In this report, we describe a protocol for isolating highly purified populations of leukocytes that infiltrate tumors. This protocol is adapted from the Miltenyi Biotech protocol to enhance yield and purity for isolating cells from complex tumor tissue.
Three-dimensional Cell Culture Model for Measuring the Effects of Interstitial Fluid Flow on Tumor Cell Invasion
Interstitial fluid flow is elevated in solid tumors and can modulate tumor cell invasion. Here we describe a technique to apply interstitial fluid flow to cells embedded in a matrix and then measure its effects on cell invasion. This technique can be easily adapted to study other systems.
Immunohistochemical Staining of B7-H1 (PD-L1) on Paraffin-embedded Slides of Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma Tissue
1The Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, 2Department of Oncology, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, 3Department of Dermatology, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, 4Department of Surgery, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, 5The Sol Goldman Pancreatic Cancer Center, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, 6Yale Cancer Center, Yale School of Medicine, 7The Skip Viragh Center for Pancreatic Cancer, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, 8Department of Pathology, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine
B7-H1 (PD-L1) and its binding to PD-1 provide a major tumor-induced immunosuppressive signal in the tumor’s microenvironment. An immunohistochemical staining technique to characterize the expression and localization of B7-H1 in pancreatic adenocarcinoma is described here.
We describe a method for imaging response to anti-cancer treatment in vivo and at single cell resolution.
Isolation of Normal and Cancer-associated Fibroblasts from Fresh Tissues by Fluorescence Activated Cell Sorting (FACS)
Cancer Associated Fibroblasts (CAFs) facilitate tumor initiation, growth and progression through signaling that promotes proliferation, angiogenesis, and inflammation. Here we describe a method to isolate pure populations of normal fibroblasts and CAFs from fresh mouse and human tissues by cell sorting, using PDGFRα as a surface marker.
Here are some highlights from the February 2012 Issue of Journal of Visualized Experiments (JoVE).
We present the procedure for fabrication and operation of a microfluidic device that recreates heterogeneous tumor microenvironments in vitro. The variability in apoptosis within tumor tissue was quantified using fluorescent stains and the effective diffusion coefficient of the chemotherapeutic drug doxorubicin into tumor tissue was evaluated.
1Department of Anatomy and Structural Biology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine - Yeshiva University, 2Gruss Lipper Biophotonics Center, Albert Einstein College of Medicine - Yeshiva University, 3Hubrecht Institute-KNAW and University Medical Center Utrecht
Intravital photoswitching and tracking of Dendra2-labeled tumor cells through the Mammary Imaging Window is a technique which allows us to image the metastatic behavior of tumor cells in chosen tumor microenvironments over a timescale of days.
MAME Models for 4D Live-cell Imaging of Tumor: Microenvironment Interactions that Impact Malignant Progression
We have developed 3D coculture models for live-cell imaging in real-time of interactions among breast tumor cells and other cells in their microenvironment that impact progression to an invasive phenotype. These models can serve as preclinical screens for drugs to target paracrine-induced proteolytic, chemokine/cytokine and kinase pathways implicated in invasiveness.
A simple method is described for analyzing effects of tissue fibroblasts on associated epithelial cells. The combination of this method and three-dimensional tissue culture can facilitate analysis of cells after isolation from 3D. The technique is applicable to cells of varying malignant potential, allowing systematic study of effects of tumor-associated stroma on tumor cells.
An Orthotopic Model of Serous Ovarian Cancer in Immunocompetent Mice for in vivo Tumor Imaging and Monitoring of Tumor Immune Responses
1Penn Ovarian Cancer Research Center, Center for Research on Reproduction and Womans Health, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Pennsylvania-School of Medicine, 2Women's Cancer Program, Fox Chase Cancer Center
To study in vivo tumor growth and tumor microenvironment, we used a syngeneic and orthotopic mouse model of ovarian cancer in immunocompetent animals. We transduced a mouse tumor cell line (MOV1) with Katushka fluorescent protein (MOV1KAT) and here we show its orthotopic implantation in ovary and in vivo imaging.
This protocol describes an activity-based assay for detecting matrix metalloproteinases in culture supernatants or body fluids.
Using quantitative PCR, we demonstrate how the well-established chick CAM model can be used to quantitatively analyze the metastasis of human tumor cells to distant organs.
Multi-photon Imaging of Tumor Cell Invasion in an Orthotopic Mouse Model of Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma
1Department of Neurobiology and Anatomy, Program in Cancer Cell Biology, Mary Babb Randolph Cancer Center, West Virginia University, 2Sensory Neuroscience Research Center, West Virginia University, 3Departments of Otolaryngology and Physiology, Center for Neuroscience, West Virginia University
A comprehensive overview of the techniques involved in generating a mouse model of oral cancer and quantitative monitoring of tumor invasion within the tongue through multi-photon microscopy of labeled cells is presented. This system can serve as a useful platform for the molecular assessment and drug efficacy of anti-invasive compounds.
A novel approach that allows the high-resolution analysis of cancer cell interactions with exogenous hyaluronic acid (HA) is described. Patterned surfaces are fabricated by combining carbodiimide chemistry and microcontact printing.
Herein we describe the methods to construct, visualize, and quantify the bioluminescent reactions of both firefly and renilla luciferase enzymes expressed in metastatic breast cancer cells during their growth and metastasis in vivo.
Clinical Application of Sleeping Beauty and Artificial Antigen Presenting Cells to Genetically Modify T Cells from Peripheral and Umbilical Cord Blood
T cells expressing a CD19-specific chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) are infused as investigational treatment of B-cell malignancies in our first-in-human gene therapy trials. We describe genetic modification of T cells using the Sleeping Beauty (SB) system to introduce CD19-specific CAR and selective propagation on designer CD19+ artificial antigen presenting cells.
Evaluation of Cancer Stem Cell Migration Using Compartmentalizing Microfluidic Devices and Live Cell Imaging
1Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 2Materials Science Program, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 3Department of Neurological Surgery, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 4Carbone Comprehensive Cancer Center and Center for Stem Cell and Regenerative Medicine, University of Wisconsin-Madison
A compartmentalizing microfluidic device for investigating cancer stem cell migration is described. This novel platform creates a viable cellular microenvironment and enables microscopic visualization of live cell locomotion. Highly motile cancer cells are isolated to study molecular mechanisms of aggressive infiltration, potentially leading to more effective future therapies.
Establishing Intracranial Brain Tumor Xenografts With Subsequent Analysis of Tumor Growth and Response to Therapy using Bioluminescence Imaging
Luciferase-modified human brain tumor xenografts can be established intracranially in athymic mice, with subsequent monitoring of tumor growth and response to therapy using bioluminescence imaging. In combination with survival analysis, bioluminescence monitoring is an essential research tool for pre-clinical testing of therapies being considered for treating brain tumors.
In this article we describe the use of magnetic tweezers to study the effect of force on enzymatic proteolysis at the single molecule level in a highly parallelizable manner.
Heterotypic Three-dimensional In Vitro Modeling of Stromal-Epithelial Interactions During Ovarian Cancer Initiation and Progression
We describe methodologies for establishing in vitro heterotypic three-dimensional models comprising ovarian fibroblasts and normal ovarian surface or ovarian cancer epithelial cells. We discuss the use of these models to study stromal-epithelial interactions that occur during ovarian cancer development.
Carcinoma-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) rich in myofibroblasts present within the tumour stroma, play a major role in driving tumour progression. We developed a coimplantation tumour xengraft model for experimentally generating CAFs from human mammary fibroblasts. The protocol describes how to establish CAF myofibroblasts that acquire an ability to promote tumourigenesis.
A combinatorial functional screening method for gaining insights into the impacts of the molecular composition of microenvironments on cellular functions is described. The method takes advantage of existing microarray-based technologies to generate arrays of defined combinatorial microenvironments that support cell adhesion and functional analysis.
This method allows monitoring of cells in real time and quantitative measurements of different cell migration parameters such as speed, displacement, and velocity. Unlike the traditional methods, this real time approach is not based on endpoint quantitative migration measurements; instead it allows monitoring and calculating different parameters continuously.
Quantifying the Frequency of Tumor-propagating Cells Using Limiting Dilution Cell Transplantation in Syngeneic Zebrafish
1Department of Molecular Pathology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, 2Department of Molecular Pathology, Massachusetts General Hospital Cancer Center, Harvard Stem Cell Institute
Limiting dilution cell transplantation assays are used to determine the frequency of tumor-propagating cells. This protocol describes a method for generating syngeneic zebrafish that develop fluorescently-labeled leukemia and details how to isolate and transplant these leukemia cells at limiting dilution into the peritoneal cavity of adult zebrafish.
Two techniques can be used to establish this model: injection of a cancer cell suspension into the cecal wall or transplantation of a piece of subcutaneous tumor onto the cecum. This model is useful for studying the natural progression of colorectal cancer and testing new therapeutic agents against colorectal cancer.
Models of tumor cell invasion into three-dimensional extracellular matrix better reflect the in vivo situation than two-dimensional motility assays. Using matrix invasion assays combined with confocal imaging of fluorescently-labeled cells, detailed information on invasion modes and the distinct contributions of leading versus following cells can be obtained.
Orthotopic animal models of ovarian cancer replicate better human disease and therefore enhance our understanding of cancer progression and tumor response to therapy. A mouse model receives an intrabursal injection of luciferase-expressing ovarian tumor cells. Treatment is administered via oral gavage. Tumor growth is monitored by in vivo imaging system.
A modified 3-D in vitro system is presented in which growth characteristics of several tumor cell lines in reconstituted basement membrane correlate with the dormant or proliferative behavior of the tumor cells at a metastatic secondary site in vivo.
The purpose of this article is to describe the use of an orthotopic glioblastoma model for chemoradiation studies. This article will go though cell processing, implanting, and radiotherapy of the mouse using an intracranial model.
Orthotopic Xenografting of Human Luciferase-Tagged Malignant Peripheral Nerve Sheath Tumor Cells for in vivo Testing of Candidate Therapeutic Agents
1Department of Pathology, University of Alabama at Birmingham - UAB, 2Department of Radiology, University of Alabama at Birmingham - UAB, 3Department of Cell Biology and Neurobiology, University of Alabama at Birmingham - UAB
A method for reliably grafting luciferase-tagged human malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor cells into the sciatic nerve of immunodeficient mice is described. The use of bioluminescence imaging to demonstrate proper establishment of tumor grafts and criteria for random segregation of animals into study groups are also discussed.
Host cell factors play a critical role in the establishment and maintenance of Kaposi's sarcoma (KS). We outline methods to identify host cell factors altered in KSHV-infected DMVEC cells, and in KS tumor tissue. Cellular genes altered by virus will serve as potential target(s) for novel therapeutics.
A rotating cell culture system that allows epithelial cells to grow under physiological conditions resulting in 3-D cellular aggregate formation is described. The aggregates generated display in vivo-like characteristics not observed in conventional culture models and serve as a more accurate organotypic model system for a multitude of scientific investigations.
Here, we established a method for drug efficacy testing with surgical specimens of brain tumors, termed “tumor explant method”. With this method, we can evaluate drug efficacy without breaking the microenvironment of solid tumors. To validate reliability of this method, we describe representative data with our glioma specimen treated with the current first-line chemotherapeutic agent, temozolomide.
Oncolytic viruses are promising for cancer therapeutics. The ability to ascertain the infectability of live tissue specimens obtained from patients prior to treatment is a unique advantage of this therapeutic approach. This protocol describes how to process tissues for ex vivo infection with oncolytic virus and subsequent viral quantification.
Human Neuroendocrine Tumor Cell Lines as a Three-Dimensional Model for the Study of Human Neuroendocrine Tumor Therapy
1Raymond and Beverly Sackler Foundation, 2The Cancer Institute of New Jersey, University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey, 3School of Natural Sciences, Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton, New Jersey
We present a simple agarose overlay platform to grow 3D multicellular spheroids using neuroendocrine cancer cell lines. This method provides a very convenient way to examine the effect of therapeutic drugs on the neuroendocrine tumor cells. It could also help us establish human neuroendocrine tumor spheroids for cancer therapy.
Mouse bladder wall injection is a useful approach to orthotopically study bladder stem cell and cancer biology. This delicate microsurgical method can be mastered with careful technique and practice.
Generation of an orthotopic mouse model of anaplastic thyroid carcinoma is described here. This technique employs surgical placement of human anaplastic thyroid cancer cells into the thyroid of immunodeficient mice, thus creating a more clinically relevant setting to study disease progression as well as screen innovative therapeutic interventions.
1Molecular and Cellular Biology Program, Morrill Science Center, University of Massachusetts, 2Pioneer Valley Life Sciences Institute, University of Massachusetts, 3Department of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, University of Massachusetts
A tube formation assay is used to evaluate vascular activity of tumor cells.
Here we describe a method to quantify molecular heterogeneity in histological sections of tumor material using quantitative immunofluorescence, image analysis, and a statistical measure of heterogeneity. The method is intended for use in clinical biomarker development and analysis.
The Three-Dimensional Human Skin Reconstruct Model: a Tool to Study Normal Skin and Melanoma Progression
In this report, we describe the three-dimensional skin reconstruct model which mimics human skin in architecture and composition. Melanocyte physiology, melanoma progression and the fate of dermal stem cells have been investigated using the skin reconstruct model. The model is also useful as a preclinical tool for drug assessment.
Organotypic Collagen I Assay: A Malleable Platform to Assess Cell Behaviour in a 3-Dimensional Context
A method is described for the preparation of a 3-dimensional matrix consisting of collagen type I and primary human fibroblasts. This organotypic gel serves as a useful substrate to assess invasive cell migration because it mimics basic features of tissue stroma and is amenable to many forms of microscopy.
Determining Optimal Cytotoxic Activity of Human Her2neu Specific CD8 T cells by Comparing the Cr51 Release Assay to the xCELLigence System
The chromium release assay, a common assay for detecting cytotoxic T cell activity, has several limitations. Using antigen-specific CD8 T cells and the human breast cancer tumor line, SKBR3, in the present article, an impedance-based approach was examined for the capability of detecting cell killing.
An experimental lung metastasis and CTL immunotherapy mouse model for analysis of tumor cells-T cell interaction in vivo.
This article describes the administration of lux-tagged bacteria to mice and subsequent in vivo analysis using IVIS bioluminescence imaging.
We present step-by-step instructions for the generation of neonatal chimeras as well as the dissection and preparation of the thymus for ex vivo imaging by 2-Photon Microscopy.
We demonstrate fabrication of a simple microfluidic device that can be integrated with standard electrophysiology setups to expose microscale surfaces of a brain slice in a well controlled manner to different neurotransmitters.
1Institute for Physiological Chemistry, Department of Biochemical Endocrinology, University of Duisburg-Essen, 2Institute for Anatomy, Department of Neuroanatomy, University of Duisburg-Essen, 3Morphoplant GmbH, 4ARCONS Institute for Applied Research and Didactics
The chick chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) is a unique, naturally immunodeficient supportive culture environment to study angiogenesis and tumorigenesis. This video article demonstrates the different steps in chick ex ovo culture, application of potentially angiogenic substances and successful inoculation of tumor cells and tissues on the surface of the CAM.
Microfluidic Co-culture of Epithelial Cells and Bacteria for Investigating Soluble Signal-mediated Interactions
This protocol describes a microfluidic co-culture model for simultaneous and localized culture of epithelial cells and bacteria. This model can be used for investigating the role of different soluble molecular signals on pathogenesis as well as screen the effectiveness of putative probiotic bacterial strains.
We demonstrate a simple method for placing cells at desired locations on a substrate. This method patterns cells by flipping a silicone chip containing microwells filled with cells onto the substrate. This method provides a new way to modulate diffusible and juxtacrine signaling between cells.