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 Science Education: Essentials of Cognitive Psychology

Dichotic Listening

JoVE Science Education

Source: Laboratory of Jonathan Flombaum—Johns Hopkins University

It is a well-known fact that the human ability to process incoming stimuli is limited. Nonetheless, the world is complicated, and there are always many things going on at once. Selective attention is the mechanism that allows humans and other animals to control which stimuli get processed and which become ignored. Think of a cocktail party: a person couldn’t possibly attend to all of the conversations taking place at once. However, everyone has the ability to selectively listen to one conversation, leading all the rest to become unattended to and nothing more than background noise. In order to study how people do this, researchers simulate a more controlled cocktail party environment by playing sounds to participants dichotically, i.e., by playing different sounds simultaneously to each ear. This is called a dichotic listening paradigm. This experiment demonstrates standard procedures for investigating selective auditory attention with a paradigm called dichotic listening.

 JoVE Medicine

Utilizing Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation to Improve Language Function in Stroke Patients with Chronic Non-fluent Aphasia

1Department of Neurology, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, 2Center for Cognitive Neuroscience, University of Pennsylvania, 3Veterans Affairs Boston Healthcare System, 4Harold Goodglass Aphasia Research Center, Boston University School of Medicine, 5Department of Neurology, Boston University School of Medicine


JoVE 50228

 Science Education: Essentials of Behavioral Science

An Introduction to Cognition

JoVE Science Education

Cognition encompasses mental processes such as memory, perception, decision-making reasoning and language. Cognitive scientists are using a combination of behavioral and neuropsychological techniques to investigate the underlying neural substrates of cognition. They are interested in understanding how information is perceived, processed and how does it affect the final execution of behaviors. With this knowledge, researchers hope to develop new treatments for individuals with cognitive impairments. JoVE's introduction to cognition reviews several components of this phenomenon, such as perception, attention, language comprehension, etc. Key questions in the field of cognition will be discussed along with specific methods currently being used to answer these questions. Finally, specific studies that investigate different aspects of cognition using tools like functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) or Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) will be explained.

 JoVE Neuroscience

Optogenetic Stimulation of the Auditory Nerve

1InnerEarLab, Department of Otolaryngology, University Medical Center Goettingen, 2Bernstein Focus for Neurotechnology, University of Goettingen, 3Auditory Systems Physiology Group, Department of Otolaryngology, University Medical Center Goettingen, 4Center for Nanoscale Microscopy and Molecular Physiology of the Brain, University of Goettingen, 5Department of Chemical, Electronic, and Biomedical Engineering, University of Guanajuato


JoVE 52069

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 JoVE Neuroscience

Recording Human Electrocorticographic (ECoG) Signals for Neuroscientific Research and Real-time Functional Cortical Mapping

1Wadsworth Center, New York State Department of Health, 2Department of Neurology, Albany Medical College, 3Department of Neurosurgery, Albany Medical College, 4Department of Neurosurgery, Washington University, 5Department of Biomed. Eng., Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, 6Department of Biomed. Sci., State University of New York at Albany, 7Department of Elec. and Comp. Eng., University of Texas at El Paso


JoVE 3993

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 Science Education: Essentials of Developmental Psychology

Mutual Exclusivity: How Children Learn the Meanings of Words

JoVE Science Education

Source: Laboratories of Nicholaus Noles and Judith Danovitch—University of Louisville

Humans are different from other animals in many ways, but perhaps the most important differentiating factor is their ability to use language. Other animals can communicate and even understand and use language in limited ways, but trying to teach human language to a chimp or a dog takes a great deal of time and effort. In contrast, young humans acquire their native language easily, and they learn linguistic rules without explicit instruction, which is an accomplishment that even the smartest animals cannot match.  One advantage young humans have over animals is that the human brain is especially adapted to learn new words. With only a few exposures, young children can learn new words and remember them. Perhaps more impressively, children can use what they already know to guide their future learning. For example, children treat objects as if they have only one label. So, if a child has learned the word hammer, they won’t assume an unfamiliar tool has the same name. This is the principle of mutual exclusivity.1-2 This video demonstrates children’s ability to use mutual exclusivity to match words to objects in their environment.

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 JoVE Neuroscience

Creating Objects and Object Categories for Studying Perception and Perceptual Learning

1Brain and Behavior Discovery Institute, Georgia Health Sciences University, 2Vision Discovery Institute, Georgia Health Sciences University, 3Department of Opthalmology, Georgia Health Sciences University, 4Intelligent Systems Laboratory, Palo Alto Research Center, 5Pattern Recognition Systems, Palo Alto Research Center, 6Department of Psychology, University of Minnesota


JoVE 3358

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 JoVE Neuroscience

A Simple Stimulatory Device for Evoking Point-like Tactile Stimuli: A Searchlight for LFP to Spike Transitions

1Institute of Molecular Bioimaging and Physiology (IBFM), Department of Biomedicine, National Research Council, 2Institute of Biomedical Technologies (ITB), Department of Biomedicine, National Research Council, 3Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Manchester


JoVE 50941

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 Science Education: Essentials of Cognitive Psychology

Visual Statistical Learning

JoVE Science Education

Source: Laboratory of Jonathan Flombaum—Johns Hopkins University

The visual environment contains massive amounts of information involving the relations between objects in space and time; certain objects are more likely to appear in the vicinity of other objects. Learning these regularities can support a wide array of visual processing, including object recognition. Unsurprisingly, then, humans appear to learn these regularities automatically, quickly, and without conscious awareness. The name for this type of implicit learning is visual statistical learning. In the laboratory, it is studied with an incidental-encoding paradigm: participants observe a stream of nonsense objects and complete a cover-task, a task unrelated to the underlying statistical structure in the stream. But statistical structure is present, and subsequent to a short exposure period—as short as 10 min in some experiments—a familiarity test reveals the extent of learning by the participants. This video will demonstrate standard methods for inducing and testing visual statistical learning.

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