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Chapter 12

Statistics in Practice

What is an Experiment?
An experiment is a planned activity carried out under controlled conditions. The purpose of an experiment is to investigate the relationship between…
Study Design in Statistics
A study design is a set of techniques that allow a researcher to collect and analyze data from different variables defined for a specific research…
Observational Studies
Observational studies are a type of analytical study where researchers observe events without any interventions. In other words, the researcher does…
Experimental Designs
An experimental design is a systematic process that allows researchers to evaluate the relationship between dependent and independent variables.…
Randomized Experiments
The randomization process involves assigning study participants randomly to experimental or control groups based on their probability of being…
Crossover Experiments
Crossover experiments, also called the repeated-measurements design, is a study design in which all experimental units are exposed to all treatments…
Controls in Experiments
When conducting an experiment, it is crucial to have control to reduce bias and accurately measure the dependent variables. It also marks the results…
Bias
Bias refers to any tendency that prevents a question from being considered unprejudiced. In research, bias occurs when one outcome or answer is…
Blinding
Blinding is a commonly used method of not telling participants which treatment a subject is receiving. Blinding is a critical part of a randomized…
Clinical Trials
Clinical trials are prospective experimental studies conducted on humans to determine the safety and efficacy of treatments, drugs, diet methods, and…
Recording Brain Electromagnetic Activity During the Administration of the Gaseous Anesthetic Agents Xenon and Nitrous Oxide in Healthy Volunteers
Anesthesia arguably provides one of the only systematic ways to study the neural correlates of global consciousness/unconsciousness. However to date…
LC-MS Analysis of Human Platelets as a Platform for Studying Mitochondrial Metabolism
Perturbed mitochondrial metabolism has received renewed interest as playing a causative role in a range of diseases. Probing alterations to metabolic…
A Clinical Trial Assessing the Safety, Efficacy, and Delivery of Olive-Oil-Based Three-Chamber Bags for Parenteral Nutrition
Limited evidence exists to precisely estimate efficacy and safety differences between parenteral nutrition (PN) prepared using olive-oil-based…

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