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Neurons, Afferent: Neurons which conduct Nerve impulses to the Central nervous system.
 JoVE Neuroscience

In Vitro Recording of Mesenteric Afferent Nerve Activity in Mouse Jejunal and Colonic Segments

1Laboratory of Experimental Medicine and Pediatrics, Division of Gastroenterology, University of Antwerp, 2Visceral Pain Group, Discipline of Medicine, University of Adelaide, 3Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of Sheffield, 4Department of Pharmacy, Pharmacology and Postgraduate Medicine, University of Hertfordshire, 5Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Antwerp University Hospital


JoVE 54576

 Science Education: Essentials of Physical Examinations III

Cranial Nerves Exam I (I-VI)

JoVE Science Education

Source: Tracey A. Milligan, MD; Tamara B. Kaplan, MD; Neurology, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, USA

During each section of the neurological testing the examiner uses the powers of observation to assess the patient. In some cases cranial nerve dysfunction is readily apparent: a patient might mention a characteristic chief complaint (such as loss of smell or diplopia), or a visually evident physical sign of cranial nerve involvement, such as in facial nerve palsy. However, in many cases a patient's history doesn't directly suggest cranial nerve pathologies, as some of them (such as sixth nerve palsy) may have subtle manifestations and can only be uncovered by a careful neurological exam. Importantly, a variety of pathological conditions that are associated with alterations in mental status (such as some neurodegenerative disorders or brain lesions) can also cause cranial nerve dysfunction, therefore any abnormal findings during a mental status exam should prompt a careful and complete neurological exam. The cranial nerve examination is applied neuroanatomy. The cranial nerves are symmetrical, therefore while performing the examination each side should be compared to the other. A physician should approach the examination in a systematic fashion and go through the

 Science Education: Essentials of Physical Examinations III

Sensory Exam

JoVE Science Education

Source: Tracey A. Milligan, MD; Tamara B. Kaplan, MD; Neurology, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, USA

A complete sensory examination consists of testing primary sensory modalities as well as cortical sensory function. Primary sensory modalities include pain, temperature, light touch, vibration and joint position sense. Whereas the sensation of the face is discussed in the video of the cranial nerve examination as are the special senses of smell, vision, taste, and hearing. Pain and temperature information from skin to thalamus is mediated by the spinothalamic tract. The spinothalamic fibers decussate (cross over) 1-2 spinal nerve segments above the point of entry and then travel up to the brainstem until they synapse on various nuclei in thalamus. From the thalamus, information is the relayed to the cortical areas such as postcentral gyrus, also known as the primary somatosensory cortex. Afferent fibers transmitting vibration and proprioception travel up to medulla in the ipsilateral posterior columns as fasciculus gracilis and fasciculus cuneatus, which carry information from the lower limbs and upper limbs, respectively. Subsequently the afferent projections cross over and ascend to thalamus and from there to the primary somatosensory cortex. The pattern of a sen

 JoVE Biology

The c-FOS Protein Immunohistological Detection: A Useful Tool As a Marker of Central Pathways Involved in Specific Physiological Responses In Vivo and Ex Vivo

1Sorbonne Paris Cité, Laboratory “Hypoxia & Lung” EA2363, University Paris 13, 2UPMC Univ Paris 06, INSERM, UMR_S1158 Neurophysiologie Respiratoire Expérimentale et Clinique, Sorbonne Universités, 3Laboratory of Excellence GR-Ex, 4Laboratory MOVE (EA 6314), University of Poitiers


JoVE 53613

 JoVE Neuroscience

Simultaneous Detection of c-Fos Activation from Mesolimbic and Mesocortical Dopamine Reward Sites Following Naive Sugar and Fat Ingestion in Rats

1Behavioral and Cognitive Neuroscience Cluster, Psychology Doctoral Program, The Graduate Center, CUNY, New York, NY, 2Department of Psychology, Queens College, CUNY, Flushing, NY, 3Behavioral and Cognitive Neuroscience Cluster, Psychology Doctoral Program, The Graduate Center, CUNY, Flushing, NY


JoVE 53897

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