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  JoVE Biology

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  JoVE Neuroscience

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  JoVE Immunology and Infection

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  JoVE Medicine

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  JoVE Bioengineering

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  JoVE Engineering

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  JoVE Chemistry

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  JoVE Behavior

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  JoVE Environment

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  JoVE Developmental Biology


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 JoVE Immunology and Infection

Live Cell Imaging of Alphaherpes Virus Anterograde Transport and Spread

1Department of Immunology and Infectious Diseases, Montana State University, 2Department of Molecular Biology, Princeton University

JoVE 50723

Live cell imaging of alphaherpes virus infections enables analysis of the dynamic events of directed transport and intercellular spread. Here, we present methodologies that utilize recombinant viral strains expressing fluorescent fusion proteins to facilitate visualization of viral assemblies during infection of primary neurons.

 JoVE Biology

Live Cell Imaging of Primary Rat Neonatal Cardiomyocytes Following Adenoviral and Lentiviral Transduction Using Confocal Spinning Disk Microscopy

1Max-Planck-Institute for Molecular Biomedicine and Institute of Cell Biology, 2Department of Internal Medicine, Yale Cardiovascular Research Center and Section of Cardiovascular Medicine

JoVE 51666

This protocol describes a method of live cell imaging using primary rat neonatal cardiomyocytes following lentiviral and adenoviral transduction using confocal spinning disk microscopy. This enables detailed observations of cellular processes in living cardiomyocytes.

 JoVE Bioengineering

Using Cell-substrate Impedance and Live Cell Imaging to Measure Real-time Changes in Cellular Adhesion and De-adhesion Induced by Matrix Modification

1Centre for Vascular Research, University of New South Wales, 2School of Medical Sciences, University of New South Wales

JoVE 52423

Here, we present a protocol to continuously quantify cell adhesion and de-adhesion processes with high temporal resolution in a non-invasive manner by cell-substrate impedance and live cell imaging analyses. These approaches reveal the dynamics of cell adhesion/de-adhesion processes triggered by matrix modification and their temporal relationship to adhesion-dependent signaling events.

 JoVE Biology

Live Cell Imaging of Early Autophagy Events: Omegasomes and Beyond

1Signalling Programme, The Babraham Institute, 2MRC Group, Cardiff School of Biosciences, Cardiff University

JoVE 50484

Time-lapse microscopy of fluorescently labeled autophagy markers allows monitoring of the dynamic autophagy response with high temporal resolution. Using specific autophagy and organelle markers in a combination of 3 different colors, we can follow the contribution of a protein to autophagosome formation in a robust spatial and temporal context.

 JoVE Bioengineering

Live Cell Imaging during Mechanical Stretch

1Department of Physiology, University of Tennessee Health Science Center, 2Department of Biomedical Engineering and Imaging, University of Tennessee Health Science Center, 3Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Memphis, 4Department of Engineering Technology, University of Memphis

JoVE 52737

A novel imaging protocol was developed using a custom motor-driven mechanical actuator to allow the measurement of real time responses to mechanical strain in live cells. Relevant to mechanobiology, the system can apply strains up to 20% while allowing near real-time imaging with confocal or atomic force microscopy.

 JoVE Medicine

MAME Models for 4D Live-cell Imaging of Tumor: Microenvironment Interactions that Impact Malignant Progression

1Department of Pharmacology, Wayne State University, 2Barbara Ann Karmanos Cancer Institute, Wayne State University

JoVE 3661

We have developed 3D coculture models for live-cell imaging in real-time of interactions among breast tumor cells and other cells in their microenvironment that impact progression to an invasive phenotype. These models can serve as preclinical screens for drugs to target paracrine-induced proteolytic, chemokine/cytokine and kinase pathways implicated in invasiveness.

 JoVE Bioengineering

Live-cell Imaging of Migrating Cells Expressing Fluorescently-tagged Proteins in a Three-dimensional Matrix

1University of California, Davis

JoVE 3589

Cellular processes such as cell migration have traditionally been studied on two-dimensional, stiff plastic surfaces. This report describes a technique for directly visualizing protein localization and analyzing protein dynamics in cells migrating in a more physiologically relevant, three-dimensional matrix.

 JoVE Biology

Two- and Three-Dimensional Live Cell Imaging of DNA Damage Response Proteins

1Department of Radiation Oncology, Virginia Commonwealth University, 2Department of Biochemistry & Molecular Biology, Virginia Commonwealth University, 3Department of Anatomy & Neurobiology, Virginia Commonwealth University, 4Massey Cancer Center, Virginia Commonwealth University

JoVE 4251

This protocol describes a method for visualizing a DNA double-strand break signaling protein activated in response to DNA damage as well as its localization during mitosis.

 JoVE Neuroscience

Monitoring Cleaved Caspase-3 Activity and Apoptosis of Immortalized Oligodendroglial Cells using Live-cell Imaging and Cleaveable Fluorogenic-dye Substrates Following Potassium-induced Membrane Depolarization

1Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, University of Guelph

JoVE 3422

Live-cell imaging of caspase-3 mediated apoptosis in immortalized N19-oligodendrocyte cell cultures using the NucView 488 caspase-3 substrate. This technique is applicable for programmed cell death assays in real-time in a variety of cell types and tissues.

 JoVE Immunology and Infection

Use of an Optical Trap for Study of Host-Pathogen Interactions for Dynamic Live Cell Imaging

1Department of Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, 2Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, The Ohio State University, 3Center for Computational and Integrative Biology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, 4Dept. of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Vanderbilt University

JoVE 3123

A method is described to individually select, manipulate, and image live pathogens using an optical trap coupled to a spinning disk microscope. The optical trap provides spatial and temporal control of organisms and places them adjacent to host cells. Fluorescence microscopy captures dynamic intercellular interactions with minimal perturbation to cells.

 JoVE Biology

Fluorescent Labeling of COS-7 Expressing SNAP-tag Fusion Proteins for Live Cell Imaging

1Division of Chemical Biology, New England Biolabs

JoVE 1876

SNAP-tag and CLIP-tag protein labeling systems enable the specific, covalent attachment of molecules, including fluorescent dyes, to a protein of interest in live cells. Once cloned and expressed, the tagged protein can be used with a variety of substrates for numerous downstream applications without having to clone again.

 JoVE Medicine

Evaluation of Cancer Stem Cell Migration Using Compartmentalizing Microfluidic Devices and Live Cell Imaging

1Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 2Materials Science Program, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 3Department of Neurological Surgery, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 4Carbone Comprehensive Cancer Center and Center for Stem Cell and Regenerative Medicine, University of Wisconsin-Madison

JoVE 3297

A compartmentalizing microfluidic device for investigating cancer stem cell migration is described. This novel platform creates a viable cellular microenvironment and enables microscopic visualization of live cell locomotion. Highly motile cancer cells are isolated to study molecular mechanisms of aggressive infiltration, potentially leading to more effective future therapies.

 JoVE Immunology and Infection

Live Cell Imaging of Bacillus subtilis and Streptococcus pneumoniae using Automated Time-lapse Microscopy

1Molecular Genetics Group, Groningen Biomolecular Sciences and Biotechnology Institute, Centre for Synthetic Biology, University of Groningen

JoVE 3145

This protocol provides a step-by-step procedure to monitor single cell behavior of different bacteria in time using automated fluorescence time-lapse microscopy. Furthermore, we provide guidelines how to analyze the microscopy images.

 JoVE Biology

Live-cell Imaging and Quantitative Analysis of Embryonic Epithelial Cells in Xenopus laevis

1Bioengineering, University of Pittsburgh, 2Developmental Biology, University of Pittsburgh

JoVE 1949

Xenopus embryonic epithelia are an ideal model system to study cell behaviors such as polarity development and shape change during epithelial morphogenesis. Traditional histology of fixed samples is increasingly being complemented by live-cell confocal imaging. Here we demonstrate methods to isolate frog tissues and visualize live epithelial cells and their cytoskeleton using live-cell confocal microscopy.

 Science Education: Essentials of Cell Biology

Live Cell Imaging of Mitosis

JoVE Science Education

Mitosis is a form of cell division in which a cell’s genetic material is divided equally between two daughter cells. Mitosis can be broken down into six phases, during each of which the cell’s components, such as its chromosomes, show visually distinct characteristics. Advances in fluorescence live cell imaging have allowed scientists to study this process in great detail, providing important insights into the biological control of this process and how it might go wrong in diseases such as cancer. We begin this video by breaking down the phases of mitosis, and introducing some important considerations for optimal visualization of the process using live cell imaging. We then walk through the steps for running a live cell mitosis imaging experiment and discuss various analysis methods, including the generation of montages, movies, and 3D recreations. Finally, we take a look at how visualizing the mitotic process can be applied to answering questions in cell biology.

 JoVE Biology

Simultaneous Multicolor Imaging of Biological Structures with Fluorescence Photoactivation Localization Microscopy

1Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Maine

JoVE 50680

We demonstrate the use of fluorescence photo activation localization microscopy (FPALM) to simultaneously image multiple types of fluorescently labeled molecules within cells. The techniques described yield the localization of thousands to hundreds of thousands of individual fluorescent labeled proteins, with a precision of tens of nanometers within single cells.

 JoVE Biology

Strategies for Tracking Anastasis, A Cell Survival Phenomenon that Reverses Apoptosis

1W. Harry Feinstone Department of Molecular Microbiology and Immunology, Johns Hopkins University Bloomberg School of Public Health, 2School of Life Sciences, Chinese University of Hong Kong, 3Center for Cell Dynamics, Department of Biological Chemistry, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine

JoVE 51964

The term anastasis refers to the phenomenon in which dying cells reverse a cell suicide process at a late stage, repair themselves, and ultimately survive. Here we demonstrate protocols for detecting and tracking cells that undergo anastasis.

 JoVE Neuroscience

Live Imaging of Drosophila Larval Neuroblasts

1National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, National Institutes of Health

JoVE 51756

This protocol details a streamlined method used to conduct live cell imaging in the context of an intact larval brain. Live cell imaging approaches are invaluable for the study of asymmetric neural stem cell divisions as well as other neurogenic and developmental processes, consistently uncovering mechanisms that were previously overlooked.

 JoVE Biology

Super-resolution Imaging of the Cytokinetic Z Ring in Live Bacteria Using Fast 3D-Structured Illumination Microscopy (f3D-SIM)

1The ithree Institute, University of Technology, Sydney

JoVE 51469

Spatiotemporal information about dynamic proteins inside live cells is crucial for understanding biology. A type of super-resolution microscopy called fast 3D-structured illumination microscopy (f3D-SIM) reveals unique information about the cytokinetic Z ring in bacteria: both its bead-like appearance and the rapid dynamics of FtsZ within the ring.

 JoVE Biology

The Utility of Stage-specific Mid-to-late Drosophila Follicle Isolation

1Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, University of Iowa Carver College of Medicine

JoVE 50493

Stage-specific isolation of mid-to-late Drosophila follicles is useful for a variety of purposes. Such follicles develop in culture, which allows for genetic and/or pharmacologic manipulations to be coupled with in vitro development assays and live imaging. Additionally, follicles can be used for molecular studies, such as isolating mRNA and protein.

 JoVE Bioengineering

Analysis of Tubular Membrane Networks in Cardiac Myocytes from Atria and Ventricles

1Heart Research Center Goettingen, 2Clinic of Cardiology & Pulmonology, University Medical Center Goettingen, 3German Center for Cardiovascular Research (DZHK) partner site Goettingen, 4BioMET, Center for Biomedical Engineering & Technology, University of Maryland School of Medicine

JoVE 51823

In cardiac myocytes, tubular membrane structures form intracellular networks. We describe optimized protocols for i) isolation of myocytes from mouse heart including quality control, ii) live cell staining for state-of-the-art fluorescence microscopy, and iii) direct image analysis to quantify the component complexity and the plasticity of intracellular membrane networks.

 JoVE Biology

Direct Imaging of ER Calcium with Targeted-Esterase Induced Dye Loading (TED)

1Institute for Clinical Neurobiology, University of Wuerzburg, 2Department of Synapses - Circuits - Plasticity, Max Planck Institute of Neurobiology, Martinsried, 3Walter Brendel Centre of Experimental Medicine, Ludwig-Maximilians University of Munich

JoVE 50317

Targeted-esterase induced dye loading (TED) supports the analysis of intracellular calcium store dynamics by fluorescence imaging. The method bases on targeting of a recombinant Carboxylesterase to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), where it improves the local unmasking of synthetic low-affinity Ca2+ indicator dyes in the ER lumen.

 JoVE Bioengineering

Correlative Microscopy for 3D Structural Analysis of Dynamic Interactions

1Department of Structural Biology, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, 2Department of Cell Biology and Physiology, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine

JoVE 50386

We describe a correlative microscopy method that combines high-speed 3D live-cell fluorescent light microscopy and high-resolution cryo-electron tomography. We demonstrate the capability of the correlative method by imaging dynamic, small HIV-1 particles interacting with host HeLa cells.

 JoVE Biology

Imaging Cell Membrane Injury and Subcellular Processes Involved in Repair

1Center for Genetic Medicine Research, Children's National Medical Center, 2Department of Integrative Systems Biology, George Washington University

JoVE 51106

The process of healing injured cells involves trafficking of specific proteins and subcellular compartments to the site of cell membrane injury. This protocol describes assays to monitor these processes.

 JoVE Biology

Real-time Imaging of Single Engineered RNA Transcripts in Living Cells Using Ratiometric Bimolecular Beacons

1Department of Bioengineering, University of Pennsylvania, 2Integrated DNA Technologies, Inc.

JoVE 51544

Ratiometric bimolecular beacons (RBMBs) can be used to image single engineered RNA transcripts in living cells. Here, we describe the preparation and purification of RBMBs, delivery of RBMBs into cells by microporation and fluorescent imaging of single RNA transcripts in real-time.

 JoVE Bioengineering

Production and Targeting of Monovalent Quantum Dots

1Department of Otolaryngology, University of California, San Francisco, 2Department of Chemistry, University of California, Berkeley, 3Materials Science Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 4Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, University of California, San Francisco, 5Tetrad Graduate Program, University of California, San Francisco, 6Center for Systems and Synthetic Biology, University of California, San Francisco, 7Chemistry and Chemical Biology Graduate Program, University of California, San Francisco

JoVE 52198

We provide detailed instructions for the preparation of monovalent targeted quantum dots (mQDs) from phosphorothioate DNA of defined length. DNA wrapping occurs in high yield, and therefore, products do not require purification. We demonstrate the use of the SNAP tag to target mQDs to cell-surface receptors for live-cell imaging applications.

 JoVE Neuroscience

TIRFM and pH-sensitive GFP-probes to Evaluate Neurotransmitter Vesicle Dynamics in SH-SY5Y Neuroblastoma Cells: Cell Imaging and Data Analysis

1Department of Pharmacological and Biomolecular Sciences, Università degli Studi di Milano, 2San Raffaele Scientific Institute and Vita-Salute University, 3CEND Center of Excellence in Neurodegenerative Diseases, Università degli Studi di Milano

JoVE 52267

This paper provides a method for investigating neurotransmitter vesicle dynamics in neuroblastoma cells, using a synaptobrevin2-pHluorin construct and Total Internal Reflection Fluorescence Microscopy. The strategy developed for image processing and data analysis is also reported.

 JoVE Biology

Measuring Spatial and Temporal Ca2+ Signals in Arabidopsis Plants

1Department of Horticulture and Landscape Architecture, Purdue University, 2Bindley Bioscience Center, Purdue University, 3Institute of Biotechnology, Jiangsu Academy of Agricultural Sciences, 4College of Environmental & Resource Science, Zhejiang University, 5Dryland Agriculture Research Centre, Shanxi Academy of Agricultural Sciences, 6Shanghai Center for Plant Stress Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences

JoVE 51945

Ca2+ signaling regulates diverse biological processes in plants. Here we present approaches for monitoring abiotic stress induced spatial and temporal Ca2+ signals in Arabidopsis cells and tissues using the genetically encoded Ca2+ indicators Aequorin or Case12.

 JoVE Neuroscience

Examination of Synaptic Vesicle Recycling Using FM Dyes During Evoked, Spontaneous, and Miniature Synaptic Activities

1Department of Molecular Physiology & Biophysics, University of Iowa Carver College of Medicine, 2Department of Biology & Biochemistry, University of Bath

JoVE 50557

We describe the use of styryl FM dyes to image synaptic vesicle recycling in functional nerve terminals. This protocol can be applied not only to evoked, but also spontaneous and miniature synaptic activities. The protocol expands the variety of synaptic events that can be effectively evaluated.

 JoVE Bioengineering

Planar Gradient Diffusion System to Investigate Chemotaxis in a 3D Collagen Matrix

1Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, California State University, Long Beach, 2Ximedica, 3School of Engineering, Brown University

JoVE 52948

Cell migration is an important part of human development and life. In order to understand the mechanisms that can alter cell migration, we present a planar gradient diffusion system to investigate chemotaxis in a 3D collagen matrix, which allows one to overcome modern diffusion chamber limitations of existing assays.

 JoVE Neuroscience

Visualization of Endosome Dynamics in Living Nerve Terminals with Four-dimensional Fluorescence Imaging

1Department of Cell Biology and Physiology, Washington University School of Medicine

JoVE 51477

Four-dimensional (4D) imaging is utilized to study the behavior and interactions among two types of endosomes in living vertebrate nerve terminals. Movement of these small structures is characterized in three dimensions, permitting confirmation of events such as endosome fusion and exocytosis.

 JoVE Biology

Live Imaging Assay for Assessing the Roles of Ca2+ and Sphingomyelinase in the Repair of Pore-forming Toxin Wounds

1Department of Cell Biology and Molecular Genetics, University of Maryland

JoVE 50531

Live imaging of cells exposed to the lipophilic dye FM1-43 allows precise determination of the kinetics by which pore-forming toxins are removed from the plasma membrane. This is a sensitive assay that can be used to assess requirements for Ca2+, sphingomyelinase and other factors on plasma membrane repair.

 JoVE Developmental Biology

Live-imaging of the Drosophila Pupal Eye

1Biology Department, Wesleyan University

JoVE 52120

This protocol presents an efficient method for imaging the live Drosophila pupal eye neuroepithelium. This method compensates for tissue movement and uneven topology, enhances visualization of cell boundaries through the use of multiple GFP-tagged junction proteins, and uses an easily-assembled imaging rig.

 JoVE Immunology and Infection

Visualizing Protein-DNA Interactions in Live Bacterial Cells Using Photoactivated Single-molecule Tracking

1Microbiology Unit, Department of Biochemistry, University of Oxford, 2Biological Physics Research Group, Clarendon Laboratory, Department of Physics, University of Oxford

JoVE 51177

Photoactivated localization microscopy (PALM) combined with single-molecule tracking allows direct observation and quantification of protein-DNA interactions in live Escherichia coli cells.

 JoVE Biology

Study of the Actin Cytoskeleton in Live Endothelial Cells Expressing GFP-Actin

1Department of Physiology, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center

JoVE 3187

Microscopic imaging of live endothelial cells expressing GFP-actin allows characterization of dynamic changes in cytoskeletal structures. Unlike techniques that use fixed specimens, this method provides a detailed assessment of temporal changes in the actin cytoskeleton in the same cells before, during, and after various physical, pharmacological, or inflammatory stimuli.

 JoVE Immunology and Infection

Real-time Live Imaging of T-cell Signaling Complex Formation

1The Mina and Everard Goodman Faculty of Life Sciences, Bar-Ilan University

JoVE 50076

We describe a live-cell imaging method that provides insight into protein dynamics during the T-cell activation process. We demonstrate the combined usage of the T-cell spreading assay, confocal microscopy and imaging analysis to yield quantitative results to follow signaling complex formation throughout T-cell activation.

 JoVE Neuroscience

Live Imaging of Nicotine Induced Calcium Signaling and Neurotransmitter Release Along Ventral Hippocampal Axons

1Department of Neurobiology and Behavior, Stony Brook University, 2Department of Pharmacological Science, Stony Brook University

JoVE 52730

We developed a gene-chimeric preparation of ventral hippocampal – accumbens circuit in vitro that allows direct live imaging to analyze presynaptic mechanisms of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) mediated synaptic transmission. This preparation also provides an informative approach to study the pre- and post-synaptic mechanisms of synaptic plasticity.

 JoVE Neuroscience

Organotypic Slice Cultures to Study Oligodendrocyte Dynamics and Myelination

1Department of Physiology and Neurobiology, University of Connecticut, 2Stem Cell Institute, University of Connecticut, 3Department of Neurology, Yale University School of Medicine

JoVE 51835

A technique to study NG2 cells and oligodendrocytes using a slice culture system of the forebrain and cerebellum is described. This method allows examination of the dynamics of proliferation and differentiation of cells within the oligodendrocyte lineage where the extracellular environment can be easily manipulated while maintaining tissue cytoarchitecture.

 JoVE Biology

Super-resolution Imaging of the Bacterial Division Machinery

1Department of Biophysics and Biophysical Chemistry, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine

JoVE 50048

We describe a super-resolution imaging method to probe the structural organization of the bacterial FtsZ-ring, an essential apparatus for cell division. This method is based on quantitative analyses of photoactivated localization microscopy (PALM) images and can be applied to other bacterial cytoskeletal proteins.

 JoVE Biology

Cytosolic Calcium Measurements in Renal Epithelial Cells by Flow Cytometry

1Institute for Physiology, Pathophysiology, & Toxicology, Centre for Biomedical Research and Training (ZBAF), University of Witten/Herdecke, 2Institute for Immunology & Experimental Oncology, Centre for Biomedical Research and Training (ZBAF), University of Witten/Herdecke

JoVE 51857

Calcium is involved in numerous physiological and pathophysiological signaling pathways. Live cell imaging requires specialized equipment and can be time consuming. A quick, simple method using a flow cytometer to determine relative changes in cytosolic calcium in adherent epithelial cells brought into suspension was optimized.

 JoVE Biology

FRET Microscopy for Real-time Monitoring of Signaling Events in Live Cells Using Unimolecular Biosensors

1Emmy Noether Group of the DFG, Department of Cardiology and Pneumology, European Heart Research Insitute Göttingen, Georg August University Medical Center, Göttingen, Germany

JoVE 4081

Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) microscopy is a powerful technique for real-time monitoring of signaling events in live cells using various biosensors as reporters. Here we describe how to build a customized epifluorescence FRET imaging system from commercially available components and how to use it for FRET experiments.

 JoVE Bioengineering

Concentric Gel System to Study the Biophysical Role of Matrix Microenvironment on 3D Cell Migration

1Systems Biophysics Department, FOM Institute AMOLF, 2Mechanobiology Institute, National University of Singapore, 3Department of Biomedical Engineering, National University of Singapore

JoVE 52735

The mechanical properties and microstructure of the extracellular matrix strongly affect 3D migration of cells. An in vitro method to study the spatiotemporal cell migration behavior in biophysically variable environments, at both population and individual cell levels, is described.

 JoVE Medicine

The Use of Primary Human Fibroblasts for Monitoring Mitochondrial Phenotypes in the Field of Parkinson's Disease

1German Center for Neurodegenerative Diseases, DZNE, 2Laboratory of Functional Neurogenomics, Department of Neurodegenerative Diseases, Hertie Institute for Clinical Brain Research, University of Tübingen

JoVE 4228

Fibroblasts from patients carrying mutations in Parkinson's disease-causing genes represent an easily accessible ex vivo model to study disease-associated phenotypes. Live cell imaging gives the opportunity to study morphological and functional parameters in living cells. Here we describe the preparation of human fibroblasts and subsequent monitoring of mitochondrial phenotypes.

 JoVE Biology

Ex vivo Culture of Mouse Embryonic Skin and Live-imaging of Melanoblast Migration

1MRC Human Genetics Unit, MRC IGMM, Western General Hospital, University of Edinburgh

JoVE 51352

We describe the dissection and ex vivo culture of mouse embryonic skin. The culture system maintains an air-liquid interface across the tissue surface and allows imaging on an inverted microscope. Melanoblasts, a component of the developing skin, are fluorescently labeled allowing their behavior to be observed using confocal microscopy.

 JoVE Neuroscience

Imaging Dendritic Spines of Rat Primary Hippocampal Neurons using Structured Illumination Microscopy

1Center for Neuroscience, Swammerdam Institute for Life Sciences, University of Amsterdam, 2Van Leeuwenhoek Centre for Advanced Microscopy, Section Molecular Cytology, Swammerdam Institute for Life Sciences, University of Amsterdam

JoVE 51276

This article describes a working protocol to image dendritic spines from hippocampal neurons in vitro using Structured Illumination Microscopy (SIM). Super-resolution microscopy using SIM provides image resolution significantly beyond the light diffraction limit in all three spatial dimensions, allowing the imaging of individual dendritic spines with improved detail.

 JoVE Neuroscience

Long-term Time Lapse Imaging of Mouse Cochlear Explants

1Biological Sciences Platform, Sunnybrook Research Institute, 2Department of Otolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery, University of Toronto, 3Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathobiology, University of Toronto

JoVE 52101

Live imaging of the embryonic mammalian cochlea is challenging because the developmental processes at hand operate on a temporal gradient over ten days. Here we present a method for culturing and then imaging embryonic cochlear explant tissue taken from a fluorescent reporter mouse over five days.

 JoVE Neuroscience

A Galvanotaxis Assay for Analysis of Neural Precursor Cell Migration Kinetics in an Externally Applied Direct Current Electric Field

1Institute for Biomaterials and Biomedical Engineering, University of Toronto, 2Lyndhurst Centre, Toronto Rehabilitation Institute, 3Department of Surgery, University of Toronto

JoVE 4193

In this protocol we demonstrate how to construct custom chambers that permit the application of a direct current electric field to enable time-lapse imaging of adult brain derived neural precursor cell translocation during galvanotaxis.

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