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Evoked Potentials, Motor: The electrical response evoked in a muscle or motor nerve by electrical or magnetic stimulation. Common methods of stimulation are by transcranial electrical and Transcranial magnetic stimulation. It is often used for monitoring during neurosurgery.
 JoVE Medicine

A Multimodal Imaging- and Stimulation-based Method of Evaluating Connectivity-related Brain Excitability in Patients with Epilepsy

1Department of Neurology, Harvard Medical School, 2Department of Neurology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, 3Berenson-Allen Center for Noninvasive Brain Stimulation, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, 4Department of Brain and Cognitive Sciences, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 5Department of Neurology, Massachusetts General Hospital


JoVE 53727

 Science Education: Essentials of Neuropsychology

Using TMS to Measure Motor Excitability During Action Observation

JoVE Science Education

Source: Laboratories of Jonas T. Kaplan and Sarah I. Gimbel—University of Southern California

Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) is a non-invasive brain stimulation technique that involves passing current through an insulated coil placed against the scalp. A brief magnetic field is created by current in the coil, and because of the physical process of induction, this leads to a current in the nearby neural tissue. Depending on the duration, frequency, and magnitude of these magnetic pulses, the underlying neural circuitry can be affected in many different ways. Here, we demonstrate the technique of single-pulse TMS, in which one brief magnetic pulse is used to stimulate the neocortex. One observable effect of TMS is that it can produce muscle twitches when applied over the motor cortex. Due to the somatotopic organization of the motor cortex, different muscles can be targeted depending on the precise placement of the coil. The electrical signals that cause these muscle twitches, called motor evoked potentials, or MEPs, can be recorded and quantified by electrodes placed on the skin over the targeted muscle. The amplitude of MEPs can be interpreted to reflect the underlying excitability of the motor cortex; for example, when the motor cortex is activated, observed MEPs are larger.

 JoVE Behavior

Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation to the Unilateral Hemisphere of Rat Brain

1Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, Chungnam National University Hospital, Daejeon, 2Department of Biomedical Engineering, Seoul National University College of Medicine, 3Institute of Medical and Biological Engineering, Medical Research Center, Seoul National University, 4Department of Biomedical Engineering, Seoul National University Hospital, 5Department of Nuclear Medicine, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul National University College of Medicine, 6Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, Gangwon Do Rehabilitation Hospital, 7Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul National University College of Medicine


JoVE 54217

 JoVE Medicine

Technique and Considerations in the Use of 4x1 Ring High-definition Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (HD-tDCS)

1Laboratory of Neuromodulation, Department of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation, Spaulding Rehabilitation Hospital and Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, 2School of Medicine, Pontifical Catholic University of Ecuador, 3Charité University Medicine Berlin, 4The City College of The City University of New York, 5Headache & Orofacial Pain Effort (H.O.P.E.), Biologic & Materials Sciences, School of Dentistry, University of Michigan


JoVE 50309

 JoVE Neuroscience

The Use of Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy as a Tool for the Measurement of Bi-hemispheric Transcranial Electric Stimulation Effects on Primary Motor Cortex Metabolism

1Department of Psychology, University of Montréal, 2Montreal Neurological Institute, McGill University, 3Center for Magnetic Resonance Research and Department of Radiology, University of Minnesota


JoVE 51631

 JoVE Medicine

MRI-guided dmPFC-rTMS as a Treatment for Treatment-resistant Major Depressive Disorder

1Institute of Medical Sciences, University of Toronto, 2MRI-Guided rTMS Clinic, University Health Network, 3Department of Psychiatry, University Health Network, 4Toronto Western Research Institute, University Health Network, 5Department of Psychiatry, University of Toronto, 6Faculty of Arts and Science, University of Toronto, 7Temerty Centre for Therapeutic Brain Intervention, Centre for Addiction and Mental Health


JoVE 53129

 JoVE Behavior

Combined Invasive Subcortical and Non-invasive Surface Neurophysiological Recordings for the Assessment of Cognitive and Emotional Functions in Humans

1Institute of Clinical Neuroscience and Medical Psychology, Medical Faculty, Heinrich-Heine-University, 2Department of Neurology, Center for Movement Disorders and Neuromodulation, University Clinic Düsseldorf, 3Department of Neurosurgery, Functional Neurosurgery and Stereotaxy, Center for Movement Disorders and Neuromodulation, University Clinic Düsseldorf


JoVE 53466

 JoVE Behavior

Flat-floored Air-lifted Platform: A New Method for Combining Behavior with Microscopy or Electrophysiology on Awake Freely Moving Rodents

1Neuroscience Center, University of Helsinki, 2Neurotar LTD, 3A. I. Virtanen Institute for Molecular Sciences, University of Eastern Finland, 4Laboratory Animal Center, University of Helsinki


JoVE 51869

 JoVE Neuroscience

Non-restraining EEG Radiotelemetry: Epidural and Deep Intracerebral Stereotaxic EEG Electrode Placement

1Department of Neuropsychopharmacology, Federal Institute for Drugs and Medical Devices (Bundesinstitut für Arzneimittel und Medizinprodukte, BfArM), 2Molecular and Cellular Cognition Lab, German Center for Neurodegenerative Diseases (Deutsches Zentrum für Neurodegenerative Erkrankungen, DZNE)


JoVE 54216

 JoVE Behavior

Simultaneous EEG Monitoring During Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation

1Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciências Médica, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, 2Coordenacao de Aperfeicoamento de Pessoal de Nivel Superior (CAPES), 3Laboratory of Neuromodulation, Department of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation, Spaulding Rehabilitation Hospital and Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, 4De Montfort University


JoVE 50426

 JoVE Behavior

Performing Behavioral Tasks in Subjects with Intracranial Electrodes

1Department of Neurosciences, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, 2Epilepsy Center, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, 3Department of Neurosciences and Center for Neurological Restoration, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, 4Department of Biomedical Engineering, Johns Hopkins University


JoVE 51947

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