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Neck Muscles: The neck muscles consist of the platysma, splenius cervicis, sternocleidomastoid(eus), longus colli, the anterior, medius, and posterior scalenes, digastric(us), stylohyoid(eus), mylohyoid(eus), geniohyoid(eus), sternohyoid(eus), omohyoid(eus), sternothyroid(eus), and thyrohyoid(eus).
 Science Education: Essentials of Lab Animal Research

Diagnostic Necropsy and Tissue Harvest

JoVE Science Education

Source: Kay Stewart, RVT, RLATG, CMAR; Valerie A. Schroeder, RVT, RLATG. University of Notre Dame, IN

Many animal experiments rely on final data collection time points that are gathered from the harvesting and testing of organs and tissues. The use of appropriate methods for the collection of organs and tissues can impact the quality of the samples and the analysis of the data that is gleaned for the testing of the tissues. The method of euthanasia of the animal can also impact the quality of the samples. This manuscript will outline proper necropsy techniques for rats.

 JoVE Medicine

Coordinate Mapping of Hyolaryngeal Mechanics in Swallowing

1Medical College of Georgia, Georgia Regents University, 2Department of Communicative Sciences and Disorders, New York University, 3Department of Cellular Biology & Anatomy, Georgia Regents University, 4Department of Otolaryngology, Georgia Regents University


JoVE 51476

 JoVE Medicine

Adapting Human Videofluoroscopic Swallow Study Methods to Detect and Characterize Dysphagia in Murine Disease Models

1Department of Otolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery, University of Missouri, 2Department of Communication Science and Disorders, University of Missouri, 3Department of Medicine, University of Missouri


JoVE 52319

 Science Education: Essentials of Lab Animal Research

Compound Administration I

JoVE Science Education

Source: Kay Stewart, RVT, RLATG, CMAR; Valerie A. Schroeder, RVT, RLATG. University of Notre Dame, IN

As many research protocols require that a substance be injected into an animal, the route of delivery and the amount of the substance must be accurately determined. There are several routes of administration available in the mouse and rat. Which route to use is determined by several factors of the substance to be injected: the pH of the solution, the volume required for the desired dosage, and the viscosity of the solution. Severe tissue damage can occur if a substance is administered incorrectly. This video looks at the various restraint methods and technical details for the most commonly used injection routes.

 Science Education: Essentials of Physical Examinations III

Neck Exam

JoVE Science Education

Source: Robert E. Sallis, MD. Kaiser Permanente, Fontana, California, USA

Examination of the neck can be a challenge because of the many bones, joints, and ligaments that make up the underlying cervical spine. The cervical spine is composed of seven vertebrae stacked in gentle C-shaped curve. The anterior part of each vertebra is made up of the thick bony body, which is linked to the body above and below by intervertebral discs. These discs help provide stability and shock absorption to the cervical spine. The posterior elements of the vertebra, which include the laminae, transverse, and spinous processes and the facet joints, form a protective canal for the cervical spinal cord and its nerve roots. The cervical spine supports the head and protects the neural elements as they come from the brain and from the spinal cord. Therefore, injuries or disorders affecting the neck can also affect the underlying spinal cord and have potentially catastrophic consequences. The significant motion that occurs in the neck places the cervical spine at increased risk for injury and degenerative changes. The cervical spine is also a common source of radicular pain in the shoulder. For this reason, the neck should be evaluated as a routine part of every shoulder exam.

 JoVE Neuroscience

Transplantation of Olfactory Ensheathing Cells to Evaluate Functional Recovery after Peripheral Nerve Injury

1UPRES EA3830, Institute for Research and Innovation in Biomedicine, University of Rouen, 2Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, 3Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery Department, Rouen University Hospital, 4Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery Department, Amiens University Hospital


JoVE 50590

 Science Education: Essentials of Physical Examinations II

Lymph Node Exam

JoVE Science Education

Source: Richard Glickman-Simon, MD, Assistant Professor, Department of Public Health and Community Medicine, Tufts University School of Medicine, MA

The lymphatic system has two main functions: to return extracellular fluid back to the venous circulation and to expose antigenic substances to the immune system. As the collected fluid passes through lymphatic channels on its way back to the systemic circulation, it encounters multiple nodes consisting of highly concentrated clusters of lymphocytes. Most lymph channels and nodes reside deep within the body and, therefore, are not accessible to physical exam (Figure 1). Only nodes near the surface can be inspected or palpated. Lymph nodes are normally invisible, and smaller nodes are also non-palpable. However, larger nodes (>1 cm) in the neck, axillae, and inguinal areas are often detectable as soft, smooth, movable, non-tender, bean-shaped masses imbedded in subcutaneous tissue. Lymphadenopathy usually indicates an infection or, less commonly, a cancer in the area of lymph drainage. Nodes may become enlarged, fixed, firm, and/or tender depending on the pathology present. For example, a soft, tender lymph node palpable near the angle of the mandible may indicate an infected tonsil, whereas a firm, enlarged, non-tender lymph

 JoVE Neuroscience

Optogenetic Stimulation of the Auditory Nerve

1InnerEarLab, Department of Otolaryngology, University Medical Center Goettingen, 2Bernstein Focus for Neurotechnology, University of Goettingen, 3Auditory Systems Physiology Group, Department of Otolaryngology, University Medical Center Goettingen, 4Center for Nanoscale Microscopy and Molecular Physiology of the Brain, University of Goettingen, 5Department of Chemical, Electronic, and Biomedical Engineering, University of Guanajuato


JoVE 52069

 JoVE Immunology and Infection

Right Ventricular Systolic Pressure Measurements in Combination with Harvest of Lung and Immune Tissue Samples in Mice

1Department of Environmental Medicine, New York University School of Medicine, Tuxedo, 2Division of Allergy, Pulmonary, & Critical Care Medicine, Department of Medicine, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, 3Division of Pulmonary Medicine, New York University School of Medicine


JoVE 50023

 JoVE Medicine

Contrast Enhanced Ultrasound Imaging for Assessment of Spinal Cord Blood Flow in Experimental Spinal Cord Injury

1Laboratoire d'étude de la microcirculation, Faculté de Médecine Paris Diderot Paris VII, U942, 2Department of orthopaedic surgery, Bicetre Universitary Hospital, Public Assistance of Paris Hospital, 3Institute of Medical Science, Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto, 4Department of Intensive care and Anesthesiology, Bicetre Universitary Hospital, Public Assistance of Paris Hospital


JoVE 52536

 JoVE In-Press

Manipulation of Epileptiform ECoGs and Sleep in Rats and Mice by Acupuncture

1Department of Sports, Health & Leisure, College of Tourism, Leisure and Sports, Aletheia University, Tainan Campus, 2Department of Neurology, Mackay Memorial Hospital and Mackay Medical College, 3Department of Veterinary Medicine, School of Veterinary Medicine, National Taiwan University, 4Graduate Institute of Brain & Mind Sciences, College of Medicine, National Taiwan University, 5Graduate Institute of Acupuncture Science, College of Chinese Medicine, China Medical University

Video Coming Soon

JoVE 54896

 JoVE Medicine

A Novel Microsurgical Model for Heterotopic, En Bloc Chest Wall, Thymus, and Heart Transplantation in Mice

1Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, 2Burn and Complex Wound Center, 3Section of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, University of Chicago Medical Center, 4Division of Plastic, Reconstructive, and Maxillofacial Surgery, R Adams Cowley Shock Trauma Center, 5Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, 6Vascularized Composite Allotransplantation (VCA) Lab, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine


JoVE 53442

 Science Education: Essentials of Physical Examinations I

Respiratory Exam I: Inspection and Palpation

JoVE Science Education

Source: Suneel Dhand, MD, Attending Physician, Internal Medicine, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center

Disorders of the respiratory system with a chief complaint of shortness of breath are among the most common reasons for both outpatient and inpatient evaluation. The most obvious visible clue to a respiratory problem will be whether the patient is displaying any signs of respiratory distress, such as fast respiratory rate and/or cyanosis. In a clinical situation, this will always require emergent attention and oxygen therapy. Unlike pathology in other body systems, many pulmonary disorders, including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), asthma, and pneumonia, can be diagnosed by careful clinical examination alone. This starts with a comprehensive inspection and palpation. Keep in mind that in non-emergency situations the patient's complete history will have been taken already, gaining important insight into exposure histories (e.g., smoking), which could give rise to specific lung diseases. This history can then confirm physical findings as the examination is performed.

 JoVE Cancer Research

In Vivo Model for Testing Effect of Hypoxia on Tumor Metastasis

1Department of Biochemistry and Molecular & Cellular Biology, Georgetown University Medical Center, 2Department of Nursing, Georgetown University, School of Nursing and Health Studies, 3Department of Human Science, Georgetown University, School of Nursing and Health Studies, 4School of Medicine, Georgetown University Medical Center, 5Department of Pathology and Neuropathology, Medical University of Gdańsk, 6Department of Oncology, Georgetown University Medical Center, 7Department of Pathology, Georgetown University Medical Center


JoVE 54532

 JoVE Medicine

Performing Permanent Distal Middle Cerebral with Common Carotid Artery Occlusion in Aged Rats to Study Cortical Ischemia with Sustained Disability

1Wolfson Centre for Age-Related Diseases, King's College London, University of London, 2Department of Neuroimaging, James Black Centre, Institute of Psychiatry, King's College London, University of London, 3Institute of Neuroscience and Psychology, Wellcome Surgical Institute, College of Medical, Veterinary and Life Sciences, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, 4Research Service, Edward Hines Jr. VA Hospital, 5Neurology Service, Edward Hines Jr. VA Hospital, 6Department of Molecular Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Neuroscience Research Institute, Loyola University Chicago, 7Department of Oncology, The Gray Institute for Radiation, Oncology and Biology, University of Oxford


JoVE 53106

 JoVE Medicine

Ultrasound-guided Botulinum Toxin-A Injections: A Method of Treating Sialorrhea

1Clinical and Biological Sciences Department, Neurology Unit, University of Torino, San Luigi Gonzaga Hospital, 2Oncology Department, Radiology Unit, University of Torino, San Luigi Gonzaga Hospital, 3Clinical and Biological Sciences Department, Dietologic and Nutrition Unit, University of Torino, San Luigi Gonzaga Hospital


JoVE 54606

 JoVE Medicine

A Novel Vertebral Stabilization Method for Producing Contusive Spinal Cord Injury

1Spinal Cord and Brain Injury Research Group, Stark Neurosciences Research Institute, Department of Neurological Surgery and Goodman and Campbell Brain and Spine, Indiana University School of Medicine, 2Medical Neuroscience Graduate Program, Indiana University School of Medicine, 3Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Indiana University School of Medicine, 4Norton Neuroscience Institute, Norton Healthcare


JoVE 50149

 JoVE Medicine

Human Brown Adipose Tissue Depots Automatically Segmented by Positron Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography and Registered Magnetic Resonance Images

1Chemical and Physical Biology Program, Vanderbilt University, 2Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, 3Radiology & Radiological Sciences, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, 4Department of Pharmacology, Vanderbilt University


JoVE 52415

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