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Hypotension, Controlled:
 JoVE In-Press

Standardized Colon Ascendens Stent Peritonitis in Rats - a Simple, Feasible Animal Model to Induce Septic Acute Kidney Injury

1Department of Anesthesiology and Intensive Care Medicine, University Medical Center, 2Department of Anesthesia and Critical Care, University of Würzburg, 3Department of General, Visceral, Vascular and Paediatric Surgery, Department of Surgery I, University of Würzburg, 4Department of Internal Medicine I, Division of Nephrology, University Hospital Würzburg, 5Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, West Virginia University School of Medicine

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JoVE 54448

 JoVE Bioengineering

Training Persons with Spinal Cord Injury to Ambulate Using a Powered Exoskeleton

1Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) Rehabilitation Research and Development National Center of Excellence for the Medical Consequences of Spinal Cord Injury, James J. Peters VA Medical Center, 2Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) Spinal Cord Injury Service, James J. Peters VA Medical Center


JoVE 54071

 JoVE Medicine

Contrast Enhanced Ultrasound Imaging for Assessment of Spinal Cord Blood Flow in Experimental Spinal Cord Injury

1Laboratoire d'étude de la microcirculation, Faculté de Médecine Paris Diderot Paris VII, U942, 2Department of orthopaedic surgery, Bicetre Universitary Hospital, Public Assistance of Paris Hospital, 3Institute of Medical Science, Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto, 4Department of Intensive care and Anesthesiology, Bicetre Universitary Hospital, Public Assistance of Paris Hospital


JoVE 52536

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 JoVE Medicine

Percutaneous Hepatic Perfusion (PHP) with Melphalan as a Treatment for Unresectable Metastases Confined to the Liver

1Department of Surgery, Leiden University Medical Centre, 2Department of Radiology, Leiden University Medical Centre, 3Department of Anesthesiology, Leiden University Medical Centre, 4Department of Extracorporeal Circulation, Leiden University Medical Centre, 5Department of Medical Oncology, Leiden University Medical Centre, 6Department of Surgery, Erasmus MC Cancer Institute


JoVE 53795

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 Science Education: Essentials of Physical Examinations I

Blood Pressure Measurement

JoVE Science Education

Source: Meghan Fashjian, ACNP-BC, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston MA

The term blood pressure (BP) describes lateral pressures produced by blood upon the vessel walls. BP is a vital sign obtained routinely in hospital and outpatient settings, and is one of the most common medical assessments performed around the world. It can be determined directly with the intra-arterial catheter or by indirect method, which is a non-invasive, safe, easily reproducible, and thus most used technique. One of the most important applications of BP measurements is the screening, diagnosis, and monitoring of hypertension, a condition that affects almost one third of the U.S. adult population and is one of the leading causes of the cardiovascular disease. BP can be measured automatically by oscillometry or manually by auscultation utilizing a sphygmomanometer, a device with an inflatable cuff to collapse the artery and a manometer to measure the pressure. Determination of the pulse-obliterating pressure by palpation is done prior to auscultation to give a rough estimate of the target systolic pressure. Next, the examiner places a stethoscope over the brachial artery of the patient, inflates the cuff above the expected systolic pressure, and then auscultates while deflating the cuff and o

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 Science Education: Essentials of Emergency Medicine and Critical Care

Needle Thoracostomy

JoVE Science Education

Source: Rachel Liu, BAO, MBBCh, Emergency Medicine, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut, USA

A tension pneumothorax is a life-threatening situation in which excess air is introduced into the pleural space surrounding the lung, either through trauma to the chest cavity or as a spontaneous leak of air from the lung itself. Air trapped within the pleural space causes separation of the lung from the chest wall, disrupting normal breathing mechanisms. Pneumothoraces may be small without conversion to tension, but when there is a significant and expanding amount of air trapped in the pleural cavity, the increasing pressure from this abnormal air causes the lung to shrink and collapse, leading to respiratory distress. This pressure also pushes the mediastinum (including the heart and great vessels) away from its central position, causing inability of blood to return to the heart and diminishing the cardiac output. Tension pneumothoraces cause chest pain, extreme shortness of breath, respiratory failure, hypoxia, tachycardia and hypotension. They need to be relieved emergently when a patient is in extremis. Tension pneumothoraces are definitively managed by insertion of a chest tube or other procedures that allow removal of trapped air. However, materials for chest tube placement are typically

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 Science Education: Essentials of Emergency Medicine and Critical Care

Pericardiocentesis

JoVE Science Education

Source: Rachel Liu, BAO, MBBCh, Emergency Medicine, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut, USA

The heart lies within the pericardium, a relatively inelastic fibrous sac. The pericardium has some compliance to stretch when fluid is slowly introduced into the pericardial space. However, rapid accumulation overwhelms pericardial ability to accommodate extra fluid. Once a critical volume is reached, intrapericardial pressure increases dramatically, compressing the right ventricle and eventually impeding the volume that enters the left ventricle. When these chambers cannot fill in diastole, stroke volume and cardiac output are diminished, leading to cardiac tamponade, a life-threatening compression of the cardiac chambers by a pericardial effusion. Unless the pressure is relieved by aspiration of pericardial fluid (pericardiocentesis), cardiac arrest is imminent. Cardiac tamponadeis a critical emergency that can carry high morbidity and mortality. Patients may present in extremis, without much time to make the diagnosis and perform life-saving treatments. Causes of this condition are broken into traumatic and non-traumatic categories, with different treatment algorithms. Stab and gunshot wounds are the primary cause of traumatic tamponade, but it may occur from blunt trauma associated with s

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 JoVE Developmental Biology

Instrumentation of Near-term Fetal Sheep for Multivariate Chronic Non-anesthetized Recordings

1Département de sciences cliniques, CHUV, Université de Montréal, St-Hyacinthe, QC, 2Département d'obstetriques et de gynécologie, CHU Ste-Justine Research Centre, Université de Montréal, 3Département de neurosciences, CHU Ste-Justine Centre de recherche, Université de Montréal, 4Centre de recherche en reproduction animale (CRRA), Université de Montréal, St-Hyacinthe, QC


JoVE 52581

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 JoVE Chemistry

Microfluidic Pneumatic Cages: A Novel Approach for In-chip Crystal Trapping, Manipulation and Controlled Chemical Treatment

1Empa - Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, 2Institute of Chemical and Bioengineering, Department of Chemistry and Applied Bioscience, ETH Zurich, 3ICN2-Institut Catala de Nanociencia i Nanotecnologia, 4WITec GmbH, 5Institut de Ciència de Materials de Barcelona, 6School of Chemistry, The University of Nottingham


JoVE 54193

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 JoVE Medicine

Human Brown Adipose Tissue Depots Automatically Segmented by Positron Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography and Registered Magnetic Resonance Images

1Chemical and Physical Biology Program, Vanderbilt University, 2Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, 3Radiology & Radiological Sciences, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, 4Department of Pharmacology, Vanderbilt University


JoVE 52415

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 JoVE Immunology and Infection

Rapid Identification of Gram Negative Bacteria from Blood Culture Broth Using MALDI-TOF Mass Spectrometry

1Centre for Infectious Diseases and Microbiology Laboratory Services, Institute of Clinical Pathology and Medical Research, Westmead Hospital, 2Centre for Research Excellence in Critical Infection, Westmead Millennium Institute, Westmead Hospital, 3Sydney Emerging Infectious Diseases Institute, University of Sydney, Westmead Hospital


JoVE 51663

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 JoVE Bioengineering

Environmentally-controlled Microtensile Testing of Mechanically-adaptive Polymer Nanocomposites for ex vivo Characterization

1Advanced Platform Technology Center, Rehabilitation Research and Development, Louis Stokes Cleveland Department of Veterans Affairs Medical Center, 2Department of Biomedical Engineering, Case Western Reserve University, 3Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Case Western Reserve University


JoVE 50078

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 JoVE Bioengineering

Construction of Defined Human Engineered Cardiac Tissues to Study Mechanisms of Cardiac Cell Therapy

1Cardiovascular Research Center, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, 2The Mindich Child Health and Development Institute, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, 3Stem Cell & Regenerative Medicine Consortium, LKS Faculty of Medicine, University of Hong Kong


JoVE 53447

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 JoVE Bioengineering

Studying Soft-matter and Biological Systems over a Wide Length-scale from Nanometer and Micrometer Sizes at the Small-angle Neutron Diffractometer KWS-2

1Jülich Centre for Neutron Science Outstation at MLZ, Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, 2Department of Chemistry, Louisiana State University, 3Jülich Centre for Neutron Science JCNS-1 & Institute of Complex Systems ICS-1, Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, 4Central Institute of Engineering, Electronics and Analytics — Electronic Systems (ZEA-2), Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, 5Central Institute of Engineering, Electronics and Analytics — Engineering and Technology (ZEA-1), Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH


JoVE 54639

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