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Tarsal Joints: The articulations between the various Tarsal bones. This does not include the Ankle joint which consists of the articulations between the Tibia; Fibula; and Talus.
 JoVE Neuroscience

Kinematics and Ground Reaction Force Determination: A Demonstration Quantifying Locomotor Abilities of Young Adult, Middle-aged, and Geriatric Rats

1CullenWebb Animal Neurology & Ophthalmology Center, Riverview, NB, 2Department of Clinical Neurosciences, Faculty of Medicine, University of Calgary, 3Department of Comparative Biology and Experimental Medicine, University of Calgary, 4Department of Neuroscience, University of Calgary


JoVE 2138

 Science Education: Essentials of Physical Examinations III

Foot Exam

JoVE Science Education

Source: Robert E. Sallis, MD. Kaiser Permanente, Fontana, California, USA

The foot is a complex structure comprised of numerous bones and articulations. It provides flexibility, is the essential contact point needed for ambulation, and is uniquely suited to absorb shock. Because the foot must support the weight of the entire body, it is prone to injury and pain. When examining the foot, it is important to remove shoes and socks on both sides, so that the entire foot can be inspected and compared. It is important to closely compare the injured or painful foot to the uninvolved side. The essential parts of the evaluation of the foot include inspection, palpation (which should include vascular assessment), testing of the range of motion and strength, and the neurological evaluation.

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 JoVE Immunology and Infection

Measuring Physiological Responses of Drosophila Sensory Neurons to Lipid Pheromones Using Live Calcium Imaging

1Temasek Life Sciences Laboratory, 2Department of Biological Science, National University of Singapore, 3Bioimaging and Biocomputing Facility, Temasek Life Sciences Laboratory, 4Histology and Light Microscopy Core, Gladstone Institutes, 5Pacific Biosciences Research Center, University of Hawai'i at Mānoa


JoVE 53392

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 JoVE Bioengineering

In situ Compressive Loading and Correlative Noninvasive Imaging of the Bone-periodontal Ligament-tooth Fibrous Joint

1Division of Biomaterials and Bioengineering, Department of Preventive and Restorative Dental Sciences, University of California San Francisco, 2Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, University of California San Francisco, 3Xradia Inc.


JoVE 51147

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 JoVE Bioengineering

Robotic Mirror Therapy System for Functional Recovery of Hemiplegic Arms

1Department of Biomedical Engineering, Seoul National University College of Medicine, 2Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, Chungnam National University Hospital, 3Interdisciplinary Program for Bioengineering, Seoul National University Graduate School, 4Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, Seoul National University Hospital, 5Seoul National University College of Medicine, 6Institute of Medical and Biological Engineering, Seoul National University


JoVE 54521

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 JoVE Bioengineering

Training Persons with Spinal Cord Injury to Ambulate Using a Powered Exoskeleton

1Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) Rehabilitation Research and Development National Center of Excellence for the Medical Consequences of Spinal Cord Injury, James J. Peters VA Medical Center, 2Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) Spinal Cord Injury Service, James J. Peters VA Medical Center


JoVE 54071

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 JoVE Medicine

In Vivo Optical Imaging of Brain Tumors and Arthritis Using Fluorescent SapC-DOPS Nanovesicles

1Division of Hematology-Oncology, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, 2Division of Human Genetics, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, 3Department of Radiology, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, 4Division of Rheumatology, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, 5Solid Tumor Biology Program, James Comprehensive Cancer Center, The Ohio State University Medical Center, 6Department of Neurological Surgery, James Comprehensive Cancer Center, The Ohio State University Medical Center


JoVE 51187

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 Science Education: Essentials of Lab Animal Research

Blood Withdrawal II

JoVE Science Education

Source: Kay Stewart, RVT, RLATG, CMAR; Valerie A. Schroeder, RVT, RLATG. University of Notre Dame, IN

The collection of blood from mice and rats for analysis can be done through a variety of methods. Each method of collection has variations in the type of restraint required, the invasiveness of the procedure, and the necessity of a general anesthetic.1Historically, the use of the retro-orbital sinus cavity has been used, but not without debate. The controversy related to the potential tissue damage,or even blindness,caused by retro-orbital bleeds has led to the development of facial and submandibular vein bleeding methods in mice.Blood collection from the saphenous vein in both mice and rats is another technique that has been developed. These procedures do not require anesthesia and therefore are suitable when the use of anesthetics may confound blood results or other data.

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 JoVE Biology

High-Throughput, Multi-Image Cryohistology of Mineralized Tissues

1Department of Reconstructive Sciences, University of Connecticut Health Center, 2Department of Computer Science and Engineering, University of Connecticut, 3Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, University of Connecticut Health Center, 4Department of Orthopaedics, University of Rochester


JoVE 54468

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 JoVE Chemistry

Seeded Synthesis of CdSe/CdS Rod and Tetrapod Nanocrystals

1Department of Chemical Engineering, UC Berkeley, 2Department of Materials Science and Engineering, UC Berkeley, 3Department of Chemistry, UC Berkeley, 4Materials Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 5Department of Chemistry, University of Chicago, 6Center for Nanoscale Materials, Argonne National Laboratory


JoVE 50731

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 JoVE Chemistry

Conducting Miller-Urey Experiments

1School of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Georgia Institute of Technology, 2Earth-Life Science Institute, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 3Institute for Advanced Study, 4Astromaterials Research and Exploration Science Directorate, NASA Johnson Space Center, 5Goddard Center for Astrobiology, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, 6Geosciences Research Division, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, University of California at San Diego


JoVE 51039

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 Science Education: Essentials of Organic Chemistry

Schlenk Lines Transfer of Solvents

JoVE Science Education

Source: Hsin-Chun Chiu and Tyler J. Morin, laboratory of Dr. Ian Tonks—University of Minnesota Twin Cities

Schlenk lines and high vacuum lines are both used to exclude moisture and oxygen from reactions by running reactions under a slight overpressure of inert gas (usually N2 or Ar) or under vacuum. Vacuum transfer has been developed as a method separate solvents (other volatile reagents) from drying agents (or other nonvolatile agents) and dispense them to reaction or storage vessels while maintaining an air-free environment. Similar to thermal distillations, vacuum transfer separates solvents by vaporizing and condensing them in another receiving vessel; however, vacuum transfers utilize the low pressure in the manifolds of Schlenk and high vacuum lines to lower boiling points to room temperature or below, allowing for cryogenic distillations. This technique can provide a safer alternative to thermal distillation for the collection of air- and moisture-free solvents. After the vacuum transfer, the water content of the collected solvent can be tested quantitatively by Karl Fischer titration, qualitatively by titration with a Na/Ph2CO solution, or by 1H NMR spectroscopy.

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 JoVE Medicine

Combined In vivo Optical and µCT Imaging to Monitor Infection, Inflammation, and Bone Anatomy in an Orthopaedic Implant Infection in Mice

1Orthopaedic Hospital Research Center, Orthopaedic Hospital Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, David Geffen School of Medicine at University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA), 2PerkinElmer, 3Department of Dermatology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, 4Department of Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine


JoVE 51612

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 JoVE Medicine

Surgical Fixation of Sternal Fractures: Preoperative Planning and a Safe Surgical Technique Using Locked Titanium Plates and Depth Limited Drilling

1Orthopedic and Trauma Surgery, University Hospital Erlangen, 2Pediatric Surgery, University Hospital Erlangen, 3Orthopedic and Trauma Surgery, St.-Theresien Hospital, 4Institute of Anatomy I, University Erlangen-Nuremberg


JoVE 52124

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 Science Education: Essentials of General Chemistry

Common Lab Glassware and Uses

JoVE Science Education

Source: Laboratory of Dr. Neal Abrams — SUNY College of Environmental Science and Forestry

Glassware is a regular appearance in the professional chemistry laboratory, because it has a relatively low cost, extreme durability, and specific levels of precision. While some labware is being supplemented with plastic or even everyday kitchen materials, glass is still the standard material by which laboratory work is done. While there are few rules about glassware, there are some best practices for use that set the groundwork for good techniques in the lab. Glass is ubiquitous in the chemistry laboratory, but not all glass is the same. Standard consumer-grade glass is known as "soda-lime" or "float" glass. It is good for many applications, but cracks under rapid heating and cooling applications due to expansion/contraction. Borosilicate glass is used to solve this problem in the lab. Made with an introduction of small amounts of boron, borosilicate glass has a very low coefficient of expansion, which prevents internal stresses. The most common trade name for borosilicate glass is Pyrex, the same type of glass used in some kitchen bakeware. While borosilicate glass is thermally robust, the impurities found in borosilicate and standard glass lead to a li

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 JoVE Medicine

Contrast Enhanced Ultrasound Imaging for Assessment of Spinal Cord Blood Flow in Experimental Spinal Cord Injury

1Laboratoire d'étude de la microcirculation, Faculté de Médecine Paris Diderot Paris VII, U942, 2Department of orthopaedic surgery, Bicetre Universitary Hospital, Public Assistance of Paris Hospital, 3Institute of Medical Science, Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto, 4Department of Intensive care and Anesthesiology, Bicetre Universitary Hospital, Public Assistance of Paris Hospital


JoVE 52536

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 Science Education: Essentials of Physical Examinations III

Hand and Wrist Exam

JoVE Science Education

Source: Robert E. Sallis, MD. Kaiser Permanente, Fontana, California, USA

The wrist is a complex joint made up of 8 carpal bones and their numerous articulations and ligaments. Overlying the wrist are the tendons and muscles of the hand and fingers. The hand is made up of 5 metacarpal bones and the tendons that run to the hand overlie these bones. Finally, the fingers consist of 14 phalanges with their articulations held together by collateral ligaments and volar plates. Common mechanisms of both acute and chronic wrist injury include impact, weight bearing (which can occur in gymnastics), twisting and throwing. The osteoarthritis of the hand commonly affects distal interphalangeal (DIP) and proximal interphalangeal (PIP) joints, while rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is seen in the metacarpophalangeal (MCP) and PIP joints. It is important to compare the injured wrist or hand to the uninvolved side. Key aspects of the wrist and hand exam include inspection, palpation for tenderness or deformity, testing the range of motion and strength, neurovascular assessment, ligaments and tendon testing and the special tests.

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 JoVE Developmental Biology

Generation of Induced-pluripotent Stem Cells Using Fibroblast-like Synoviocytes Isolated from Joints of Rheumatoid Arthritis Patients

1CiSTEM Laboratory, Convergent Research Consortium for Immunologic Disease, Division of Rheumatology, Seoul St. Mary's Hospital, Republic of Korea, 2Division of Rheumatology, Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul St. Mary's Hospital, Institute of Medical Science, Republic of Korea, 3College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Republic of Korea


JoVE 54072

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 Science Education: Essentials of Physical Examinations III

Motor Exam I

JoVE Science Education

Source: Tracey A. Milligan, MD; Tamara B. Kaplan, MD; Neurology, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, USA

Abnormalities in the motor function are associated with a wide range of diseases, from movement disorders and myopathies to strokes. The motor assessment starts with observation of the patient. When the patient enters the examination area, the clinician observes their ability to walk unassisted and their speed and coordination while moving. Taking the patient's history provides an additional opportunity to observe for evidence of tremors or other abnormal movements, such as chorea or tardive dyskinesia. Such simple but important observations can yield valuable clues to the diagnosis and helps to focus the rest of the examination. The motor assessment continues in a systematic fashion, including inspection for muscle atrophy and abnormal movements, assessment of muscle tone, muscle strength testing, and finally, the examination of the muscle reflexes and coordination. The careful systematic testing of the motor system and the integration of all the findings provide insight to the level at which the motor pathway is affected, and also help the clinician to formulate the differential diagnosis and determine the course of the subsequent evaluation and treatment.

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 Science Education: Essentials of Physical Examinations III

Neck Exam

JoVE Science Education

Source: Robert E. Sallis, MD. Kaiser Permanente, Fontana, California, USA

Examination of the neck can be a challenge because of the many bones, joints, and ligaments that make up the underlying cervical spine. The cervical spine is composed of seven vertebrae stacked in gentle C-shaped curve. The anterior part of each vertebra is made up of the thick bony body, which is linked to the body above and below by intervertebral discs. These discs help provide stability and shock absorption to the cervical spine. The posterior elements of the vertebra, which include the laminae, transverse, and spinous processes and the facet joints, form a protective canal for the cervical spinal cord and its nerve roots. The cervical spine supports the head and protects the neural elements as they come from the brain and from the spinal cord. Therefore, injuries or disorders affecting the neck can also affect the underlying spinal cord and have potentially catastrophic consequences. The significant motion that occurs in the neck places the cervical spine at increased risk for injury and degenerative changes. The cervical spine is also a common source of radicular pain in the shoulder. For this reason, the neck should be evaluated as a routine part of every shoulder exam.

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 Science Education: Essentials of Physical Examinations II

Abdominal Exam III: Palpation

JoVE Science Education

Source: Alexander Goldfarb, MD, Assistant Professor of Medicine, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, MA

Abdominal palpation, if performed correctly, allows for examination of the large and relatively superficial organs; for a skilled examiner, it allows for assessment of the smaller and deeper structures as well. The amount of information that can be obtained by palpation of the abdominal area also depends on the anatomical characteristics of the patient. For example, obesity might make palpation of internal organs difficult and require that additional maneuvers be performed. Abdominal palpation provides valuable information regarding localization of the problem and its severity, as abdominal palpation identifies the areas of tenderness as well as presence of organomegaly and tumors. The specific focus of palpation is driven by the information collected during history taking and other elements of the abdominal exam. Palpation helps to integrate this information and develop the strategy for subsequent diagnostic steps.

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