We describe two methods for conditional trans-complementation of hepatitis C virus (HCV) assembly and the completion of the full viral life cycle, which rely on heterokaryon formation. These techniques are suitable to screen for cell lines that express dominant restriction factors, which preclude production of infectious HCV progeny.
A protocol for preparation of robust, small-scale HeLa nuclear extracts is described. This protocol is valuable for assays that require use of small populations of cells, such as cells treated with drugs or RNAi. The method should be applicable to a wide variety of gene expression assays and other cell types, including patient cells.
Published June 27, 2012. Keywords: Cellular Biology, Genetics, HeLa nuclear extract, small-scale extract, pre-mRNA splicing, RNA polymerase II transcription, RNAi, coupled transcription/splicing, in vitro gene expression assays
The present article describes the steps required to isolate and characterize RNA polymerase fidelity variants of RNA viruses and how to use mutation frequency data to confirm fidelity changes in tissue culture.
1Dynamique des Interactions Hôte Pathogène, Institut Pasteur, Paris, France, 2Imagopole, Institut Pasteur, Paris, France, 3Pathogenomique Mycobacterienne Integrée, Institut Pasteur, Paris, France
We describe a method for tracking the endomembrane rupture elicited by the intracellular bacteria Shigella flexneri and Mycobacterium tuberculosis upon host cell invasion. Our assay makes use of CCF4, a host cytoplasmic FRET probe in live or fixed cells. This reporter is degraded by an enzyme activity present on the bacterial surface.
Published June 12, 2013. Keywords: Infection, Infectious Diseases, Immunology, Medicine, Microbiology, Biochemistry, Cellular Biology, Molecular Biology, Pathology, Bacteria, biology (general), life sciences, CCF4-AM, Shigella flexneri, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, vacuolar rupture, fluorescence microscopy, confocal microscopy, pathogens, cell culture
Imaging InlC Secretion to Investigate Cellular Infection by the Bacterial Pathogen Listeria monocytogenes
1Unité des Interactions Bactéries Cellules, Pasteur Institute, 2INSERM U604, 3Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique (INRA), USC2020, 4Institute of Biochemistry, ETH Zürich, 5Focal Area Infection Biology, Biozentrum, University of Basel
Listeria monocytogenes is a Gram positive bacterial pathogen frequently used as a major model for the study of intracellular parasitism. Imaging late L. monocytogenes infection stages within the context of small-interfering RNA screens allows for the global study of cellular pathways required for bacterial infection of target host cells.
Published September 19, 2013. Keywords: Immunology, HeLa Cells, Listeria monocytogenes, Gram-positive Bacterial Infections, Fluorescence, High-Throughput Screening Assays, RNA Interference, Listeria monocytogenes, Infection, microscopy, small interfering RNA
1Institute for Clinical Neurobiology, University of Wuerzburg, 2Department of Synapses - Circuits - Plasticity, Max Planck Institute of Neurobiology, Martinsried, 3Walter Brendel Centre of Experimental Medicine, Ludwig-Maximilians University of Munich
Targeted-esterase induced dye loading (TED) supports the analysis of intracellular calcium store dynamics by fluorescence imaging. The method bases on targeting of a recombinant Carboxylesterase to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), where it improves the local unmasking of synthetic low-affinity Ca2+ indicator dyes in the ER lumen.
Published May 7, 2013. Keywords: Cellular Biology, Neurobiology, Neuroscience, Molecular Biology, Biochemistry, Biomedical Engineering, Bioengineering, Virology, Medicine, Anatomy, Physiology, Surgery, Endoplasmic Reticulum, ER, Calcium Signaling, calcium store, calcium imaging, calcium indicator, metabotropic signaling, Ca2+, neurons, cells, mouse, animal model, cell culture, targeted esterase induced dye loading, imaging
This method describes high yield in vitro synthesis of both capped and uncapped mRNA from a linearized plasmid containing the Gaussia luciferase (GLuc) gene. The RNA is purified and a fraction of the uncapped RNA is enzymatically capped using the Vaccinia virus capping enzyme. In the final step, the mRNA is transfected into HeLa cells and cell culture supernatants are assayed for luciferase activity.
1Department of Structural Biology, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, 2Department of Cell Biology and Physiology, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine
We describe a correlative microscopy method that combines high-speed 3D live-cell fluorescent light microscopy and high-resolution cryo-electron tomography. We demonstrate the capability of the correlative method by imaging dynamic, small HIV-1 particles interacting with host HeLa cells.
Published June 24, 2013. Keywords: Bioengineering, Molecular Biology, Structural Biology, Virology, Biophysics, Cellular Biology, Physiology, Medicine, Biomedical Engineering, Infection, Microbiology, Technology, Industry, Agriculture, Life Sciences (General), Correlative microscopy, CryoET, Cryo-electron tomography, Confocal live-cell imaging, Cryo-fluorescence light microscopy, HIV-1, capsid, HeLa cell, cell, virus, microscopy, imaging
A method for the assembly of adhesive and soluble gradients in a microscopy chamber for live cell migration studies is described. The engineered environment combines antifouling surfaces and adhesive tracks with solution gradients and therefore allows one to determine the relative importance of guidance cues.
Published April 4, 2013. Keywords: Bioengineering, Microbiology, Cellular Biology, Biochemistry, Molecular Biology, Biophysics, Cell migration, live cell imaging, soluble and adherent gradients, microcontact printing, dip pen lithography, microfluidics, RGD, PEG, biotin, streptavidin, chemotaxis, chemoattractant, imaging
Analysis of RNA Processing Reactions Using Cell Free Systems: 3' End Cleavage of Pre-mRNA Substrates in vitro
1Department of Infectious Diseases, The Scripps Research Institute, 2Department of Chemistry, City College of New York
RNA polymerase II synthesizes a precursor RNA that extends beyond the 3' end of the mature mRNA. The end of the mature RNA is generated cotranscriptionally, at a site dictated by RNA sequences, via the endonuclease activity of the cleavage complex. Here, we detail the method to study cleavage reactions in vitro.