1Department of Physiology, Jules Stein Eye Institute and Howard Hughes Medical Institute, University of California, Los Angeles
Here we describe an optimized technique to produce high-quality vitamin A/RBP complex and two real-time monitoring techniques to study vitamin A transport by STRA6, the RBP receptor.
Published January 28, 2013. Keywords: Biochemistry, Molecular Biology, Genetics, Cellular Biology, Molecular Biology, Anatomy, Physiology, Ophthalmology, Proteomics, Proteins, Membrane Transport Proteins, Vitamin A, retinoid, RBP complex, membrane transport, membrane receptor, STRA6, retinol binding protein
1College of Nursing, Interdisciplinary Life Sciences Research Laboratory, Seattle University, 2College of Science and Engineering, Interdisciplinary Life Sciences Research Laboratory, Seattle University, 3School of Medicine, University of Washington
An in vitro method for preparing functional glucocorticoid receptor (GR)•hsp90 protein complexes from purified proteins and cellular lysates is described. The method utilizes immunoadsorption of recombinant GR followed by salt-stripping and protein complex reconstitution. The importance of cofactors and buffer conditions are discussed, as are potential method applications.
Published September 21, 2011. Keywords: Biochemistry, glucocorticoid receptor, hsp90, molecular chaperone protein, in vitro reconstitution, steroid binding, biochemistry, immunoadsorption, immunoprecipitation, Experion, western blot
1Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Princeton University
We developed computational de novo protein design methods capable of tackling several important areas of protein design. To disseminate these methods we present Protein WISDOM, an online tool for protein design (http://www.proteinwisdom.org). Starting from a structural template, design of monomeric proteins for increased stability and complexes for increased binding affinity can be performed.
Published July 25, 2013. Keywords: Genetics, Molecular Biology, Bioengineering, Biochemistry, Biomedical Engineering, Chemical Engineering, Computational Biology, Genomics, Proteomics, Protein, Protein Binding, Computational Biology, Drug Design, optimization (mathematics), Amino Acids, Peptides, and Proteins, De novo protein and peptide design, Drug design, In silico sequence selection, Optimization, Fold specificity, Binding affinity, sequencing
1Center for Computational Medicine and Bioinformatics, University of Michigan, 2Center for Bioinformatics and Department of Molecular Bioscience, University of Kansas
Guidelines for computer based structural and functional characterization of protein using the I-TASSER pipeline is described. Starting from query protein sequence, 3D models are generated using multiple threading alignments and iterative structural assembly simulations. Functional inferences are thereafter drawn based on matches to proteins with known structure and functions.
Published November 3, 2011. Keywords: Biochemistry, On-line server, I-TASSER, protein structure prediction, function prediction
1Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, SUNY Upstate Medical University
The protocols here describe kinetic assays of protein-protein interactions with Bio-layer Interferometry. F-type ATP synthase, which is involved in cellular energy metabolism, can be inhibited by its ε subunit in bacteria. We have adapted Bio-layer Interferometry to study interactions of the catalytic complex with ε’s inhibitory C-terminal domain.
Published February 18, 2014. Keywords: Chemistry, ATP synthase, Bio-Layer Interferometry, Ligand-induced conformational change, Biomolecular Interaction Analysis, Allosteric regulation, Enzyme inhibition
1Department of Medicinal Chemistry and Molecular Pharmacology, Purdue University, 2Quantitative Biology, Eli Lilly and Company
Persistent activation of inhibitory G protein-coupled receptors results in sensitization of adenylyl cyclase signaling. To identify the essential molecular pathways, nonbiased approaches are necessary; however, this strategy requires the development of a scalable cell-based cAMP sensitization assay. Herein, we describe a sensitization assay for small molecule and siRNA screening.
Published January 27, 2014. Keywords: Bioengineering, adenylyl cyclase, cAMP, heterologous sensitization, superactivation, D2 dopamine, μ opioid, siRNA
1Laboratory of Chemical Biology and Signal Transduction, The Rockefeller University
We genetically-encode the unnatural amino acid, p-azido-L-phenylalanine at various targeted positions in GPCRs and show the versatility of the azido group in different applications. These include a targeted photocrosslinking technology to identify residues in the ligand-binding pocket of a GPCR, and site-specific bioorthogonal modification of GPCRs with a peptide-epitope tag or fluorescent probe.
Published September 13, 2013. Keywords: Genetics, Receptors, G-Protein-Coupled, Protein Engineering, Signal Transduction, Biochemistry, Unnatural amino acid, site-directed mutagenesis, G protein-coupled receptor, targeted photocrosslinking, bioorthogonal labeling, targeted epitope tagging
1School of Biotechnology, Department of Proteomics, Royal Institute of Technology
A novel and highly efficient two-step affinity chromatography protocol has been developed and is described in detail. The method is based on a small purification tag with two inherent affinities and is applicable to a wide range of target proteins with different properties.
Published January 16, 2012. Keywords: Molecular Biology, Affinity chromatography, albumin-binding domain, human serum albumin, Z-domain
1Department of Cell Biology, Neurobiology and Anatomy, Medical College of Wisconsin
Calmodulin (CaM) pull-down assay is an effective way to investigate the interaction of CaM with various proteins. This method uses CaM-sepharose beads for efficient and specific analysis of CaM-binding proteins. This provides an important tool to explore CaM signaling in cellular function.
Published January 23, 2012. Keywords: Molecular BIology, Calmodulin, calcium, IQ-motif, affinity chromatography, pull-down, Ca2+/Calmodulin-dependent Kinase II, neurogranin
1Department of Cell Biology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas
Procedures for complete reconstitution of a prototype voltage-gated potassium channel into lipid membranes are described. The reconstituted channels are suitable for biochemical assays, electrical recordings, ligand screening and electron crystallographic studies. These methods may have general applications to the structural and functional studies of other membrane proteins.
Published July 13, 2013. Keywords: Molecular Biology, Biochemistry, Genetics, Cellular Biology, Structural Biology, Biophysics, Membrane Lipids, Phospholipids, Carrier Proteins, Membrane Proteins, Micelles, Molecular Motor Proteins, life sciences, biochemistry, Amino Acids, Peptides, and Proteins, lipid-protein interaction, channel reconstitution, lipid-dependent gating, voltage-gated ion channel, conformation-specific ligands, lipids