Due to the simplicity of surgery and the robust behavioural outcome, chronic constriction of the sciatic nerve is one of the pre-eminent animal models of neuropathic pain. Within 24 hrs following surgery, pain hypersensitivity is established and can be quantitatively measured using a von Frey aesthesiometer (mechanical test) and plantar analgesia meter (thermal test).
This video demonstrates how to employ two neural stimulants, aldicarb and pentylenetetrazole (PTZ), in complementary ways to study synaptic function in the nematode, C. elegans. This complementary approach may also be used to shed light on evolutionarily conserved mechanisms for modulating neuronal synchrony and has implications for epilepsy and seizures.
1Department of Molecular Biology, University of Salzburg, 2Department of Neurology, Paracelsus Medical University, 3Department of Dermatology, Paracelsus Medical University, 4Bühlmann Laboratories, 5Christian Doppler Laboratory for Allergy Diagnosis and Therapy, University of Salzburg
Basophil activation test is a potent tool for the detection of IgE-dependent allergies in vitro. Here, an optimized protocol for basophil activation test is used to investigate drug hypersensitivity. A method for the efficient production of covalent drug-protein conjugates and their physicochemical characterization is described.
Delayed type hypersensitivity (DTH) is an inflammatory reaction mediated by CCR7- effector memory T (TEM) lymphocytes. Here we demonstrate how to activate antigen-specific TEM cells, induce adoptive DTH in Lewis rats and monitor the inflammatory response.
Delayed type hypersensitivity (DTH) is an inflammatory reaction mediated by CCR7- effector memory T lymphocytes. Here we demonstrate how to induce active DTH in Lewis rats and monitor the inflammatory response.
Probe-based confocal laser endomicroscopy enables real-time microscopy of the human urinary tract during cystoscopy, providing dynamic, intravital imaging of pathological states such as bladder cancer with cellular resolution. Endomicroscopy may augment the diagnostic accuracy of standard white light endoscopy and provide intraoperative image guidance to improve surgical resection.
We describe a valuable diagnostic assay that could potentially be used to decide the withdrawal of immunosuppression after transplant without elevated risk of graft rejection. The assay uses the principles of Delayed Type Hypersensitivity and provides accurate assessment of both donor specific effector and regulatory immune responses mounted by recipients.
1The Lundbeck Foundation Research Center MIND, Department of Biomedicine, Aarhus University, 2Department of Pharmacology and Pharmacotherapy, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Copenhagen
The Spared Nerve Injury animal model is described here as a mouse model of peripheral neuropathic pain following partial denervation of the sciatic nerve by lesioning the tibial and common peroneal nerve branches, leaving the remaining sural nerve intact. Behavioral modification resulting from mechanical allodynia is quantified by von Frey filaments.
Here we demonstrate a method for inducing and recording the progress of a delayed type-hypersensitivity (DTH) reaction in the rat ear. This is followed by a demonstration of the preparation of rat ear tissue for two-photon imaging of the effector / memory T cell response.
We describe two tactile sensory testing methods for acute or chronic periods of spinal cord injury in rats. These validated procedures can detect the development and maintenance of allodynia-like sensations.
We describe a strategy to monitor maturation and migration of pulmonary dendritic cells in response to ovalbumin in the setting of ovalbumin induced allergic airway inflammation. This strategy can be modified to assess migration of pulmonary dendritic cells in settings of infection.
Blood draws are necessary in a large number of studies, for example to study the pharmacokinetics profile of a compound. Here, we demonstrate how to draw blood from rats using two techniques: blood draw from the saphenous vein or by cardiac puncture.
Identifying the Effects of BRCA1 Mutations on Homologous Recombination using Cells that Express Endogenous Wild-type BRCA1
We provide a method for testing BRCA1 variants in a tissue culture based assay for homologous recombination repair of DNA damage by depleting endogenous BRCA1 protein from a cell using RNAi and replacing it with a BRCA1 point mutant that contains a coding change.
This protocol describes a non-viral method of delivery of genetic constructs to a certain area of living rodent brain. The method consists of plasmid preparation, micropipette fabrication, neonatal rat pup surgery, microinjection of the construct, and in vivo electroporation.
Here, we describe a rapid reliable and simple procedure to determine the lowest temperature at which rats or mice show nocifensive behavior, i.e. the thermal nociceptive threshold (TNT). This method applies a slowly increasing thermal stimulus allowing precise and reproducible estimation of TNTs with minimum, if any, stress to the animals.
1Meakins-Christie Laboratories, Department of Medicine, McGill University, 2SCIREQ Scientific Respiratory Equipment Inc.
The present protocol provides a detailed step-by-step description of the procedures required to execute measurements of respiratory system mechanics as well as the assessment of airway responsiveness to inhaled methacholine in mice using the forced oscillation technique (flexiVent; SCIREQ Inc, Montreal, Qc, Canada).
Intraspinal Cell Transplantation for Targeting Cervical Ventral Horn in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis and Traumatic Spinal Cord Injury
Neural precursor transplantation is a promising strategy for protecting and/or replacing lost/dysfunctional cervical phrenic motor neurons in spinal cord injury (SCI) and the motor neuron disorder, amyotrophic laterals sclerosis (ALS). We provide a protocol for cell delivery to cervical spinal cord ventral horn in rodent models of ALS and SCI.
Mapping Bacterial Functional Networks and Pathways in Escherichia Coli using Synthetic Genetic Arrays
1Department of Molecular Genetics, University of Toronto, 2Banting and Best Department of Medical Research, Donnelly Centre, University of Toronto, 3Department of Biochemistry, Research and Innovation Centre, University of Regina
Systematic, large-scale synthetic genetic (gene-gene or epistasis) interaction screens can be used to explore genetic redundancy and pathway cross-talk. Here, we describe a high-throughput quantitative synthetic genetic array screening technology, termed eSGA that we developed for elucidating epistatic relationships and exploring genetic interaction networks in Escherichia coli.