1Department of Pediatrics and Pharmacology, Pennsylvania State College of Medicine, 2Department of Pharmacology, Pennsylvania State College of Medicine, 3Department of Pediatrics, University of California Los Angeles, School of Medicine
Here we describe the isolation of CD133 expressing liver stem cells and cancer stem cells from whole murine liver, a process that requires tissue digestion, cell enrichment, and flow cytometry isolation. We include methods for advanced single cell isolation and clonal expansion.
1Department of Medicine, Division of Hematology-Oncology, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, 2UCLA AIDS Institute, 3Eli & Edythe Broad Center of Regenerative Medicine and Stem Cell Research at UCLA, 4Department of Medical and Molecular Pharmacology, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, 5Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Molecular Genetics, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA
The generation and characterization of tumor specific T cells using humanized mice is described here. Human thymic tissue and genetically modified human hematopoietic stem cells are transplanted into immunocompromised mice. This results in the reconstitution of an engineered human immune system allowing for in vivo examination of anti-tumor immune responses.
The main highlights for our May issue include methods for measuring cognition in zero gravity, isolating mosquito immune cells, engineering recombinant SARS vaccines, and detecting tumors with thermal imaging. In addition, procedures for isolating neural stem cells from human fetal brain and culturing antigen-presenting liver cells will also be released.
Optimized Staining and Proliferation Modeling Methods for Cell Division Monitoring using Cell Tracking Dyes
1Department of Flow and Image Cytometry, Roswell Park Cancer Institute, 2Flow Cytometry & Cell Sorting Resource Laboratory, University of Pennsylvania, 3SciGro, Inc., 4Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, University of Pennsylvania
Successful use of cell tracking dyes to monitor immune cell function and proliferation involves several critical steps. We describe methods for: 1) obtaining bright, uniform, reproducible label-ing with membrane dyes; 2) selecting fluorochromes and data acquisition conditions; and 3) choosing a model to quantify cell proliferation based on dye dilution.
Division of Endocrinology and Diabetes, Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia, Institute of Diabetes Obesity and Metabolism, Institute for Regenerative Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, University of Pennsylvania-School of Medicine
We have derived a strategy to detect sequential incorporation of thymidine analogues (CldU and IdU) into tissues of adult mice to quantify two successive rounds of cell division. This strategy is useful to detect cell turnover of long-lived tissues, oncogenic transformation, or transit-amplifying cells.
High-Efficiency Transduction of Liver Cancer Cells by Recombinant Adeno-Associated Virus Serotype 3 Vectors
In this article, we describe the identification of the adeno-associated virus serotype 3 (AAV3) as the most efficient vector for targeting human liver cancer cells.
A rotating cell culture system that allows epithelial cells to grow under physiological conditions resulting in 3-D cellular aggregate formation is described. The aggregates generated display in vivo-like characteristics not observed in conventional culture models and serve as a more accurate organotypic model system for a multitude of scientific investigations.
Fabrication and validation of an add-on platform that offers enhanced control over the spatial and temporal oxygenation in a 6-well plate. The device is adaptable to a number of culture systems and can be used to investigate the effects of oxygen on wound healing.
Here we describe a method to quantify molecular heterogeneity in histological sections of tumor material using quantitative immunofluorescence, image analysis, and a statistical measure of heterogeneity. The method is intended for use in clinical biomarker development and analysis.
In situ Transverse Rectus Abdominis Myocutaneous Flap: A Rat Model of Myocutaneous Ischemia Reperfusion Injury
1Department of Surgery, Royal Infirmary of Edinburgh, 2Department of Nephrology, Royal Infirmary of Edinburgh
Free tissue transfer is widely employed in reconstructive surgery to restore form and function following oncological resection and trauma. Preconditioning this tissue prior to surgery may improve outcome. This article describes an in situ transverse rectus abdominis myocutaneous flap (TRAM) in rats as a means for testing preconditioning strategies.
1Institute of Pathology, Laboratory of Molecular Tumor Pathology, Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin, 2Institute for Chemistry and Biochemistry, Free University Berlin, 3Laboratory for Functional Genomics Charité (LFGC), Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin, 4Comprehensive Cancer Center Charité, Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin
This article describes the preparation of freshly obtained melanoma tissue into primary cell cultures, and how to remove contaminations of erythrocytes and fibroblasts from the tumor cells. Finally, we describe how CD133+ putative melanoma stem cells are sorted from the CD133- bulk using Magnetic Activated Cell Sorting (MACS).
The identification of brain tumor initiating cells (BTICs), the rare cells within a heterogeneous tumor possessing stem cell properties, provides new insights into human brain tumor pathogenesis. We have refined specific culture conditions to enrich for BTICs, and we routinely use flow cytometry to further enrich these populations. Self-renewal assays and transcript analysis by single cell RT-PCR can subsequently be performed on these isolated cells.
We describe a simple, rapid method of generating 3D tissue-like spheroids and their potential application to quantify differences in cell-cell interactions.
A simple method to establish primary murine colon tumor organoid is described. This method utilizes the feature that colon tumor cells survive and grow into organoids in media containing limited growth factors, whereas normal colon epithelial do not.
Development, Expansion, and In vivo Monitoring of Human NK Cells from Human Embryonic Stem Cells (hESCs) and and Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells (iPSCs)
This protocol describes the development, expansion, and in vivo imaging of NK cells derived from hESCs and iPSCs.
Time-lapse Imaging of Primary Preneoplastic Mammary Epithelial Cells Derived from Genetically Engineered Mouse Models of Breast Cancer
1Department of Oncology, Georgetown University, 2Lombardi Comprehensive Cancer Center, Georgetown University, 3Stem Cell Dynamics, Helmholtz Zentrum München - German Research Center for Environmental Health, 4Department of Medicine, Georgetown University, 5Department of Nanobiomedical Science and WCU Research Center of Nanobiomedical Science, Dankook University
Time-lapse imaging is used to assess behavior of primary preneoplastic mammary epithelial cells derived from genetically engineered mouse models of breast cancer risk to determine if there are correlations between specific behavioral parameters and distinct genetic lesions.
Here we describe a protocol for isolating subsets of precursor B-cells from umbilical cord blood. A sufficient quantity and quality of nucleic acids may be extracted from the cells and used in subsequent assays utilizing DNA or RNA.
Cancer stem cells (CSCs) have been identified in a number of malignancies. In this protocol we describe a flow cytometric method utilizing aldehyde dehydrogenase activity and CD44 and CD24 expression to isolate CSCs from human pancreatic adenocarcinoma xenografts. These viable cells can then be used in functional and analytical studies.
1Stem Cell Research Center, Childrens Hospital of Pittsburgh of UPMC, 2Department of Bioengineering, University of Pittsburgh, 3Department of Orthopedic Surgery, University of Pittsburgh, 4Department of Pathology, University of Pittsburgh, 5Department of Molecular Genetics & Biochemistry, University of Pittsburgh
Isolating adult stem cells from musculoskeletal soft tissues based on the cell's adherence speed to flask.
Evaluation of Cancer Stem Cell Migration Using Compartmentalizing Microfluidic Devices and Live Cell Imaging
1Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 2Materials Science Program, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 3Department of Neurological Surgery, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 4Carbone Comprehensive Cancer Center and Center for Stem Cell and Regenerative Medicine, University of Wisconsin-Madison
A compartmentalizing microfluidic device for investigating cancer stem cell migration is described. This novel platform creates a viable cellular microenvironment and enables microscopic visualization of live cell locomotion. Highly motile cancer cells are isolated to study molecular mechanisms of aggressive infiltration, potentially leading to more effective future therapies.
Isolation, Characterization and Comparative Differentiation of Human Dental Pulp Stem Cells Derived from Permanent Teeth by Using Two Different Methods
1Department of Stem Cells and Developmental Biology, Cell Science Research Center, Royan Institute for Stem Cell Biology and Technology, ACECR, Tehran, Iran, 2Department of Endocrinology & Female Infertility, Reproductive Biomedicine Center, Royan Institute for Reproductive Biomedicine, ACECR, Tehran, Iran
The method described isolation and characterization of human Dental Pulp Stem Cells (hDPSCs) by using either enzymatic dissociation of pulp (DPSC-ED) or direct outgrowth of stem cells from pulp tissue explants (DPSC-OG). Then followed by in vitro comparative differentiation of both types of hDPSCs into odontoblasts.
Aqueous two-phase systems were used to simultaneously pattern multiple populations of cells. This fast and easy method for cell patterning takes advantage of the phase separation of aqueous solutions of dextran and polyethylene glycol and the interfacial tension that exists between the two polymer solutions.
The generation of aligned myocardial tissue is a key requirement for adapting the recent advances in stem cell biology to clinically useful purposes. Herein we describe a microcontact printing approach for the precise control of cell shape and function. Using highly purified populations of embryonic stem cell derived cardiac progenitors, we then generate anisotropic functional myocardial tissue.
Coculture Analysis of Extracellular Protein Interactions Affecting Insulin Secretion by Pancreatic Beta Cells
1Pediatric Diabetes Research Center, University of California, San Diego, 2Janssen Research & Development, 3Department of Medicine, University of California, San Diego
Transcellular protein interactions are important determinants of pancreatic beta-cell function. Detailed here is a method—adapted from a coculture model of synaptogenesis—for investigating how specific transmembrane proteins influence insulin secretion. Transfected HEK293 cells express proteins of interest; beta cells do not need to be transfected or otherwise directly perturbed.
1Experimental and Clinical Research Center, A joint cooperation between the Charité Medical Faculty and the Max Delbrück Center for Molecular Medicine, 2Berlin Ultrahigh Field Facility (B.U.F.F.), Max Delbrück Center for Molecular Medicine
Tracking of cells using MRI has gained remarkable attention in the past years. This protocol describes the labeling of dendritic cells with fluorine (19F)-rich particles, the in vivo application of these cells, and monitoring the extent of their migration to the draining lymph node with 19F/1H MRI and 19F MRS.
1Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, 2American University in Washington, D.C., 3Department of Internal Medicine, Saint Louis University School of Medicine
Primary hepatocytes provide a valuable tool to evaluate biochemical, molecular, and metabolic functions in a physiologically relevant experimental system. We describe a reliable protocol for rat in situ liver perfusion, which consistently generates viable hepatocytes up to 1.0 × 108 cells per preparation with cell viability between 88 ~ 96%.
A rapid, robust way of isolating viable adult epithelial stem cells from human skin is described. The method utilizes enzymatic digestion of skin collagen matrix , followed by plucking of hair follicles and isolation of single cell suspensions or tissue fragments for cell culture.
This video protocol demonstrates the neurosphere assay method to generate and expand neural stem cells from the adult mouse periventricular region, and provides technical insights to ensure one can achieve reproducible neurosphere cultures.
This article describes the procedures of an experimental metastasis assay that is used to determine the metastatic potential of human cancer cell lines.
Here we describe a method to efficiently expand and purify large numbers of human NK cells and assess their function.
Identification and Analysis of Mouse Erythroid Progenitors using the CD71/TER119 Flow-cytometric Assay
A flow-cytometric method for identification and molecular analysis of differentiation-stage-specific murine erythroid progenitors and precursors, directly in freshly –harvested mouse bone marrow, spleen or fetal liver. The assay relies on cell-surface markers CD71, Ter119, and cell size.
The mesothelial clearance assay described here takes advantage of fluorescently labeled cells and time-lapse video microscopy to visualize and quantitatively measure the interactions of ovarian cancer multicellular spheroids and mesothelial cell monolayers. This assay models the early steps of ovarian cancer metastasis.
Generation of T lymphocytes from induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells gives an alternative approach of using embryonic stem cells for T cell-based immunotherapy. The method shows that by utilizing either in vitro or in vivo induction system, iPS cells are able to differentiate into both conventional and antigen-specific T lymphocytes.
This protocol describes the isolation, enrichment, and maintenance of medulloblastoma tumor stem cells derived from mutant mice with ectopic Sonic hedgehog pathway activity.
Flow cytometry is a powerful tool allowing for the isolation and study of specific cell populations. This protocol describes steps for isolating LacZ-expressing cells from cochlear tissues from neonatal transgenic mice. Dissociated cochlear cells were labeled using fluorescent-conjugated substrates of β-galactosidase prior to separation via flow cytometry.
We demonstrate how to set up an in vitro ischemia/reperfusion model and how to evaluate the effect of stem cell therapy on postischemic cardiac cells.
Enhancement of Apoptotic and Autophagic Induction by a Novel Synthetic C-1 Analogue of 7-deoxypancratistatin in Human Breast Adenocarcinoma and Neuroblastoma Cells with Tamoxifen
We have synthesized a novel analogue of pancratistatin with comparable anti-cancer activity as native pancratistatin; interestingly, combinatory treatment with tamoxifen yielded a drastic enhancement in apoptotic and autophagic induction by mitochondrial targeting with minimal effect on noncancerous fibroblasts. Thus, JCTH-4 in combination with tamoxifen could provide a safe anti-cancer therapy.
We describe two methods for conditional trans-complementation of hepatitis C virus (HCV) assembly and the completion of the full viral life cycle, which rely on heterokaryon formation. These techniques are suitable to screen for cell lines that express dominant restriction factors, which preclude production of infectious HCV progeny.
Here we describe a method for the isolation of hepatic stellate cells from mouse liver. For stellate cell purification, mouse livers are digested in situ and in vitro by pronase-collagenase treatment prior to density gradient centrifugation. This technique yields highly pure hepatic stellate cells.
A Simple and Efficient Method to Isolate Macrophages from Mixed Primary Cultures of Adult Liver Cells
A novel method to obtain macrophages from primary culture of rat liver cells is described. This method utilizes the proliferation of macrophages in the culture, followed by shaking of culture flasks and purification by selective attachment to plastic dishes. This technique efficiently provides liver macrophages without complex equipment and skills.
We provide a reproducible method to induce type 1 diabetes (T1D) in mice within two weeks by the adoptive transfer of islet antigen-specific, primary CD4+ T cells.
This video protocol demonstrates the isolation and expansion of stem like cells from surgically resected human glioblastoma mutliforme (GBM) tumor tissue using the neurosphere assay culture method.
By combining a polished and reinforced thin-skull (PoRTS) cranial window and glioblastoma (GBM) cell injection, we can observe glioma initiation and growth from injected GBM cells in the brain of a live mouse longitudinally.
Photobleaching Assays (FRAP & FLIP) to Measure Chromatin Protein Dynamics in Living Embryonic Stem Cells
We describe photobleaching methods including Fluorescence Recovery After Photobleaching (FRAP) and Fluorescence Loss In Photobleaching (FLIP) to monitor chromatin protein dynamics in embryonic stem (ES) cells. Chromatin protein dynamics, which is considered to be one of the means to study chromatin plasticity, is enhanced in pluripotent cells.
We describe a technique for labeling and tracking stem cells with FDA-approved, superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO), ferumoxytol (Feraheme). This cellular imaging technique that utilizes magnetic resonance (MR) imaging for visualization, is readily accessible for long-term monitoring and diagnosis of successful or unsuccessful stem cell engraftments in patients.
This article will focus on the generation of human hepatic endoderm from human embryonic stem cell populations.
Tracking subtle changes in the progression and kinetics of cell cycle stages can be accomplished by use of a combination of metabolic labeling of nucleic acids with BrdU and total genomic DNA staining via Propidium Iodide. This method avoids the need of chemical synchronization of cycling cells, thereby preventing the introduction of non-specific DNA damage, which in turn affects cell cycle progression.
Generation of Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells from Peripheral Blood Using the STEMCCA Lentiviral Vector
1Center for Regenerative Medicine (CReM), Boston University School of Medicine, 2Department of Hematology, Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, 3Center for Cellular and Molecular Therapeutics, Children's Hospital of Philadelphia
Here we show a simple and effective protocol for the generation of human iPSCs from 3-4 ml of peripheral blood using a single lentiviral reprogramming vector. Reprogramming of readily available blood cells promises to accelerate the utilization of iPSC technology by making it accessible to a broader research community.
This video shows techniques for labeling of human embryonic stem cells and mesenchymal stem cells with fluorescent dyes. This technique can be used for an in vivo tracking of transplanted stem cells with optical imaging and for histopathological correlations with fluorescence microscopy.
For development of RNA interference (RNAi)-based therapies, a novel strategy was developed, transkingdom RNAi (tkRNAi). This technology uses non-pathogenic bacteria to produce and deliver therapeutic short hairpin RNA (shRNA) into target cells. Here, tkRNAi was successfully applied for reversal of classical ABCB1-mediated multidrug resistance (MDR) of cancer cells.