Portable Intermodal Preferential Looking (IPL): Investigating Language Comprehension in Typically Developing Toddlers and Young Children with Autism
A reliable home-based way to assess the language comprehension of very young typically developing children, as well as those with autism, is described. The method analyzes children's eye gaze while viewing side-by-side images but hearing an audio that matches only one image. Stimuli are designed with young participants in mind.
Neuroimaging techniques, such as functional MRI and Diffusion Tensor Imaging have become increasingly useful in characterizing the cognitive and neural deficits in autism. An examination of brain connectivity in autism at a network level along with adaptations for scanning children with developmental disabilities is presented.
1Brain and Behavior Discovery Institute, Georgia Health Sciences University, 2Vision Discovery Institute, Georgia Health Sciences University, 3Department of Opthalmology, Georgia Health Sciences University, 4Intelligent Systems Laboratory, Palo Alto Research Center, 5Pattern Recognition Systems, Palo Alto Research Center, 6Department of Psychology, University of Minnesota
We describe a novel methodology for creating naturalistic 3-D objects and object categories with precisely defined feature variations. We use simulations of the biological processes of morphogenesis and phylogenesis to create novel, naturalistic virtual 3-D objects and object categories that can then be rendered as visual images or haptic objects.
The endplate potential (EPP) component can be extracted from the surface EMG using a digital filter. The extracted EPP shows oscillation with a frequency of about 30 Hz.
Assessment of Cerebral Lateralization in Children using Functional Transcranial Doppler Ultrasound (fTCD)
Functional transcranial Doppler sonography (fTCD) is a simple and non-invasive ultrasound technique which can be used to assess the lateralization of cognitive functions, especially language, and is suitable for use with children.
A test battery (IMAP) for performing an in-depth assessment of auditory and cognitive abilities contributing to listening skills is described. It is quick to administer, child-friendly and free from linguistic confounds. Stimulus generation and protocol management are controlled via a software platform (IHR-STAR) to ensure replicable procedures.
Recording Human Electrocorticographic (ECoG) Signals for Neuroscientific Research and Real-time Functional Cortical Mapping
1Wadsworth Center, New York State Department of Health, 2Department of Neurology, Albany Medical College, 3Department of Neurosurgery, Albany Medical College, 4Department of Neurosurgery, Washington University, 5Department of Biomed. Eng., Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, 6Department of Biomed. Sci., State University of New York at Albany, 7Department of Elec. and Comp. Eng., University of Texas at El Paso
We present a method for collecting electrocorticographic signals for research purposes from humans who are undergoing invasive epilepsy monitoring. We show how to use the BCI2000 software platform for data collection, signal processing and stimulus presentation. Specifically, we demonstrate SIGFRIED, a BCI2000-based tool for real-time functional brain mapping.
1Department of Computing Science, University of Alberta, 2Department of Psychology, University of Illinois, 3Centre for Neuroscience, University of Alberta, 4Department of Psychology, University of Alberta, 5Department of Marketing, Business Economics, and Law, University of Alberta, 6Neuroscience Program, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 7Beckman Institute, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign
This article demonstrates an experimental design in which whole-body animated characters are used in conjunction with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate the neural correlates of observing virtual social interactions.
The advent of MEG systems sized for young children opens important new opportunities to study brain development. The new system, together with a protocol that aligns experimental requirements with the capacities of children, can be used to study cognitive and language processes in healthy, awake children aged three to six.
Here we describe a data collection and data analysis method for functional Near Infrared Spectroscopy (fNIRS), a novel non-invasive brain imaging system used in cognitive neuroscience, particularly in studying child brain development. This method provides a universal standard of data acquisition and analysis vital to data interpretation and scientific discovery.
Investigating Social Cognition in Infants and Adults Using Dense Array Electroencephalography (dEEG)
Dense array electroencephalography is being used increasingly to study social cognitive functions in infants and adults. Here we present an established methodology that represents a significant improvement on conventional methodologies for studying EEG in infants and adults.
Combining Behavioral Endocrinology and Experimental Economics: Testosterone and Social Decision Making
The procedure described in this protocol shows that testosterone administration and folk beliefs about testosterone may be associated with directly opposed social behaviors.
Demonstration of key methods for high throughput leaf measurements. These methods can be used to accelerate leaf phenotyping when studying many plant mutants or otherwise screening plants by leaf phenotype.
Mapping Cortical Dynamics Using Simultaneous MEG/EEG and Anatomically-constrained Minimum-norm Estimates: an Auditory Attention Example
We use magneto- and electroencephalography (MEG/EEG), combined with anatomical information captured by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), to map the dynamics of the cortical network associated with auditory attention.
Until recently, expression studies on human brain were limited to quantification of RNA or protein. With the chromatin immunoprecipitation techniques described in this paper, it will be possible to map histone methylation and other epigenetic regulators of gene expression in postmortem brain.
Multielectrode array (MEA) recordings provide a method for studying the electrical activity of large populations of neurons. Here, we present the details of a MEA preparation to record from the mouse vomeronasal epithelium while simultaneously stimulating the tissue.
1Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Notre Dame, 2Freimann Life Science Center, University of Notre Dame, 3Department of Biological Sciences, University of Notre Dame, 4Notre Dame Integrated Imaging Facility, University of Notre Dame, 5MakerBot Industries LLC, 6Departments of Biological Sciences, Aerospace and Mechanical Engineering, and Anthropology, University of Notre Dame, 7Harper Cancer Research Institute, University of Notre Dame
Using modern plastic extrusion and printing technologies, it is now possible to quickly and inexpensively produce physical models of X-ray CT data taken in a laboratory. The three -dimensional printing of tomographic data is a powerful visualization, research, and educational tool that may now be accessed by the preclinical imaging community.
Combining Computer Game-Based Behavioural Experiments With High-Density EEG and Infrared Gaze Tracking
1Department of Human Development, Cornell University, 2Social Sciences Division, University of Chicago, 3National Brain Research Centre, Manesar, India
Procedures for recording high-density EEG and gaze data during computer game-based cognitive tasks are described. Using a video game to present cognitive tasks enhances ecological validity without sacrificing experimental control.
We describe a computer-controlled device for investigating the sense of touch: the Tactile Automated Passive-finger Stimulator (TAPS). We describe the components of TAPS, and show how TAPS is used to administer a two-interval forced-choice tactile grating orientation test.
This study concerns the development and standardization of a valuable methodological protocol to determine long-term (14 days) lethal toxicity exerted by chemical substances, industrial wastewater or sewage and liquid environmental samples on the saltwater crustacean, Artemia franciscana.
1NICN, Aix Marseille University, 2LNPM, Aix Marseille University, 3ENT Department, Aix Marseille University, 4Gene expression Laboratory, The Salk Institute for Biological Studies, 5Laboratory of Speech and Language, Aix Marseille University, 6Centre d'Investigations Cliniques en Biothérapie, Aix Marseille University
We describe here a method for biopsying olfactory mucosa from rat and human nasal cavities. These biopsies can be used for either identifying molecular anomalies in brain diseases or isolating multipotent adult stem cells that can be utilized for cell transplantation in animal models of brain trauma/disease.
A Protocol for Comprehensive Assessment of Bulbar Dysfunction in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS)
1Department of Speech-Language Pathology, University of Toronto, 2ALS/ MN Clinic, Sunnybrook Health Science Centre, 3Department of Special Education and Communication Disorders, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, 4Department of Neurology, Munroe-Meyer Institute, University of Nebraska Medical Center, 5Department of Neurology, University of Toronto
Objective assessments of the physiological mechanisms that support speech are needed to monitor disease onset and progression in persons with ALS and to quantify treatment effects in clinical trials. In this video, we present a comprehensive, instrumentation-based protocol for quantifying speech motor performance in clinical populations.
Time lapse imaging of 3D tissue culture allows studying migratory behavior of individual cells originating from ganglionic eminence in reaction to fractionated protein extract from cerebral cortex.
An Analytical Tool that Quantifies Cellular Morphology Changes from Three-dimensional Fluorescence Images
1Medications Development, Ernest Gallo Clinic and Research Center, University of California, San Francisco, 2Clinical Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, University of California, San Francisco, 3Translational Research Institute and the Institute for Health and Biomedical Innovation, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, Australia
We developed a software platform that utilizes Imaris Neuroscience, ImarisXT and MATLAB to measure the changes in morphology of an undefined shape taken from three-dimensional confocal fluorescence of single cells. This novel approach can be used to quantify changes in cell shape following receptor activation and therefore represents a possible additional tool for drug discovery.
The methodology for fabricating synthetic vocal fold models is described. The models are life-sized and mimic the multi-layer structure of the human vocal folds. Results show the models to self-oscillate at pressures comparable to lung pressure and demonstrate flow-induced vibratory responses that are similar to those of human vocal folds.
Concentration of Metabolites from Low-density Planktonic Communities for Environmental Metabolomics using Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy
1Biosphere Oriented Biology Research Unit, RIKEN Advanced Science Institute, 2Graduate School of Nanobioscience, Yokohama City University, 3Advanced NMR Metabomics Research Team, RIKEN Plant Science Center, 4Graduate School of Bioagricultural Science, Nagoya University
A method for metabolite extraction from microbial planktonic communities is presented. Whole community sampling is achieved by filtration onto specially prepared filters. After lyophilization, aqueous-soluble metabolites are extracted. This approach allows for application of environmental metabolomics to trans-omics investigations of natural or experimental microbial communities.
1Department of Radiology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, 2Athinoula A. Martinos Center for Biomedical Imaging, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, 3Gastrointestinal Unit, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, 4Department of Medicine, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, 5Center for biotechnology and Informatics, The Methodist Hospital Research Institute, 6Department of Radiology, The Methodist Hospital, Weill Cornell Medical College, 7Bejing University of Chinese Medicine, 8Department of Health Technology and Informatics, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, 9Department of Radiology, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School
Gua Sha, traditional Chinese therapeutic skin scraping, causes subcutaneous microvascular blood extravasation. We report a protocol of bioluminescence imaging of HO-1-luciferase transgenic mice to demonstrate that Gua Sha upregulates heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) in multiple organs.
Optical Recording of Electrical Activity in Guinea-pig Enteric Networks using Voltage-sensitive Dyes
This protocol illustrates how voltage-sensitive dyes enable optical recording of electrical activity from intact neural networks such as the plexuses of the guinea-pig enteric nervous system, with an adjustable resolution that ranges from single-cells to multi-ganglionic circuitry.
Despite an increase in the use of structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in humans, the study of young pediatric populations remains a challenge. We present a hands-on, step-by-step video protocol including guidelines for clinicians and researchers intending to perform (f)MRI in young children.
Kinematics and Ground Reaction Force Determination: A Demonstration Quantifying Locomotor Abilities of Young Adult, Middle-aged, and Geriatric Rats
1CullenWebb Animal Neurology & Ophthalmology Center, Riverview, NB, 2Department of Clinical Neurosciences, Faculty of Medicine, University of Calgary, 3Department of Comparative Biology and Experimental Medicine, University of Calgary, 4Department of Neuroscience, University of Calgary
Locomotion is often examined as a behavioural outcome in various models of disease in fields such as neuroscience and orthopedics. This video paper intends to describe a method for collecting ground reaction forces and kinematics from rats during unrestrained locomotion.
Neural control and cognitive processes can be studied through eye movements. The VisualEyes software allows an operator to program stimuli on two computer screens independently using a simple, custom scripting language. The system can stimulate tandem eye movements (saccades and smooth pursuit) or opposing eye movements (vergence) or any combination.
Computer-assisted Large-scale Visualization and Quantification of Pancreatic Islet Mass, Size Distribution and Architecture
1Department of Medicine, University of Chicago, 2Laboratory of Biological Modeling, National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, National Institutes of Health, 3Department of Surgery, University of Chicago, 4Diabetes Division, University of Massachusetts
Novel computer-assisted methods of large-scale procurement and analysis of immunohistochemically stained pancreatic specimens are described: (1) Virtual Slice capture of the entire section; (2) Mass analysis of large-scale data; (3) Reconstruction of 2D Virtual Slices; (4) 3D islet mapping; and (5) Mathematical analysis.
Bioimaging methods used to assess cell biodistribution of nanoparticles are applicable for therapeutic and diagnostic monitoring of nanoformulated compounds. The methods described herein are sensitive and specific when assessed by histological coregistration. The methodologies provide a translational pathway from rodent to human applications.
1Department of Chemistry, Imperial College London, 2Department of Biochemistry, Protein Chip Research Center, Chungbuk National University, 3Department of Chemistry and Applied Biosciences, Institute for Chemical and Bioengineering, ETH Zurich
Droplet-based microfluidic platforms are promising candidates for high throughput experimentation since they are able to generate picoliter, self-compartmentalized vessels inexpensively at kHz rates. Through integration with fast, sensitive and high resolution fluorescence spectroscopic methods, the large amounts of information generated within these systems can be efficiently extracted, harnessed and utilized.
This article describes the procedures for conducting a basic postmortem examination of a mouse or rat, and the collection of basic organs, as well as more challenging sample types from for histological, microbiological, and PCR evaluation.
Mapping the After-effects of Theta Burst Stimulation on the Human Auditory Cortex with Functional Imaging
Auditory processing is the basis of speech and music-related processing. Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) has been used successfully to study cognitive, sensory and motor systems but has rarely been applied to audition. Here we investigated TMS combined with functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging to understand the functional organization of auditory cortex.
Dopamine replacement pharmacotherapy using L-DOPA is the most commonly used symptomatic treatment of Parkinson’s disease, but is accompanied by side effects including involuntary abnormal movements, termed dyskinesia 1. Here, a protocol for MALDI imaging mass spectrometry is presented that detects changes in rat brain neuropeptide levels related to dyskinesia.
Xenopus laevis provides an ideal model system for studying cell fate specification and physiological function of individual retinal cells in primary cell culture. Here we present a technique for dissecting retinal tissues and generating primary cell cultures that are imaged for calcium activity and analyzed by in situ hybridization.
When compared to the previous paper protocol, implementation of a computerized glucose management system results in a substantial increase in blood glucose concentration measurements within the target range. Using a computerized glucose management system to monitor blood glucose levels, decreases in severe hypoglycemia (<40 mg/dL), clinical hypoglycemia (<70 mg/dL), and hyperglycemia (>180 mg/dL) also can be observed.
1Centre for Neuroscience, University of Alberta, 2Neuroscience Program, University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, 3Center for Cognitive Neuroscience, Duke University, 4Psychology Department, Neuroscience Program, & Beckman Institute, University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign
We present a protocol that uses functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate the neural correlates of the memory-enhancing effect of emotion. This protocol allows identification of brain activity specifically linked to memory-related processing, contrary to more general perceptual processing, and can be used with healthy and clinical populations.
Habituation and prepulse inhibition of startle are operational measures of sensory gating. Sensory gating is disrupted in schizophrenia, and some other mental disorders and neurodegenerative diseases. We here describe a standard protocol to assess short-term and long-term habituation as well as prepulse inhibition of acoustic startle responses in rats and mice.
The mouse inner ear is a placode-derived sensory organ whose developmental program is elaborated during gestation. We define an in utero gene transfer technique consisting of three steps: mouse ventral laparotomy, transuterine microinjection, and in vivo electroporation. We use digital video microscopy to demonstrate the critical experimental embryological techniques.