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Water Supply: Source, means, or process of supplying water (as for a community) usually including reservoirs, tunnels, and pipelines and often the watershed from which the water is ultimately drawn. (Webster, 3d ed)
 JoVE Bioengineering

Rapid and Low-cost Prototyping of Medical Devices Using 3D Printed Molds for Liquid Injection Molding

1Department of Bioengineering & Therapeutic Sciences, University of California, San Francisco, 2Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology & Reproductive Sciences, University of California, San Francisco, 3Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California


JoVE 51745

 JoVE Chemistry

CN-GELFrEE - Clear Native Gel-eluted Liquid Fraction Entrapment Electrophoresis

1Departments of Chemistry and Molecular Biosciences, Chemistry of Life Processes Institute, Proteomics Center of Excellence, Robert H. Lurie Comprehensive Cancer Center, Northwestern University, 2Institute of Chemistry, Proteomics Unit, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, 3Department of Cell Biology, Brazilian Center for Protein Research, Laboratory of Biochemistry and Protein Chemistry, University of Brasilia


JoVE 53597

 JoVE Medicine

Ultrasound Assessment of Flow-Mediated Dilation of the Brachial and Superficial Femoral Arteries in Rats

1Department of Internal Medicine, University of Utah, 2Department of Kinesiology and Health Education, University of Texas at Austin, 3Division of Nephrology and Hypertension, University of Utah, 4Department of Biochemistry, University of Utah, 5Department of Exercise and Sport Science, University of Utah, 6Geriatric Research Education and Clinical Center, Department of Veterans Affairs


JoVE 54762

 JoVE Bioengineering

Techniques for the Evolution of Robust Pentose-fermenting Yeast for Bioconversion of Lignocellulose to Ethanol

1Bioenergy Research Unit, National Center for Agricultural Utilization Research, 2Mycotoxin Prevention and Applied Microbiology Research Unit, National Center for Agricultural Utilization Research, 3Chemical Engineering and Material Science, Great Lakes Bioenergy Center, Michigan State University


JoVE 54227

 JoVE Bioengineering

Electrotaxis Studies of Lung Cancer Cells using a Multichannel Dual-electric-field Microfluidic Chip

1Research Center for Applied Sciences, Academia Sinica, 2Institute of Biophotonics, National Yang-Ming University, 3Biophotonics & Molecular Imaging Research Center (BMIRC), National Yang-Ming University, 4Department of Mechanical and Mechatronic Engineering, National Taiwan Ocean University, 5Ph.D. Program in Microbial Genomics, National Chung Hsing University


JoVE 53340

 JoVE Biology

Regular Care and Maintenance of a Zebrafish (Danio rerio) Laboratory: An Introduction

1Centre of Excellence for Alzheimer's Disease Research and Care, School of Medical sciences, Edith Cowan University, 2Centre for Clinical Research in Neuropsychiatry, Graylands Hospital, University of Western Australia, 3McCusker Alzheimer's Research foundation, 4School of Medicine and Pharmacology, University of Western Australia, 5Department of Molecular and Biomedical Sciences, University of Adelaide, 6School of Biomedical Sciences, Curtin University of Technology, 7School of Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences, University of Western Australia


JoVE 4196

 JoVE Bioengineering

Porous Silicon Microparticles for Delivery of siRNA Therapeutics

1Department of Nanomedicine, Houston Methodist Research Institute, 2MOE Key Laboratory of Bioinorganic and Synthetic Chemistry, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Sun Yat-sen University, 3Pediatrics Department of Union Hospital, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, 4CAS Key Laboratory for Biomedical Effects of Nanomaterials & Nanosafety, National Center for Nanoscience & Technology of China, 5Department of Medicine, Weill Cornell Medical College, 6Department of Cell and Developmental Biology, Weill Cornell Medical College


JoVE 52075

 JoVE Bioengineering

The Arteriovenous (AV) Loop in a Small Animal Model to Study Angiogenesis and Vascularized Tissue Engineering

1Department of Plastic and Hand Surgery and Laboratory for Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine, University Hospital of Erlangen, Friedrich-Alexander University of Erlangen-Nürnberg (FAU), 2Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology Institute for Postgraduate Studies, Baghdad University, 3Department of Plastic, Hand and Microsurgery, Sana Klinikum Hof GmbH


JoVE 54676

 JoVE Engineering

Fabrication of Gate-tunable Graphene Devices for Scanning Tunneling Microscopy Studies with Coulomb Impurities

1Department of Physics, University of California at Berkeley, 2Department of Chemistry, University of California at Berkeley, 3Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, University of California at Berkeley, 4National Institute for Materials Science (Japan), 5Materials Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 6Kavli Energy NanoSciences Institute, University of California at Berkeley and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory


JoVE 52711

 Science Education: Essentials of Environmental Microbiology

Detecting Environmental Microorganisms with the Polymerase Chain Reaction and Gel Electrophoresis

JoVE Science Education

Source: Laboratories of Dr. Ian Pepper and Dr. Charles Gerba - Arizona University
Demonstrating Author: Bradley Schmitz

Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is a technique used to detect microorganisms that are present in soil, water, and atmospheric environments. By amplifying specific sections of DNA, PCR can facilitate the detection and identification of target microorganisms down to the species, strain, and serovar/pathovar level. The technique can also be utilized to characterize entire communities of microorganisms in samples. The culturing of microorganisms in the laboratory using specialized growth media is a long-established technique and remains in use for the detection of microorganisms in environmental samples. Many microbes in the natural environment, while alive, maintain low levels of metabolic activity and/or doubling times and are thus referred to as viable but non-culturable (VBNC) organisms. The use of culture-based techniques alone cannot detect these microbes and, therefore, does not provide a thorough assessment of microbial populations in samples. The use of PCR allows for the detection of culturable microbes, VBNC organisms, and those that are no longer alive or active, as the amplification of genetic sequences does not generally require the pre-enrichment of microorga

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