity, hormesis, microglia, T-cells, hippocampus, slice culture, gene expression, laser dissection microscopy, real-time qPCR, interferon-gamma
We have developed an intact brain-spinal cord preparation to record and monitor electrical activity via patch clamp recording from the Mauthner neurons and other reticulospinal cells in zebrafish embryos. Thus, we are able to record excitatory and inhibitory synaptic currents, voltage-gated channel activity and action potentials from key neurons in a developing embryo.
Published September 10, 2013. Keywords: Neuroscience, Synapses, Zebrafish, Ligand-Gated Ion Channels, Neurosciences, Mauthner cells, reticulospinal neurons, Zebrafish, synapse, ion channels, AMPA receptors, NMDA receptors, action potentials, glycine receptors
1Graduate Program in Neuroscience, University of California Riverside, 2Department of Cell Biology and Neuroscience, University of California Riverside, 3Center for Glial-Neuronal Interactions, University of California Riverside
Here we describe an adaptation of protocols used to induce homeostatic plasticity in neurons for the study of plasticity of astrocytic G protein-coupled receptors. Recently used to examine changes in astrocytic group I mGluRs in juvenile mice, the method can be applied to measure scaling of various astrocytic GPCRs, in tissue from adult mice in situ and in vivo, and to gain a better appreciation of the sensitivity of astrocytic receptors to changes in neuronal activity.
Isolation and Functional Characterization of Human Ventricular Cardiomyocytes from Fresh Surgical Samples
1Department NeuroFarBa, Division of Pharmacology, University of Florence, 2Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Physiology, University of Florence
Current knowledge on the cellular basis of cardiac diseases mostly relies on studies on animal models. Here we describe and validate a novel method to obtain single viable cardiomyocytes from small surgical samples of human ventricular myocardium. Human ventricular myocytes can be used for electrophysiological studies and drug testing.
Published April 21, 2014. Keywords: Medicine, cardiology, cardiac cells, electrophysiology, excitation-contraction coupling, action potential, calcium, myocardium, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, cardiac patients, cardiac disease
1Brain and Cognition, University of Amsterdam
Reading in color is a new method for training letter-color associations that are typically found only in grapheme-color synesthetes. It involves an implicit form of training that has potential for long-term associative training methods because the training is a byproduct of reading and any text can be colored.