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Heart Block: Impaired conduction of cardiac impulse that can occur anywhere along the conduction pathway, such as between the Sinoatrial node and the right atrium (Sa block) or between atria and ventricles (Av block). Heart blocks can be classified by the duration, frequency, or completeness of conduction block. Reversibility depends on the degree of structural or functional defects.
 JoVE Medicine

Method of Isolated Ex Vivo Lung Perfusion in a Rat Model: Lessons Learned from Developing a Rat EVLP Program

1Department of Biomedical Engineering, Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center, 2Davis Heart & Lung Research Institute, Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center, 3The Collaboration for Organ Perfusion, Protection, Engineering and Regeneration (COPPER) Laboratory, Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center, 4Division of Cardiac Surgery, Department of Surgery, Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center, 5Departments of Pediatrics and Internal Medicine, Ohio State University, 6Advanced Lung Disease Program, Lung and Heart-Lung Transplant Programs, Nationwide Children's Hospital, 7Division of Transplantation, Department of Surgery, Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center


JoVE 52309

 JoVE In-Press

Drosophila Preparation and Longitudinal Imaging of Heart Function In Vivo Using Optical Coherence Microscopy

1Bioengineering Program, Lehigh University, 2Center for Photonics and Nanoelectronics, Lehigh University, 3Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Lehigh University, 4State Key Laboratory of Software Engineering, Wuhan University, 5Genetics and Aging Research Unit, Department of Neurology, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School

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JoVE 55002

 JoVE Immunology and Infection

In Situ Detection of Autoreactive CD4 T Cells in Brain and Heart Using Major Histocompatibility Complex Class II Dextramers

1School of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, 2Center for Biotechnology, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, 3Nebraska Center for Virology and School of Biological Sciences, University of Nebraska, Lincoln


JoVE 51679

 JoVE Medicine

Chick Heart Invasion Assay for Testing the Invasiveness of Cancer Cells and the Activity of Potentially Anti-invasive Compounds

1Department of Radiation Oncology and Experimental Cancer Research, University of Ghent, 2Department of Sustainable Organic Chemistry and Technology, University of Ghent, 3Department of Chemistry, University of Delhi


JoVE 52792

 JoVE Medicine

Development of an Algorithm to Perform a Comprehensive Study of Autonomic Dysreflexia in Animals with High Spinal Cord Injury Using a Telemetry Device

1International Collaboration on Repair Discoveries (ICORD), Faculty of Medicine, University of British Columbia, 2Department of Medicine, Division of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, University of British Columbia, GF Strong Rehabilitation Centre


JoVE 52809

 Science Education: Essentials of Physical Examinations I

Cardiac Exam III: Abnormal Heart Sounds

JoVE Science Education

Source: Suneel Dhand, MD, Attending Physician, Internal Medicine, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center

Having a fundamental understanding of normal heart sounds is the first step toward distinguishing the normal from the abnormal. Murmurs are sounds that represent turbulent and abnormal blood flow across a heart valve. They are caused either by stenosis (valve area too narrow) or regurgitation (backflow of blood across the valve) and are commonly heard as a "swishing" sound during auscultation. Murmurs are graded from 1 to 6 in intensity (1 being the softest and 6 the loudest) (Figure 1). The most common cardiac murmurs heard are left-sided murmurs of the aortic and mitral valves. Right-sided murmurs of the pulmonary and tricuspid valves are less common. Murmurs are typically heard loudest at the anatomical area that corresponds with the valvular pathology. Frequently, they also radiate to other areas. Figure 1. The Levine scale used to grade murmur intensity. In addition to the two main heart sounds, S1 and S2, which are normally produced by the closing of heart valves, there are two other abnormal heart sounds, known as S3 and S4. These are also known as

 JoVE Developmental Biology

Rapid Acquisition of 3D Images Using High-resolution Episcopic Microscopy

1Department of Pediatric Surgery, The Second Affiliated Hospital & Yuying Children's Hospital, Wenzhou Medical University, 2Departments of Urology, Boston Children's Hospital, 3Department of Surgery, Harvard Medical School, 4Department of Cardiovascular Surgery, Guangdong Cardiovascular Institute, Guangdong General Hospital, Guangdong Academy of Medical Sciences


JoVE 54625

 JoVE Developmental Biology

Understanding Early Organogenesis Using a Simplified In Situ Hybridization Protocol in Xenopus

1Developmental and Stem Cell Biology, Hospital for Sick Children, 2Children's Health Research Institute, University of Western Ontario, 3Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, University of Western Ontario, 4Neurosciences and Mental Health, Hospital for Sick Children, 5Department of Paediatrics, University of Western Ontario


JoVE 51526

 JoVE Medicine

Quantitative Analysis of Chromatin Proteomes in Disease

1Department of Anesthesiology, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, 2Department of Medicine, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, 3Department of Physiology, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, 4Department of Internal Medicine, Nora Eccles Harrison Cardiovascular Research and Training Institute, University of Utah


JoVE 4294

 JoVE Bioengineering

Quantification of Global Diastolic Function by Kinematic Modeling-based Analysis of Transmitral Flow via the Parametrized Diastolic Filling Formalism

1Department of Biomedical Engineering, Washington University in St. Louis, 2Department of Physics, Washington University in St. Louis, 3Division of Biology and Biomedical Sciences, Washington University in St. Louis, 4Department of Medicine, Cardiovascular Division, Washington University in St. Louis, 5Cardiovascular Biophysics Lab, Washington University in St. Louis


JoVE 51471

 JoVE Developmental Biology

Imaging Subcellular Structures in the Living Zebrafish Embryo

1Institute of Neuronal Cell Biology, Technische Universität München, 2Cell Biology, Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Utrecht University, 3Faculty of Biology, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität-München, 4Adolf-Butenandt-Institute, Biochemistry, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität-München, 5German Center for Neurodegenerative Diseases, 6Laboratory of Brain Development and Repair, The Rockefeller University


JoVE 53456

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