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Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the Genotype and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
 JoVE Immunology and Infection

Isolation of Fidelity Variants of RNA Viruses and Characterization of Virus Mutation Frequency

1Viral Populations and Pathogenesis lab and CNRS 3015, Institut Pasteur


JoVE 2953

The present article describes the steps required to isolate and characterize RNA polymerase fidelity variants of RNA viruses and how to use mutation frequency data to confirm fidelity changes in tissue culture.

 JoVE Clinical and Translational Medicine

Primary Orthotopic Glioma Xenografts Recapitulate Infiltrative Growth and Isocitrate Dehydrogenase I Mutation

1Department of Neurology, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, 2Vanderbilt Ingram Cancer Center, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, 3Neurology Service, Veteran Affairs TVHS


JoVE 50865

Malignant gliomas constitute a heterogeneous group of highly infiltrative glial neoplasms with distinct clinical and molecular features. Primary orthotopic xenografts recapitulate the histopathological and molecular features of malignant glioma subtypes in preclinical animal models.

 JoVE General

Protein WISDOM: A Workbench for In silico De novo Design of BioMolecules

1Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Princeton University


JoVE 50476

We developed computational de novo protein design methods capable of tackling several important areas of protein design. To disseminate these methods we present Protein WISDOM, an online tool for protein design (http://www.proteinwisdom.org). Starting from a structural template, design of monomeric proteins for increased stability and complexes for increased binding affinity can be performed.

 JoVE Immunology and Infection

Identifying DNA Mutations in Purified Hematopoietic Stem/Progenitor Cells

1Greehey Children's Cancer Research Institute, UT Health Science Center at San Antonio, 2Department of Cellular and Structural Biology, UT Health Science Center at San Antonio, 3Department of Pathology, UT Health Science Center at San Antonio, 4Department of Microbiology, UT Health Science Center at San Antonio, 5Cancer Therapy and Research Center, UT Health Science Center at San Antonio


JoVE 50752

Here we describe an in vivo mutagenesis assay for small numbers of purified hematopoietic cells using the LacI transgenic mouse model. The LacI gene can be isolated to determine the frequency, location, and type of DNA mutants spontaneously arisen or after exposure to genotoxins.

 JoVE Immunology and Infection

A New Screening Method for the Directed Evolution of Thermostable Bacteriolytic Enzymes

1Institute for Bioscience and Biotechnology Research, University of Maryland


JoVE 4216

A novel directed evolution method specific to the field of thermostability engineering was developed and consequently validated for bacteriolytic enzymes. After only one round of random mutagenesis, an evolved bacteriolytic enzyme, PlyC 29C3, displayed greater than twice the residual activity when compared to the wild-type protein after elevated temperature incubation.

 JoVE General

Mutagenesis and Functional Selection Protocols for Directed Evolution of Proteins in E. coli

1Department of Microbiology & Environmental Toxicology, University of California Santa Cruz - UCSC


JoVE 2505

Here we demonstrate a simple protocol to create a random mutant library for a given target sequence. We show how this method, which is performed in vivo in Escherichia coli, can be coupled with functional selections to evolve new enzymatic activities.

 JoVE General

Monitoring Intraspecies Competition in a Bacterial Cell Population by Cocultivation of Fluorescently Labelled Strains

1Department of General Microbiology, Georg-August University


JoVE 51196

Bacteria may accumulate either detrimental or beneficial mutations during their lifetime. In a population of cells individuals that have accumulated beneficial mutations may rapidly outcompete their fellows. Here we present a simple procedure to visualize intraspecies competition in a bacterial cell population over time using fluorescently labeled individuals. 

 JoVE General

Using Caenorhabditis elegans as a Model System to Study Protein Homeostasis in a Multicellular Organism

1Department of Life Sciences, National Institute for Biotechnology in the Negev, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev


JoVE 50840

To study the relationship between protein homeostasis, stress and aging, we monitored changes in protein folding by following protein dysfunction, protein localization in the cell and protein stability at the organismal, cellular and protein levels, using the genetically tractable metazoan Caenorhabditis elegans as a model system.

 JoVE General

Mapping Bacterial Functional Networks and Pathways in Escherichia Coli using Synthetic Genetic Arrays

1Department of Molecular Genetics, University of Toronto, 2Banting and Best Department of Medical Research, Donnelly Centre, University of Toronto, 3Department of Biochemistry, Research and Innovation Centre, University of Regina


JoVE 4056

Systematic, large-scale synthetic genetic (gene-gene or epistasis) interaction screens can be used to explore genetic redundancy and pathway cross-talk. Here, we describe a high-throughput quantitative synthetic genetic array screening technology, termed eSGA that we developed for elucidating epistatic relationships and exploring genetic interaction networks in Escherichia coli.

 JoVE General

Detecting Somatic Genetic Alterations in Tumor Specimens by Exon Capture and Massively Parallel Sequencing

1Department of Pathology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, 2Human Oncology and Pathogenesis Program, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center


JoVE 50710

We describe the preparation of barcoded DNA libraries and subsequent hybridization-based exon capture for detection of key cancer-associated mutations in clinical tumor specimens by massively parallel "next generation" sequencing. Targeted exon sequencing offers the benefits of high throughput, low cost, and deep sequence coverage, thus yielding high sensitivity for detecting low frequency mutations.

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